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1.
Gut and Liver ; : 420-429, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898458

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We investigated changes in recurrence rates and significant recurrence predictors over time after complete cure of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). @*Methods@#A total of 1,491 patients with first-time diagnosis of Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage A HCC, completely cured by treatment between 2007 and 2016, were recruited from two Korean tertiary institutes. @*Results@#The mean age of the population (1,144 men and 347 women) was 58.6 years. Of the total population, 914 patients (61.3%) had liver cirrhosis. Nine-hundred and forty-one (63.1%) and 550 (36.9%) patients were treated with surgical resection and radiofrequency ablation (RFA), respectively. One-year cumulative incidences of HCC recurrence were 14.3%, 9.9%, and 5.1% from the time of treatment, 3 years after treatment, and 5 years after treatment, respectively. Upon multivariate analysis, multiple tumors, maximal tumor size ≥3 cm, and high Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores were independently associated with increased HCC recurrence risk from the time of treatment and 1 and 2 years after curative treatment (all p<0.05, except for maxi-mal tumor size ≥3 cm for recurrence 2 years after treatment). Meanwhile, liver cirrhosis and RFA were independently associated with the increased HCC recurrence risk for almost all time points (liver cirrhosis: all p<0.05; RFA: all p<0.005 except for recurrence from 5 years after treatment). @*Conclusions@#The recurrence rate of HCC after curative treatment gradually decreased over time. Two years after treatment, when tumor-related factors lose their prognostic implications, may be used as a cutoff to define the boundary between early and late recurrence of HCC.

2.
Gut and Liver ; : 599-605, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898439

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Most prognostic prediction models for patients with liver cirrhosis include serum total bilirubin (TB) level as a component. This study investigated prognostic performance of serum direct bilirubin (DB) and developed new DB level-based prediction models for cirrhosis. @*Methods@#A total of 983 hospitalized patients with liver cirrhosis were included. DB-Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score was calculated using MELD score formula, with serum DB level replacing TB level. @*Results@#Mean age of study population was 56.1 years. Alcoholic liver disease was the most frequent underlying condition (471 patients, 47.9%). Within 6 months, 144 patients (14.6%) died or received liver transplantation due to severe liver dysfunction. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) for prediction of 6-month mortality with DB level was significantly higher than that with TB level (p<0.001). The AUROC of DB-MELD score for prediction of 6-month mortality was significantly higher than that of MELD score (p<0.001). Patients were randomly divided into training (n=492) and validation (n=491) cohorts. A new prognostic prediction model, “Direct Bilirubin, INR, and Creatinine” (DiBIC) score, was developed based on the most significant predictors of 6-month mortality. In training set, AUROC of DiBIC score for prediction of 6-month mortality was 0.892, which was significantly higher than that of the MELD score (0.875, p=0.017), but not different from that of DB-MELD score (0.886, p=0.272). Similar results were observed in validation set. @*Conclusions@#New prognostic models, DB-MELD and DiBIC scores, have good prognostic performance in liver cirrhosis patients, outperforming other currently available models.

3.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 694-700, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897810

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Several attempts have been made to incorporate smart glasses in the medical field. We applied wearable display glasses to show the position of an observer during endoscopy and compared students’ responses between the conventional and new methods. @*Methods@#We surveyed 28 medical students regarding the use of wearable display devices. The students used wearable display glasses to observe an endoscopic procedure and answered the prepared questionnaire. Their collected responses were analyzed for statistical correlations between each variable. @*Results@#The survey of medical students revealed disadvantages including dizziness (dissatisfied and very dissatisfied: 21.5%) and eye fatigue (25% dissatisfied) and advantages including concentration (satisfied and very satisfied: 57.2%) and securing patient rights (71.4%). The students showed more positive than negative reviews regarding the new devices (32.1% vs. 21.5%). @*Conclusions@#We investigated the advantages and disadvantages of viewing the endoscope image with new wearable display glasses compared to the conventional method using the survey to record user experience. The results revealed relatively positive responses from the medical students in the survey. If the new device compensates for some shortcomings, its use in the endoscopy room will be feasible.

4.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 413-419, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897787

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a relatively new ablation method. However, the application of IRE ablation in the treatment of biliary disease has not been attempted. A minimally invasive approach using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) can be a novel therapeutic modality for IRE ablation. In this study, we aimed to investigate the feasibility of endoscopic IRE for the biliary tract using an animal model. @*Methods@#A new catheter-type electrode was developed for endoscopic IRE ablation of the biliary tract. We performed ERCP and endoscopic IRE ablations in the normal common bile duct of Yorkshire pigs. The experimental setting of IRE was 500 V/cm (50 pulses, 100-µs length). The animals were sacrificed after 24 hr, and the ablated bile duct was examined. @*Results@#Well-demarcated focal color changes were observed on the mucosa of the common bile duct. The depth of change after IRE was confined to the mucosal and submucosal layers. Apoptotic changes in the bile duct were observed only around the IRE ablation area. Immunohistochemistry assay showed cell death in the bile duct along the electrode. @*Conclusions@#Endoscopic IRE ablation using ERCP was successfully performed in the common bile duct. It can be a potential option for the treatment of biliary tumors.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897659

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Besifovir dipivoxil maleate (BSV), an acyclic nucleotide phosphonate, shows potent antiviral activity against hepatitis B virus. Our previous 48-week trial revealed that BSV has comparable antiviral efficacy to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and better safety profiles in terms of improved renal and bone safety. This extension study evaluated the prolonged efficacy and safety of BSV in treatment-naive chronic hepatitis B patients. @*Methods@#Patients continued to participate in an open-label BSV study after an initial 48-week double-blind comparison of BSV and TDF treatment. The antiviral efficacy and drug safety was evaluated up to 192 weeks in two groups: patients continuing BSV treatment (BSV-BSV) and patients switching from TDF to BSV after 48 weeks (TDF-BSV). @*Results@#Among 197 patients receiving randomized treatments, 170 (86%) entered the open-label phase and 152 (77%) entered the 192-week extension study. Virological response rates over 192 weeks were 92.50% and 93.06% in the BSV-BSV and TDF-BSV groups, respectively (P=0.90). Hepatitis B envelop antigen seroconversion and alanine aminotransferase normalization rates were similar between the groups (P=0.75 and P=0.36, respectively). There were no drug-resistant mutations to BSV. Bone mineral density and renal function were well preserved in the BSV-BSV group, whereas these initially worsened then recovered after switching therapy in the TDF-BSV group. @*Conclusions@#BSV maintained potent antiviral efficacy after 192 weeks and showed no evidence of drug resistance. BSV was safe, well tolerated, and effective in patients who switched from TDF to BSV. Trial Registration Number: NCT01937806 (date: 10 Sep 2013).

6.
Gut and Liver ; : 420-429, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890754

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We investigated changes in recurrence rates and significant recurrence predictors over time after complete cure of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). @*Methods@#A total of 1,491 patients with first-time diagnosis of Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage A HCC, completely cured by treatment between 2007 and 2016, were recruited from two Korean tertiary institutes. @*Results@#The mean age of the population (1,144 men and 347 women) was 58.6 years. Of the total population, 914 patients (61.3%) had liver cirrhosis. Nine-hundred and forty-one (63.1%) and 550 (36.9%) patients were treated with surgical resection and radiofrequency ablation (RFA), respectively. One-year cumulative incidences of HCC recurrence were 14.3%, 9.9%, and 5.1% from the time of treatment, 3 years after treatment, and 5 years after treatment, respectively. Upon multivariate analysis, multiple tumors, maximal tumor size ≥3 cm, and high Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores were independently associated with increased HCC recurrence risk from the time of treatment and 1 and 2 years after curative treatment (all p<0.05, except for maxi-mal tumor size ≥3 cm for recurrence 2 years after treatment). Meanwhile, liver cirrhosis and RFA were independently associated with the increased HCC recurrence risk for almost all time points (liver cirrhosis: all p<0.05; RFA: all p<0.005 except for recurrence from 5 years after treatment). @*Conclusions@#The recurrence rate of HCC after curative treatment gradually decreased over time. Two years after treatment, when tumor-related factors lose their prognostic implications, may be used as a cutoff to define the boundary between early and late recurrence of HCC.

7.
Gut and Liver ; : 599-605, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890735

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Most prognostic prediction models for patients with liver cirrhosis include serum total bilirubin (TB) level as a component. This study investigated prognostic performance of serum direct bilirubin (DB) and developed new DB level-based prediction models for cirrhosis. @*Methods@#A total of 983 hospitalized patients with liver cirrhosis were included. DB-Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score was calculated using MELD score formula, with serum DB level replacing TB level. @*Results@#Mean age of study population was 56.1 years. Alcoholic liver disease was the most frequent underlying condition (471 patients, 47.9%). Within 6 months, 144 patients (14.6%) died or received liver transplantation due to severe liver dysfunction. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) for prediction of 6-month mortality with DB level was significantly higher than that with TB level (p<0.001). The AUROC of DB-MELD score for prediction of 6-month mortality was significantly higher than that of MELD score (p<0.001). Patients were randomly divided into training (n=492) and validation (n=491) cohorts. A new prognostic prediction model, “Direct Bilirubin, INR, and Creatinine” (DiBIC) score, was developed based on the most significant predictors of 6-month mortality. In training set, AUROC of DiBIC score for prediction of 6-month mortality was 0.892, which was significantly higher than that of the MELD score (0.875, p=0.017), but not different from that of DB-MELD score (0.886, p=0.272). Similar results were observed in validation set. @*Conclusions@#New prognostic models, DB-MELD and DiBIC scores, have good prognostic performance in liver cirrhosis patients, outperforming other currently available models.

8.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 694-700, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890106

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Several attempts have been made to incorporate smart glasses in the medical field. We applied wearable display glasses to show the position of an observer during endoscopy and compared students’ responses between the conventional and new methods. @*Methods@#We surveyed 28 medical students regarding the use of wearable display devices. The students used wearable display glasses to observe an endoscopic procedure and answered the prepared questionnaire. Their collected responses were analyzed for statistical correlations between each variable. @*Results@#The survey of medical students revealed disadvantages including dizziness (dissatisfied and very dissatisfied: 21.5%) and eye fatigue (25% dissatisfied) and advantages including concentration (satisfied and very satisfied: 57.2%) and securing patient rights (71.4%). The students showed more positive than negative reviews regarding the new devices (32.1% vs. 21.5%). @*Conclusions@#We investigated the advantages and disadvantages of viewing the endoscope image with new wearable display glasses compared to the conventional method using the survey to record user experience. The results revealed relatively positive responses from the medical students in the survey. If the new device compensates for some shortcomings, its use in the endoscopy room will be feasible.

9.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 413-419, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890083

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a relatively new ablation method. However, the application of IRE ablation in the treatment of biliary disease has not been attempted. A minimally invasive approach using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) can be a novel therapeutic modality for IRE ablation. In this study, we aimed to investigate the feasibility of endoscopic IRE for the biliary tract using an animal model. @*Methods@#A new catheter-type electrode was developed for endoscopic IRE ablation of the biliary tract. We performed ERCP and endoscopic IRE ablations in the normal common bile duct of Yorkshire pigs. The experimental setting of IRE was 500 V/cm (50 pulses, 100-µs length). The animals were sacrificed after 24 hr, and the ablated bile duct was examined. @*Results@#Well-demarcated focal color changes were observed on the mucosa of the common bile duct. The depth of change after IRE was confined to the mucosal and submucosal layers. Apoptotic changes in the bile duct were observed only around the IRE ablation area. Immunohistochemistry assay showed cell death in the bile duct along the electrode. @*Conclusions@#Endoscopic IRE ablation using ERCP was successfully performed in the common bile duct. It can be a potential option for the treatment of biliary tumors.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889955

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Besifovir dipivoxil maleate (BSV), an acyclic nucleotide phosphonate, shows potent antiviral activity against hepatitis B virus. Our previous 48-week trial revealed that BSV has comparable antiviral efficacy to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and better safety profiles in terms of improved renal and bone safety. This extension study evaluated the prolonged efficacy and safety of BSV in treatment-naive chronic hepatitis B patients. @*Methods@#Patients continued to participate in an open-label BSV study after an initial 48-week double-blind comparison of BSV and TDF treatment. The antiviral efficacy and drug safety was evaluated up to 192 weeks in two groups: patients continuing BSV treatment (BSV-BSV) and patients switching from TDF to BSV after 48 weeks (TDF-BSV). @*Results@#Among 197 patients receiving randomized treatments, 170 (86%) entered the open-label phase and 152 (77%) entered the 192-week extension study. Virological response rates over 192 weeks were 92.50% and 93.06% in the BSV-BSV and TDF-BSV groups, respectively (P=0.90). Hepatitis B envelop antigen seroconversion and alanine aminotransferase normalization rates were similar between the groups (P=0.75 and P=0.36, respectively). There were no drug-resistant mutations to BSV. Bone mineral density and renal function were well preserved in the BSV-BSV group, whereas these initially worsened then recovered after switching therapy in the TDF-BSV group. @*Conclusions@#BSV maintained potent antiviral efficacy after 192 weeks and showed no evidence of drug resistance. BSV was safe, well tolerated, and effective in patients who switched from TDF to BSV. Trial Registration Number: NCT01937806 (date: 10 Sep 2013).

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875454

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#To prevent the perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) from mother to child, administration of an antiviral agent during pregnancy has been attempted in women who are either hepatitis B e antigen positive or have a high viral load. In this systematic review and meta-analysis with randomized controlled trials, we analyzed the efficacy and safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in preventing the perinatal transmission of HBV in pregnant women who have high HBV DNA titers. @*Methods@#Multiple comprehensive databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases) were searched for studies evaluating the efficacy of TDF for the prevention of perinatal transmission of HBV. @*Results@#Two studies (one open label study and one double blind study) were included and analyzed. Intention-to-treat analysis (527 pregnancies) showed that the preventive effect of TDF was not significant (odds ratio [OR], 0.53; 95% confidence interval[CI], 0.13 to 2.17; p = 0.38, I2 = 81%). However, the per-protocol analysis showed that TDF significantly reduced perinatal transmission (OR, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.77; p = 0.03, I2 = 0%). There was no significant difference between the TDF group and the control group with respect to maternal and fetal safety outcomes. @*Conclusions@#In pregnant women who have high HBV DNA titers, TDF can reduce the perinatal transmission from mother to child without significant adverse events.

12.
Gut and Liver ; : 284-294, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874597

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Sorafenib is the first approved systemic treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, its clinical utility is limited, especially in Asian countries. Several reports have suggested the survival benefits of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) for advanced HCC with main portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT). This study aimed to compare the efficacy of sorafenib-based therapy with that of HAIC-based therapy for advanced HCC with main PVTT. @*Methods@#Advanced HCC patients with main PVTT treated with sorafenib or HAIC between 2008 and 2016 at Korea University Medical Center were included. We evaluated overall survival (OS), time-to-progression (TTP), and the disease control rate (DCR). @*Results@#Seventy-three patients were treated with sorafenib (n=35) or HAIC (n=38). Baseline characteristics were not significantly different between groups, except the presence of solid organ metastasis (46% vs 5.3%, p<0.001). The median OS time was not significantly different between the groups (6.4 months vs 10.0 months, p=0.139). TTP was longer in the HAIC group than in the sorafenib group (2.1 months vs 6.2 months, p=0.006). The DCR was also better in the HAIC group than in the sorafenib group (37% vs 76%, p=0.001). Subgroup analysis, which excluded patients with extrahepatic solid organ metastasis, showed the same trends for the median OS time (8.8 months vs 11.1 months, p=0.097), TTP (1.9 months vs 6.0 months, p<0.001), and DCR (53% vs 81%, p=0.030). @*Conclusions@#HAIC-based therapy may be an alternative to sorafenib for advanced HCC with main PVTT by providing longer TTP and a better DCR.

13.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833859

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) is a feasible modality for the treatment of gastroparesis; however, the presently available device requires invasive surgical implantation for long-term stimulation and repeated surgical procedure after a period of time. This study is aimed at developing a wireless miniature GES device and testing its endoscopic insertion in animal models. @*Methods@#Endoscopic gastric implantation of the GES device was performed on 5 healthy weaner pigs under general anesthesia. We created an endoscopic submucosal pocket and inserted the gastro-electrical stimulator. In vivo gastric slow waves were recorded and measured during electrical stimulation. A multi-channel recorder, called an electrogastrogram, was used to record the gastric myoelectrical activity in the study. @*Results@#The gastric slow waves on the electrogastrogram were more consistent with GES on the gastric tissues compared to no stimulation. The frequency-to-amplitude ratio was also significantly altered after the electrical stimulation. @*Conclusions@#GES is feasible with our minimally invasive wireless device. This technique has the potential to increase utilization of GES as a treatment alternative.

14.
Gut and Liver ; : 117-124, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833106

ABSTRACT

Background@#s/Aims: Rebleeding of gastric varices (GVs) after endoscopic variceal obturation (EVO) can be fatal. This study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of computed tomography (CT) for the prediction of rebleeding after EVO GV bleeding. @*Methods@#Patients who were treated with EVO for GV bleeding and underwent CT before and after EVO were included. CT images of the portal phase showing pretreatment GVs and feeding vessels, and nonenhanced images showing posttreatment cyanoacrylate impaction were reviewed. @*Results@#Fifty-three patients were included. Their mean age was 60.6±11.6 years, and 40 patients (75.5%) were men. Alcoholic liver disease was the most frequent underlying liver disease (45.3%). Complete impaction of cyanoacrylate in GVs and feeding vessels were achieved in 40 (75.5%) and 24 (45.3%) of patients, respectively. During the follow-up, GV rebleeding occurred in nine patients, and the cumulative incidences of GV rebleeding at 3, 6, and 12 months were 11.8%, 18.9%, and 18.9%, respectively. The GV rebleeding rate did not differ significantly according to the complete cyanoacrylate impaction in the GV, while it differed significantly according to complete cyanoacrylate impaction in the feeding vessels. The cumulative incidences of GV rebleeding at 3, 6, and 12 months were 22.3%, 35.2%, and 35.2%, respectively, in patients with incomplete impaction in feeding vessels, and there was no rebleeding during the follow-up period in patients with complete impaction in the feeding vessels (p=0.002). @*Conclusions@#Abdominal CT is useful in the evaluation of the treatment response after EVO for GV bleeding. Incomplete cyanoacrylate impaction in feeding vessels is a risk factor for GV rebleeding.

15.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831518

ABSTRACT

Background@#Prognosis of patients with diverse chronic diseases is reportedly associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. In this study, we investigated the potential role of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25[OH]D3) levels in improving the predictive power of conventional prognostic models for patients with liver cirrhosis. @*Methods@#We investigated clinical findings, including serum 25(OH)D3 levels at admission, of 155 patients with cirrhosis who were followed up for a median of 16.9 months. @*Results@#Median 25(OH)D3 levels were significantly different among patients exhibiting Child-Pugh grades A, B, and C. Mortality, including urgent transplantation, was significantly associated with 25(OH)D3 levels in univariate analysis. Severe vitamin-D deficiency (serum 25[OH]D3 level < 5.0 ng/mL) was significantly related to increased mortality, even after adjusting for Child-Pugh and Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores. In particular, the presence of severe vitamin D deficiency clearly defined a subgroup with significantly poorer survival among patients with Child-Pugh scores of 5–10 or MELD scores ≤ 20. A new combination model of MELD score and severe vitamin D deficiency showed significantly more accurate predictive power for short- and long-term mortality than MELD scores alone. Additionally, serum 25(OH)D3 levels and new model scores were significantly associated with the development of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, overt encephalopathy, and acute kidney injury. @*Conclusion@#Serum 25(OH)D3 level is an independent prognostic factor for patients with liver cirrhosis and has a differential impact on disease outcomes according to MELD and Child-Pugh scores.

16.
Gut and Liver ; : 649-657, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763885

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recent studies have demonstrated that etomidate is a safe sedative drug with noninferior sedative effects. In our recent study, we revealed that etomidate/midazolam was more hemodynamically stable than propofol/midazolam in elderly patients undergoing colonoscopies. We aimed to investigate whether compared with propofol/midazolam, etomidate/midazolam causes fewer cardiopulmonary adverse events with noninferior efficacy for screening colonoscopies in patients of all ages. METHODS: In this single-center, randomized, double-blind study, we prospectively enrolled 200 patients. The patients were divided into etomidate and propofol groups. The primary outcome was the occurrence of cardiopulmonary adverse events. The secondary outcomes were the proportion of patients with fluctuations in vital signs (oxygen desaturation and transient hypotension), adverse events interrupting the procedure, and sedation-related outcomes. RESULTS: Adverse cardiopulmonary events were more common in the propofol group than the etomidate group (65.0% vs 51.0%, respectively; p=0.045). Forty-six patients (46.0%) in the propofol group and 29 (29.0%) in the etomidate group experienced fluctuations in their vital signs (p=0.013). The proportions of patients experiencing adverse events that interrupted the procedure, including myoclonus, were not significantly different between the two groups (etomidate: 20.0% vs propofol: 11.0%; p=0.079). Both groups had similar sedation-related outcomes. Multivariate analysis revealed that compared with the propofol groups, the etomidate group had a significantly lower risk of fluctuations in vital signs (odds ratio, 0.427; 95% confidence interval, 0.230 to 0.792; p=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with using propofol/midazolam, using etomidate/midazolam for screening colonoscopies results in more stable hemodynamic responses in patients of all ages; therefore, we recommend using etomidate/midazolam for colonoscopies in patients with cardiovascular risk factors.


Subject(s)
Aged , Colonoscopy , Double-Blind Method , Etomidate , Hemodynamics , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Mass Screening , Midazolam , Multivariate Analysis , Myoclonus , Propofol , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Vital Signs
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716614

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The most widely used method for diagnosing sarcopenia is the skeletal muscle index (SMI). Several studies have suggested that psoas muscle thickness per height (PMTH) is also effective for detecting sarcopenia and predicting prognosis in patients with cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the optimal cutoff values of PMTH for detecting sarcopenia in cirrhotic patients. METHODS: All cirrhotic patients who underwent abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan including L3 and umbilical levels for measuring SMI and transverse psoas muscle thickness, respectively, were included. Two definitions of sarcopenia were used: (1) sex-specific cutoffs of SMI (≤52.4 cm² /m² in men and ≤38.5 cm² /m² in women) for SMI-sarcopenia and (2) cutoff of PMTH ( < 16.8 mm/m) for PMTH-sarcopenia. RESULTS: Six hundred fifty-three patients were included. The average age was 53.6 ± 10.2 years, and 499 patients (76.4%) were men. PMTH correlated well with SMI in both men and women (P < 0.001). Two hundred forty-one (36.9%) patients met the criteria for SMI-sarcopenia. The best PMTH cutoff values for predicting SMI-sarcopenia were 17.3 mm/m in men and 10.4 mm/m in women, and these were defined as sex-specific cutoffs of PMTH (SsPMTH). The previously published cutoff of PMTH was defined as sex-nonspecific cutoff of PMTH (SnPMTH). Two hundred thirty (35.2%) patients were diagnosed with SsPMTH-sarcopenia, and 280 (44.4%) patients were diagnosed with SnPMTH-sarcopenia. On a multivariate Cox regression analysis, SsPMTH-sarcopenia (hazard ratio [HR], 1.944; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.144–3.304; P=0.014) was significantly associated with mortality, while SnPMTH-sarcopenia was not (HR, 1.446; 95% CI, 0.861–2.431; P=0.164). CONCLUSIONS: PMTH was well correlated with SMI in cirrhotic patients. SsPMTH-sarcopenia was an independent predictor of mortality in these patients and more accurately predicted mortality compared to SnPMTH-sarcopenia.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Female , Fibrosis , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver , Male , Methods , Mortality , Muscle, Skeletal , Prognosis , Psoas Muscles , Sarcopenia
18.
Gut and Liver ; : 360-366, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714660

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is useful for obtaining pancreatic mass samples. The combination of modified techniques (i.e., slow-pull technique and fanning technique) may improve the quality of the sample obtained by EUS-FNA. We investigated the effectiveness of a combined slow-pull fanning technique in EUS-FNA for pancreatic mass. METHODS: This prospective comparative study investigated EUS-FNA performed for pancreatic solid masses between August 2015 and July 2016. Pairwise specimens were alternately obtained using the following two techniques for targeted pancreatic lesions: standard suction or slow-pull with fanning. We compared the specimen quality, blood contamination, and diagnostic accuracy of these techniques. RESULTS: Forty-eight consecutive patients were included (29 men; mean age, 68.1±11.9 years), and 96 pancreatic mass specimens were obtained. The slow-pull with fanning technique had a significantly superior diagnostic accuracy than the suction technique (88% vs 71%, p=0.044). Furthermore, blood contamination was significantly reduced using the slow-pull with fanning technique (ratio of no or slight contamination, 77% vs 56%, p=0.041). No difference was observed in the acquisition of adequate cellularity between the groups. In the subgroup analysis, the tumor size and sampling technique were related to the EUS-FNA diagnostic accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: The slow-pull with needle fanning technique showed a good diagnostic yield for EUS-FNA for pancreatic mass. This technique can be useful for performing EUS-guided sampling for diagnosing pancreatic disease.


Subject(s)
Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration , Endosonography , Humans , Male , Needles , Pancreas , Pancreatic Diseases , Prospective Studies , Suction
19.
Gut and Liver ; : 94-101, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739934

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: In addition to the globally endorsed Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system, other algorithms or staging systems have been developed, including the Hong Kong Liver Cancer (HKLC) staging system. This study aimed to validate the HKLC staging system relative to the BCLC staging system for predicting survival for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients in Korea. METHODS: From 2004 to 2013, 2,571 patients newly diagnosed with HCC were consecutively enrolled at three Korea University medical centers. RESULTS: Both staging systems differentiated survival well (p < 0.001). However, 1-year and 3-year survival were predicted better using the HKLC system than the BCLC system (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.869 vs 0.856 for 1 year, p=0.002; 0.841 vs 0.827 for 3 years, p=0.010). In hypothetical survival curves, the HKLC system exhibited better median overall survival than the BCLC system (33.1 months vs 19.2 months). In evaluations of prognosis according to either BCLC or HKLC treatment guidelines, risk of death was reduced in the group following only HKLC guidelines compared with the group following only BCLC guidelines (hazard ratio, 0.601; 95% confidence interval, 0.443 to 0.816; p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Although both staging systems predicted and discriminated HCC prognoses well, the HKLC system showed more encouraging survival benefits than the BCLC system.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Hong Kong , Humans , Korea , Liver Neoplasms , Liver , Neoplasm Staging , Prognosis , ROC Curve
20.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 72-79, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739689

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Patients may feel embarrassed during colonoscopy. Our study aimed to assess changes in patient preference, over the past decade, for the sex of their colonoscopist. METHODS: Prospective studies were performed at a single health center from July to September 2008, and from July to September 2016. Subjects included colonoscopy patients (2008: 354, 2016: 304) who were asked to complete a questionnaire before colonoscopy. RESULTS: In 2016, 69 patients (24.9%) expressed a sex preference, compared with 46 patients (14.6%) in 2008. By 2016, female patient preference for a female colonoscopist had significantly increased to 95% (odds ratio [OR], 2.678; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.418– 5.057; P=0.002). In multivariate analysis, patient sex (OR, 4.404; P=0.000), patient age (OR, 0.977; 95% CI, 0.961–0.992; P=0.004), and year of procedure (OR, 1.674; 95% CI, 1.028–2.752) were statistically significant factors in sex preference. Between 2008 and 2016, female patients preferred a female colonoscopist because of embarrassment. Male patients also preferred a male colonoscopist, and the primary reason shifted from expertise to patient embarrassment (2008: 29%, 2016: 63%). CONCLUSIONS: Patients have an increased gender preference for the colonoscopist because of embarrassment. Taking this into account can increase patient satisfaction during colonoscopy.


Subject(s)
Colonoscopy , Female , Humans , Korea , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Patient Preference , Patient Satisfaction , Prospective Studies
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