Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 45
Filter
1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890393

ABSTRACT

BackgroundGlycemic variability is associated with the development of diabetic complications and hypoglycemia. However, the effect of sodium-glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors on glycemic variability is controversial. We aimed to examine the effect of dapagliflozin as an add-on therapy to insulin on the glycemic variability assessed using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.MethodsIn this multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized study, 84 subjects received 10 mg of dapagliflozin (n=41) or the placebo (n=43) for 12 weeks. CGM was performed before and after treatment to compare the changes in glycemic variability measures (standard deviation [SD], mean amplitude of glycemic excursions [MAGEs]).ResultsAt week 12, significant reductions in glycosylated hemoglobin (−0.74%±0.66% vs. 0.01%±0.65%, PPPConclusionDapagliflozin effectively decreased glucose levels, but not glucose variability, after 12 weeks of treatment in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving insulin treatment. The role of SGLT2 inhibitors in glycemic variability warrants further investigations.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898097

ABSTRACT

BackgroundGlycemic variability is associated with the development of diabetic complications and hypoglycemia. However, the effect of sodium-glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors on glycemic variability is controversial. We aimed to examine the effect of dapagliflozin as an add-on therapy to insulin on the glycemic variability assessed using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.MethodsIn this multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized study, 84 subjects received 10 mg of dapagliflozin (n=41) or the placebo (n=43) for 12 weeks. CGM was performed before and after treatment to compare the changes in glycemic variability measures (standard deviation [SD], mean amplitude of glycemic excursions [MAGEs]).ResultsAt week 12, significant reductions in glycosylated hemoglobin (−0.74%±0.66% vs. 0.01%±0.65%, PPPConclusionDapagliflozin effectively decreased glucose levels, but not glucose variability, after 12 weeks of treatment in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving insulin treatment. The role of SGLT2 inhibitors in glycemic variability warrants further investigations.

3.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 1131-1141, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914257

ABSTRACT

Background@#Conventional diagnostic approaches for adrenal tumors require multi-step processes, including imaging studies and dynamic hormone tests. Therefore, this study aimed to discriminate adrenal tumors from a single blood sample based on the combination of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and machine learning algorithms in serum profiling of adrenal steroids. @*Methods@#The LC-MS-based steroid profiling was applied to serum samples obtained from patients with nonfunctioning adenoma (NFA, n=73), Cushing’s syndrome (CS, n=30), and primary aldosteronism (PA, n=40) in a prospective multicenter study of adrenal disease. The decision tree (DT), random forest (RF), and extreme gradient boost (XGBoost) were performed to categorize the subtypes of adrenal tumors. @*Results@#The CS group showed higher serum levels of 11-deoxycortisol than the NFA group, and increased levels of tetrahydrocortisone (THE), 20α-dihydrocortisol, and 6β-hydroxycortisol were found in the PA group. However, the CS group showed lower levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate derivative (DHEA-S) than both the NFA and PA groups. Patients with PA expressed higher serum 18-hydroxycortisol and DHEA but lower THE than NFA patients. The balanced accuracies of DT, RF, and XGBoost for classifying each type were 78%, 96%, and 97%, respectively. In receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis for CS, XGBoost, and RF showed a significantly greater diagnostic power than the DT. However, in ROC analysis for PA, only RF exhibited better diagnostic performance than DT. @*Conclusion@#The combination of LC-MS-based steroid profiling with machine learning algorithms could be a promising one-step diagnostic approach for the classification of adrenal tumor subtypes.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914197

ABSTRACT

We assessed the glycaemic durability with early combination (EC; vildagliptin+metformin [MET], n=22) versus MET monotherapy (n=17), among newly-diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) enrolled (between 2012 and 2014) in the VERIFY study from Korea (n=39). Primary endpoint was time to initial treatment failure (TF) (glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c] ≥7.0% at two consecutive scheduled visits after randomization [end of period 1]). Time to second TF was assessed when both groups were receiving and failing on the combination (end of period 2). With EC the risk of initial TF significantly reduced by 78% compared to MET (n=3 [15%] vs. n=10 [58.7%], P=0.0228). No secondary TF occurred in EC group versus five patients (29.4%) in MET. Patients receiving EC treatment achieved consistently lower HbA1c levels. Both treatment approaches were well tolerated with no hypoglycaemic events. In Korean patients with newly diagnosed T2DM, EC treatment significantly and consistently improved the long-term glycaemic durability as compared with MET.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832394

ABSTRACT

Background@#Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) contributes to inflammatory conditions inducing conversion of endothelial cells (ECs) into activated fibroblasts, promoting fibrotic diseases. Pro-inflammatory cytokine is the most potent inducer of EndMT. We investigated inhibition of interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-induced EndMT by gemigliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor. @*Methods@#We exposed human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to 10 ng/mL IL-1β/20 μM gemigliptin and analyzed the expression of endothelial, smooth muscle, mesenchymal, and osteoblastic markers, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), Smad, and non-Smad signaling pathway proteins. @*Results@#Morphological changes showed gemigliptin blocked IL-1β-induced EndMT, upregulated EC markers, and downregulated smooth muscle and mesenchymal markers. IL-1β activation of HUVECs is initiated by the BMP/Smad and non-smad BMP signaling pathways. Gemigliptin inhibited IL-1β induction of BMP2 and 7, activin receptor type IA, BMP receptor type IA, and BMP receptor type II. Reversal of IL-1β-mediated inhibition of BMP-induced Smad1/5/8, Smad2, and Smad3 phosphorylation by gemigliptin suggests involvement of the Smad pathway in gemigliptin action. In the non-Smad BMP pathway, gemigliptin treatment significantly increased the deactivation of extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK), p38, and JNK by IL-1β. Gemigliptin treatment suppressed BMP-2-induced expression of key osteoblastic markers including osterix, runt-related transcription factor 2, and hepcidin during IL-1β-induced EndMT. @*Conclusion@#We demonstrated a novel protective mechanism of gemigliptin against fibrosis by suppressing IL-1β-induced EndMT.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765663

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of omega-3 fatty acids added to statin monotherapy in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes who have persistent hypertriglyceridemia despite statin therapy. METHODS: This study was a randomized controlled trial conducted in 4 clinical sites between February 2009 and February 2011. The inclusion criteria were patients with type 2 diabetes who had received ≥6 weeks of statin therapy and had fasting triglyceride (TG) levels ≥1.7mmol/L and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels <2.6 mmol/L. The study regimen consisted of 16 weeks of randomized treatment with omega-3 fatty acids (4 g/day) plus a statin (n=26) or statin only (n=30). The primary endpoint was the change from baseline to final visit in mean TG level. RESULTS: A total of 56 participants were analyzed. At week 16, the change in the TG level in the combination therapy group differed significantly from the change in the statin monotherapy group (−34.8% vs. −15.2%, p=0.0176). Treatment with omega-3 fatty acids plus a statin was also associated with a significant decrease in non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with baseline, but the difference was not significant compared with the statin monotherapy group (−8.0% vs. −2.5%, p=0.165). The changes in LDL cholesterol and HbA1c levels did not differ significantly between groups. The study medications were well tolerated, and adverse events were comparable between two groups. CONCLUSION: Adding omega-3 fatty acids to statin treatment reduced TG levels more effectively than statin monotherapy without undesirable effects in Korean type 2 diabetic patients who had hypertriglyceridemia despite well-controlled LDL cholesterol on stable statin therapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02305355


Subject(s)
Cholesterol , Cholesterol, LDL , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Fasting , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Hypertriglyceridemia , Lipoproteins , Prescriptions , Triglycerides
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739801

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Waist circumference (WC) is a well-known obesity index that predicts cardiovascular disease (CVD). We studied the relationship between baseline WC and development of incident myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemic stroke (IS) using a nationwide population-based cohort, and evaluated if its predictability is better than body mass index (BMI). METHODS: Our study included 21,749,261 Koreans over 20 years of age who underwent the Korean National Health Screening between 2009 and 2012. The occurrence of MI or IS was investigated until the end of 2015 using National Health Insurance Service data. RESULTS: A total of 127,289 and 181,637 subjects were newly diagnosed with MI and IS. The incidence rate and hazard ratio of MI and IS increased linearly as the WC level increased, regardless of adjustment for BMI. When the analyses were performed according to 11 groups of WC, the lowest risk of MI was found in subjects with WC of 70 to 74.9 and 65 to 69.9 cm in male and female, and the lowest risk of IS in subjects with WC of 65 to 69.9 and 60 to 64.9 cm in male and female, respectively. WC showed a better ability to predict CVD than BMI with smaller Akaike information criterion. The optimal WC cutoffs were 84/78 cm for male/female for predicting MI, and 85/78 cm for male/female for predicting IS. CONCLUSION: WC had a significant linear relationship with the risk of MI and IS and the risk began to increase from a WC that was lower than expected.


Subject(s)
Adult , Body Mass Index , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Mass Screening , Myocardial Infarction , National Health Programs , Obesity , Observational Study , Stroke , Waist Circumference
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-161476

ABSTRACT

An adrenal incidentaloma is an adrenal mass found in an imaging study performed for other reasons unrelated to adrenal disease and often accompanied by obesity, diabetes, or hypertension. The prevalence and incidence of adrenal incidentaloma increase with age and are also expected to rise due to the rapid development of imaging technology and frequent imaging studies. The Korean Endocrine Society is promoting an appropriate practice guideline to meet the rising incidence of adrenal incidentaloma, in cooperation with the Korean Adrenal Gland and Endocrine Hypertension Study Group. In this paper, we discuss important core issues in managing the patients with adrenal incidentaloma. After evaluating core proposition, we propose the most critical 20 recommendations from the initially organized 47 recommendations by Delphi technique.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Glands , Delphi Technique , Humans , Hypertension , Incidence , Obesity , Prevalence
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194645

ABSTRACT

An adrenal incidentaloma is an adrenal mass found in an imaging examination performed for reasons unrelated to suspected adrenal disease. The prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma increases with age; there is no gender difference, but it is often accompanied by obesity, diabetes mellitus, or hypertension. The detection of adrenal incidentaloma is expected to rise with the rapid development of imaging technology and increasing frequency of imaging studies. The Korean Endocrine Society is promoting appropriate practice guidelines to meet the rising incidence of adrenal incidentaloma, in cooperation with the Korean Adrenal Gland and Endocrine Hypertension Study Group. In this paper, we discuss important core issues for treating adrenal incidentaloma, along with the most important factors for healthcare providers who treat and manage affected patients. Initially, we identified 47 recommendations using the Delphi technique, after evaluating core propositions. We reduced these to the 20 most critical recommendations.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Glands , Delphi Technique , Diabetes Mellitus , Health Personnel , Humans , Hypertension , Incidence , Obesity , Prevalence
10.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 243-247, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-75761

ABSTRACT

Acromegaly is a rare disorder caused by excessive amounts of growth hormone. The incidence of colorectal, breast, and thyroid carcinomas is increased in acromegaly. However, there have been few reports on hematological malignancies in acromegaly. We describe a patient who developed acute lymphoblastic leukemia during the course of acromegaly. A 35-year-old woman presented in February 2012 with unexplained lactation and amenorrhea for 4 months. Her growth hormone level was 12.6 microg/L, insulin-like growth factor 1 592.26 ng/mL, and prolactin 242 microg/L. A pituitary macroadenoma secreting GH and prolactin causing acromegaly was diagnosed. Considering her fertility, the dopamine agonist cabergoline 0.5 mg was administered in March 2012. In February 2014, she presented with cytopenia (hemoglobin 12.2 g/dL, white cell count 2.69 x 10(9)/L, platelets 39 x 10(9)/L) and hepatosplenomegaly. A bone marrow examination showed acute B cell lymphoblastic leukemia. She underwent chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation. A follow-up bone marrow biopsy showed remission.


Subject(s)
Acromegaly , Adult , Amenorrhea , Biopsy , Bone Marrow , Bone Marrow Examination , Bone Marrow Transplantation , Breast , Cell Count , Dopamine Agonists , Drug Therapy , Female , Fertility , Follow-Up Studies , Growth Hormone , Hematologic Neoplasms , Humans , Incidence , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Lactation , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Prolactin , Thyroid Neoplasms
11.
Korean Journal of Obesity ; : 150-153, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761662

ABSTRACT

Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease for which glucocorticoids are the mainstay of treatment. Cushing's syndrome is caused by glucocorticoid excess, which can be either exogenous or endogenous. Although iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome is the most common form, especially in patients undergoing glucocorticoid treatment, endogenous glucocorticoid excess should be considered because it has a different treatment strategy. We describe a 51-year old woman with a longstanding history of SLE. She was treated with steroid and cytoxan pulse therapy and plasmapheresis. Her lupus activity had been stable for 7 years with low-dose glucocorticoid treatment. She showed excessive weight gain, easy bruising, moon facies, truncal obesity, acne, and menstrual disorder. Given her history of long-term steroid therapy, iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome was considered the most likely diagnosis; however, worsening features of Cushing's syndrome with a minimal dose of glucocorticoid led us to diagnose endogenous Cushing's syndrome due to a left adrenal adenoma. The patient underwent laparoscopic left adrenalectomy. Her SLE was controlled with transient low-dose glucocorticoid treatment, and her lupus activity remained stable without glucocorticoid treatment. This is the first reported case of concomitant endogenous Cushing's syndrome in a patient with preexisting SLE in Korea. This case shows the importance of differential diagnosis including exogenous Cushing's syndrome and endogenous Cushing's syndrome in autoimmune disease patients with glucocorticoid therapy.


Subject(s)
Acne Vulgaris , Adenoma , Adrenalectomy , Autoimmune Diseases , Cushing Syndrome , Cyclophosphamide , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Facies , Female , Glucocorticoids , Humans , Korea , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Moon , Obesity , Plasmapheresis , Weight Gain
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728538

ABSTRACT

Here, we investigated whether hyperglycemia and/or free fatty acids (palmitate, PAL) aff ect the expression level of bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4), a proatherogenic marker, in endothelial cells and the potential role of BMP4 in diabetic vascular complications. To measure BMP4 expression, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to high glucose concentrations and/or PAL for 24 or 72 h, and the effects of these treatments on the expression levels of adhesion molecules and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were examined. BMP4 loss-of-function status was achieved via transfection of a BMP4-specific siRNA. High glucose levels increased BMP4 expression in HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner. PAL potentiated such expression. The levels of adhesion molecules and ROS production increased upon treatment with high glucose and/or PAL, but this eff ect was negated when BMP4 was knocked down via siRNA. Signaling of BMP4, a proinflammatory and pro-atherogenic cytokine marker, was increased by hyperglycemia and PAL. BMP4 induced the expression of infl ammatory adhesion molecules and ROS production. Our work suggests that BMP4 plays a role in atherogenesis induced by high glucose levels and/or PAL.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Angiopathies , Endothelial Cells , Fatty Acids, Nonesterified , Glucose , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Reactive Oxygen Species , RNA, Small Interfering , Transfection
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761617

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Memory
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727368

ABSTRACT

Alcohol consumption increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. However, its effects on prediabetes or early diabetes have not been studied. We investigated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the pancreas and liver resulting from chronic alcohol consumption in the prediabetes and early stages of diabetes. We separated Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, a type-2 diabetic animal model, into two groups based on diabetic stage: prediabetes and early diabetes were defined as occurrence between the ages of 11 to 16 weeks and 17 to 22 weeks, respectively. The experimental group received an ethanol-containing liquid diet for 6 weeks. An intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was conducted after 16 and 22 weeks for the prediabetic and early diabetes groups, respectively. There were no significant differences in body weight between the control and ethanol groups. Fasting and 120-min glucose levels were lower and higher, respectively, in the ethanol group than in the control group. In prediabetes rats, alcohol induced significant expression of ER stress markers in the pancreas; however, alcohol did not affect the liver. In early diabetes rats, alcohol significantly increased most ER stress-marker levels in both the pancreas and liver. These results indicate that chronic alcohol consumption increased the risk of diabetes in prediabetic and early diabetic OLETF rats; the pancreas was more susceptible to damage than was the liver in the early diabetic stages, and the adaptive and proapoptotic pathway of ER stress may play key roles in the development and progression of diabetes affected by chronic alcohol ingestion.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking , Animals , Body Weight , Diet , Eating , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Ethanol , Fasting , Glucose , Glucose Tolerance Test , Liver , Models, Animal , Pancreas , Prediabetic State , Rats , Rats, Inbred OLETF
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-153714

ABSTRACT

Allergic reaction to insulin is uncommon since the introduction of human recombinant insulin preparations and is more rare in pregnant than non-pregnant females due to altered immune reaction during pregnancy. Herein, we report two cases of allergic reaction to insulin in gestational diabetes that were successfully managed. One case was a 33-year-old female using isophane-neutral protamine Hagedorn human insulin and insulin lispro. She experienced dyspnea, cough, urticaria and itching sensation at the sites of insulin injection immediately after insulin administration. We discontinued insulin therapy and started oral hypoglycemic agents with metformin and glibenclamide. The other case was a 32-year-old female using insulin lispro and insulin detemer. She experienced pruritus and burning sensation and multiple nodules at the sites of insulin injection. We changed the insulin from insulin lispro to insulin aspart. Assessments including immunoglobulin E (IgE), IgG, eosinophil, insulin antibody level and skin biopsy were performed. In the two cases, the symptoms were resolved after changing the insulin to oral agents or other insulin preparations. We report two cases of allergic reaction to human insulin in gestational diabetes due to its rarity.


Subject(s)
Adult , Biopsy , Burns , Cough , Diabetes, Gestational , Dyspnea , Eosinophils , Female , Glyburide , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Hypersensitivity, Immediate , Hypoglycemic Agents , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulins , Insulin Aspart , Insulin Lispro , Insulin , Metformin , Pregnancy , Pruritus , Sensation , Skin , Urticaria
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-146598

ABSTRACT

Atypical antipsychotics have replaced conventional antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia because they have less of a propensity to cause undesirable neurologic adverse events including extrapyramidal symptoms, tardive dyskinesia, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS). However, atypical antipsychotics have been known to result in various metabolic complications such as impaired glucose tolerance, diabetes and even diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). In addition, a number of NMS cases have been reported in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics, although the absolute incidence of neurologic side effects is currently significantly low. Here, we report a patient who simultaneously developed DKA, acute renal failure and NMS with rhabdomyolysis after olanzapine treatment. Olanzapine-induced metabolic complications and NMS were dramatically improved with cessation of the olanzapine treatment and initiation of supportive management including fluid therapy, hemodialysis, and intensive glycemic control using insulin. At short-term follow-up, insulin secretion was markedly recovered as evidenced by a restoration of serum C-peptide level, and the patient no longer required any hypoglycemic medications. Despite the dramatic increase in the use of atypical antipsychotics treatment, individualized treatments along with careful monitoring may be prudent for high risk or vulnerable patients in order to avoid the development of metabolic side effects.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Antipsychotic Agents , Benzodiazepines , C-Peptide , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Fluid Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Glucose , Humans , Incidence , Insulin , Movement Disorders , Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome , Renal Dialysis , Rhabdomyolysis , Schizophrenia
17.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 403-410, 2012.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-25225

ABSTRACT

Pheochromocytomas are rare neuroendocrine tumours with a highly variable and heterogeneous clinical manifestation. With a noticeable progress in genetics, biochemical diagnosis and tumour imaging techniques, modifications of the traditional "rule of tens" for pheochromocytomas are inevitable consequence. Diagnosis of pheochromocytoma depends on biochemical evidence of catecholamine production by the tumor. Plasma free metanephrines provide the best test for excluding or confirming pheochromocytoma and should be used as an initial screening tool, but if it is not available, urinary fractionated metanephrines could be used as an alternative method. Different anatomical and functional imaging modalities are used to localize biochemically proven pheochromocytomas. These include computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using 123/131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) or 111In-DTPA-pentetreotide and positron emission tomography (PET). Timely laparoscopic tumour removal in combination with appropriate pre-and intraoperative management of the effects of secreted catecholamines are essential components for excellent prognosis.


Subject(s)
Adrenalectomy , Catecholamines , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mass Screening , Molecular Biology , Pheochromocytoma , Plasma , Positron-Emission Tomography , Prognosis , Tomography, Emission-Computed
18.
Hanyang Medical Reviews ; : 203-212, 2012.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69136

ABSTRACT

Adrenal insufficiency is caused by either primary adrenal failure or by hypothalamic-pituitary impairment of the corticotropic axis which is predominantly due to long-term glucocorticoid treatment or by pituitary disease. Primary adrenal failure is a rare disease that is life-threatening when overlooked whle adrenal failure secondary to hypothalamo-pituitary disease is a common clinical problem that has serious impact on the quality of life. Recent data suggests that the health-related quality of life in many patients with adrenal insufficiency is more severely impaired than previously thought and that current hormone replacement strategies are insufficient to prevent increased morbidity and mortality due to the disease. Therefore, the optimization and careful monitoring of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement therapy remains one of the most challenging tasks in endocrinology. Leaving treatment aside, diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency is also challenging, because the main presenting symptoms such as fatigue, anorexia, and weight loss are non-specifically associated with many other common ailments, delaying a correct diagnosis. Some pitfalls in diagnostic work-up, particularly in the identification of secondary adrenal insufficiency, make the diagnosis even more difficult. Despite the difficulties, the complications associated with adrenal insufficiency make the rapid diagnosis and proper management of adrenal failure are important tasks for all physicians. We review here current standards for clinical assessment, diagnosis and treatment of adrenal insufficiency in light of recent research findings.


Subject(s)
Addison Disease , Adrenal Cortex Function Tests , Adrenal Insufficiency , Anorexia , Endocrinology , Fatigue , Glucocorticoids , Humans , Light , Pituitary Diseases , Quality of Life , Rare Diseases , Weight Loss , Axis, Cervical Vertebra
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57557

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Pheochromocytoma
20.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 149-154, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-35974

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate the changes in blood glucose control and lipid profiles after 2-months of smoking cessation in healthy males. METHODS: Smoking abstinence was evaluated through self-report and urine cotinine levels. 12 individuals who succeeded in quitting smoking were analyzed. Fasting values of glucose and insulin were used to estimate the beta-cell activity and insulin resistance was evaluated using the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) and Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI). RESULTS: The data showed that the subjects had a significant increase in weight, body mass index and fasting plasma glucose levels after smoking cessation. The HOMA-Insulin Resistance and the HOMA beta-cell function increased significantly (p=0.005, p=0.047 respectively). The QUICKI showed a significant decrease (p=0.005). In addition, the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased significantly (p=0.028); however, changes in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were not significant (p=0.284, p=0.445 respectively). CONCLUSION: During the initial stage of smoking abstinence, insulin resistance increased and insulin sensitivity decreased due to elevated body weight and fat composition. Therefore, it is important to educate individuals that stop smoking about the necessity of weight control during smoking cessation programs.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Body Weight , Cholesterol , Cotinine , Fasting , Glucose , Homeostasis , Humans , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Lipoproteins , Male , Plasma , Smoke , Smoking , Smoking Cessation
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL