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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875260

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the association of MRI features with the major genomic profiles and prognosis of World Health Organization grade III (G3) gliomas compared with those of glioblastomas (GBMs). @*Materials and Methods@#We enrolled 76 G3 glioma and 155 GBM patients with pathologically confirmed disease who had pretreatment brain MRI and major genetic information of tumors. Qualitative and quantitative imaging features, including volumetrics and histogram parameters, such as normalized cerebral blood volume (nCBV), cerebral blood flow (nCBF), and apparent diffusion coefficient (nADC) were evaluated. The G3 gliomas were divided into three groups for the analysis: with this isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutation, IDH mutation and a chromosome arm 1p/19q-codeleted (IDHmut1p/19qdel), IDH mutation, 1p/19q-nondeleted (IDHmut1p/19qnondel), and IDH wildtype (IDHwt). A prediction model for the genetic profiles of G3 gliomas was developed and validated on a separate cohort. Both the quantitative and qualitative imaging parameters and progression-free survival (PFS) of G3 gliomas were compared and survival analysis was performed. Moreover, the imaging parameters and PFS between IDHwt G3 gliomas and GBMs were compared. @*Results@#IDHmut G3 gliomas showed a larger volume (p = 0.017), lower nCBF (p = 0.048), and higher nADC (p = 0.007) than IDHwt. Between the IDHmut tumors, IDHmut1p/19qdel G3 gliomas had higher nCBV (p = 0.024) and lower nADC (p = 0.002) than IDHmut1p/19qnondel G3 gliomas. Moreover, IDHmut1p/19qdel tumors had the best prognosis and IDHwt tumors had the worst prognosis among G3 gliomas (p < 0.001). PFS was significantly associated with the 95th percentile values of nCBV and nCBF in G3 gliomas. There was no significant difference in neither PFS nor imaging features between IDHwt G3 gliomas and IDHwt GBMs. @*Conclusion@#We found significant differences in MRI features, including volumetrics, CBV, and ADC, in G3 gliomas, according to IDH mutation and 1p/19q codeletion status, which can be utilized for the prediction of genomic profiles and the prognosis of G3 glioma patients. The MRI signatures and prognosis of IDHwt G3 gliomas tend to follow those of IDHwt GBMs.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874690

ABSTRACT

Status epilepticus (SE) is one of the most serious neurologic emergencies. SE is a condition that encompasses a broad range of semiologic subtypes and heterogeneous etiologies. The treatment of SE primarily involves the management of the underlying etiology and the use of antiepileptic drug therapy to rapidly terminate seizure activities. The Drug Committee of the Korean Epilepsy Society performed a review of existing guidelines and literature with the aim of providing practical recommendations for antiepileptic drug therapy. This article is one of a series of review articles by the Drug Committee and it summarizes staged antiepileptic drug therapy for SE. While evidence of good quality supports the use of benzodiazepines as the first-line treatment of SE, such evidence informing the administration of second- or third-line treatments is lacking; hence, the recommendations presented herein concerning the treatment of established and refractory SE are based on case series and expert opinions. The choice of antiepileptic drugs in each stage should consider the characteristics and circumstances of each patient, as well as their estimated benefit and risk to them. In tandem with the antiepileptic drug therapy, careful searching for and treatment of the underlying etiology are required.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874689

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose The aim of this study was to survey the expert opinions on treatments for convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) and nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) in adults. @*Methods@#Forty-two South Korean epileptologists participated in this survey. They completed an online questionnaire regarding various patient scenarios and evaluated the appropriateness of medications used to treat CSE and NCSE. @*Results@#Initial treatment with a benzodiazepine (BZD) followed by either a second BZD or an antiepileptic drug (AED) monotherapy was the preferred treatment strategy. More than two-thirds of the experts used a second BZD when the first one failed, and consensus was reached for 84.8% of the survey items. The preferred BZD was intravenous (IV) lorazepam for the initial treatment of status epilepticus. IV fosphenytoin and IV levetiracetam were chosen for AED monotherapy after the failure of BZD. The treatments for NCSE were similar to those for CSE. Continuous IV midazolam infusion was the treatment of choice for iatrogenic coma in refractory CSE, but other AEDs were preferred over iatrogenic coma in refractory NCSE. @*Conclusions@#The results of this survey are consistent with previous guidelines, and can be cautiously applied in clinical practice when treating patients with CSE or NCSE.

4.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833679

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune epilepsy is a newly emerging area of epilepsy. The concept of “autoimmune” as an etiology has recently been revisited thanks to advances in autoimmune encephalitis and precision medicine with immunotherapies. Autoimmune epilepsy presents with specific clinical manifestations, and various diagnostic approaches including cerebrospinal fluid analysis, neuroimaging, and autoantibody tests are essential for its differential diagnosis. The diagnosis is often indeterminate despite performing a thorough evaluation, and therefore empirical immunotherapy may be applied according to the judgment of the clinician. Autoimmune epilepsy often manifests as new-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE). A patient classified as NORSE should receive empirical immunotherapy as soon as possible. On the other hand, a morecautious, stepwise approach is recommended for autoimmune epilepsy that presents with episodic events. The type of autoimmune epilepsy is also an important factor to consider when choosing from among various immunotherapy options. Clinicians should additionally take the characteristics of antiepileptic drugs into account when using them as an adjuvant therapy. This expert opinion discusses the diagnostic and treatment approaches for autoimmune epilepsy from a practical point of view.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833677

ABSTRACT

Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder that is mainly treated using antiepileptic drugs.Several antiepileptic drugs such as phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone, and ethosuximide were developed in the early 20th century. More than 10 types of antiepileptic drugs have been developed since the 1990s, and there are now more than 20 antiepileptic drugs in active clinical use. The choice of antiepileptic drugs is based on the clinical features of the seizure types, electroencephalogram findings, epileptic syndrome, and drug stability. Currently there are 19 antiepileptic drugs approved by the Korean Food and Drug Administration, 18 of which (with the exclusion of brivaracetam) are covered by the National Health Insurance Service in Korea. We reviewed the selection of antiepileptic drugs according to the classification of epileptic seizures.

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833676

ABSTRACT

The incidence and prevalence of epilepsy are highest in elderly people, and the etiologies of epilepsy in the elderly differ from those in other age groups. Moreover, diagnosing and treating epilepsy in elderly people may be challenging due to differences in clinical characteristics and physiological changes associated with aging. This review focuses on the pharmacological treatment of epilepsy in elderly patients.

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833673

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose: The main difficulty when diagnosing leptomeningeal metastases (LMSs) is the low sensitivity of cytology. Cancer cells release cell-free DNA (cfDNA) during proliferation and apoptosis, and so we analyzed the cfDNA level as a biomarker for LMSs in hematologic malignancy. @*Methods@#This study prospectively enrolled 20 patients with hematologic malignancy who underwent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. LMS was diagnosed based on both CSF cytology and clinical findings. @*Results@#The CSF level of cfDNA was higher in patients with LMSs (108.17±84.84 ng/mL, mean±standard deviation) than in non-LMS patients (14.23±2.78 ng/mL). The sensitivity of cfDNA was higher than that of cytology (100% vs. 87%). @*Conclusions@#The cfDNA level in the CSF can be used as a supplemental marker for diagnosing LMS in hematologic malignancy patients.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833642

ABSTRACT

Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are the primary treatment strategy for epilepsy. As the use of AEDs has become more widespread and diverse over the past century, it has become necessary to refine the associated prescription strategies. This prompted the Drug Committee of the Korean Epilepsy Society to perform a systemic review of both international and domestic guidelines as well as literature related to medical treatment of epilepsy, and prepared a series of reviews to provide practical guidelines for clinicians to follow. This article is the first in a series on AED treatments for epilepsy in South Korea.

9.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833609

ABSTRACT

Background@#and PurposeThe first-line medications for the symptomatic treatment of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) are clonazepam and melatonin taken at bedtime. We aimed to identify the association between depression and treatment response in patients with idiopathic RBD (iRBD). @*Methods@#We reviewed the medical records of 123 consecutive patients (76 males; age, 66.0±7.7 years; and symptom duration, 4.1±4.0 years) with iRBD who were treated with clonazepam and/or melatonin. Clonazepam and melatonin were initially administered at 0.25–0.50 and 2 mg/day, respectively, at bedtime, and the doses were subsequently titrated according to the response of individual patients. Treatment response was defined according to the presence or absence of any improvement in dream-enacting behaviors or unpleasant dreams after treatment. @*Results@#Forty (32.5%) patients were treated with clonazepam, 56 (45.5%) with melatonin, and 27 (22.0%) with combination therapy. The doses of clonazepam and melatonin at followup were 0.5±0.3 and 2.3±0.7 mg, respectively. Ninety-six (78.0%) patients reported improvement in their RBD symptoms during a mean follow-up period of 17.7 months. After adjusting for potential confounders, depression was significantly associated with a negative treatment response (odds ratio=3.76, 95% confidence interval=1.15–12.32, p=0.029). @*Conclusions@#We found that comorbid depression is significantly associated with a negative response to clonazepam and/or melatonin in patients with iRBD. Further research with larger numbers of patients is needed to verify our observations and to determine the clinical implications of comorbid depression in the pathophysiology of iRBD.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739672

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There has been no practical guidelines for the management of patients with central nervous system (CNS) tumors in Korea for many years. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, started to prepare guidelines for CNS tumors from February 2018. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords. RESULTS: First, the maximal safe resection if feasible is recommended. After the diagnosis of a glioblastoma with neurosurgical intervention, patients aged ≤70 years with good performance should be treated by concurrent chemoradiotherapy with temozolomide followed by adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy (Stupp's protocol) or standard brain radiotherapy alone. However, those with poor performance should be treated by hypofractionated brain radiotherapy (preferred)±concurrent or adjuvant temozolomide, temozolomide alone (Level III), or supportive treatment. Alternatively, patients aged >70 years with good performance should be treated by hypofractionated brain radiotherapy+concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide or Stupp's protocol or hypofractionated brain radiotherapy alone, while those with poor performance should be treated by hypofractionated brain radiotherapy alone or temozolomide chemotherapy if the patient has methylated MGMT gene promoter (Level III), or supportive treatment. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that glioblastomas should be treated by maximal safe resection, if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to the individual comprehensive condition of the patient.


Subject(s)
Brain , Central Nervous System , Chemoradiotherapy , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Glioblastoma , Humans , Korea , Radiotherapy
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763112

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There was no practical guideline for the management of patients with central nervous system tumor in Korea in the past. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, developed the guideline for glioblastoma successfully and published it in Brain Tumor Research and Treatment, the official journal of KSNO, in April 2019. Recently, the KSNO guideline for World Health Organization (WHO) grade III cerebral glioma in adults has been established. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified by searches in PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords. Scope of the disease was confined to cerebral anaplastic astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma in adults. RESULTS: Whenever radiological feature suggests high grade glioma, maximal safe resection if feasible is globally recommended. After molecular and histological examinations, patients with anaplastic astrocytoma, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant should be primary treated by standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy whereas those with anaplastic astrocytoma, NOS, and anaplastic astrocytoma, IDH-wildtype should be treated following the protocol for glioblastomas. In terms of anaplastic oligodendroglioma, IDH-mutant and 1p19q-codeletion, and anaplastic oligodendroglioma, NOS should be primary treated by standard brain radiotherapy and neoadjuvant or adjuvant PCV (procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine) combination chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that WHO grade III cerebral glioma of adults should be treated by maximal safe resection if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to molecular and histological features of tumors.


Subject(s)
Adult , Astrocytoma , Brain , Brain Neoplasms , Central Nervous System , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Humans , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Korea , Lomustine , Oligodendroglioma , Radiotherapy , World Health Organization
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763111

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There was no practical guideline for the management of patients with central nervous system tumor in Korea for many years. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, has developed the guideline for glioblastoma. Subsequently, the KSNO guideline for World Health Organization (WHO) grade II cerebral glioma in adults is established. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified by searching PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords regarding diffuse astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma of brain in adults. RESULTS: Whenever radiological feature suggests lower grade glioma, the maximal safe resection if feasible is recommended globally. After molecular and histological examinations, patients with diffuse astrocytoma, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-wildtype without molecular feature of glioblastoma should be primarily treated by standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy (Level III) while those with molecular feature of glioblastoma should be treated following the protocol for glioblastomas. In terms of patients with diffuse astrocytoma, IDH-mutant and oligodendroglioma (IDH-mutant and 1p19q codeletion), standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant PCV (procarbazine+lomustine+vincristine) combination chemotherapy should be considered primarily for the high-risk group while observation with regular follow up should be considered for the low-risk group. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that WHO grade II gliomas should be treated by maximal safe resection, if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to molecular and histological features of tumors and clinical characteristics of patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Astrocytoma , Brain , Central Nervous System , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Follow-Up Studies , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Humans , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Korea , Oligodendroglioma , Radiotherapy , World Health Organization
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766719

ABSTRACT

Immune checkpoint inhibitor is associated with variety of immune-related adverse events. We present a case of polyneuropathy induced by immune checkpoint inhibitor, which was refractory to steroid and immunoglobulin. While high-dose steroid and immunoglobulin were not effective, we tried rituximab which is effective in other immune-mediated polyneuropathy. After rituximab treatment, patient's clinical symptom and nerve conduction study finding was markedly improved. We suggest rituximab might be effective in polyneuropathy induced by immune checkpoint inhibitor.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , Immunoglobulins , Neural Conduction , Polyneuropathies , Rituximab
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715253

ABSTRACT

Murine typhus is one of the most prevalent rickettsial infections in the world, caused by the bacterial genus Rickettsia. Though the disease manifests a relatively benign clinical course with fever, rash, and headache being the 3 classic symptoms, neurological complications may arise in patients that could become permanent. In this case study, a patient with a brain abscess caused by R typhi infection is described. Based upon the recent reemergence of arthropod-borne disease, the findings in this case are significant; R typhi can cause a brain abscess that mimics a brain tumor, which delays the diagnosis and appropriate management of the disease. Murine typhus should always be considered when performing the differential diagnosis of brain abscesses in South Korea.


Subject(s)
Brain Abscess , Brain Neoplasms , Brain , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Exanthema , Fever , Headache , Humans , Korea , Rickettsia , Typhus, Endemic Flea-Borne
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225906

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Normalized cerebral blood volume (nCBV) can be measured using manual or semiautomatic segmentation method. However, the difference in diagnostic performance on brain tumor differentiation between differently measured nCBV has not been evaluated. PURPOSE: To compare the diagnostic performance of manually obtained nCBV to that of semiautomatically obtained nCBV on glioblastoma (GBM) and primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) differentiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Histopathologically confirmed forty GBM and eleven PCNSL patients underwent 3T MR imaging with dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging before any treatment or biopsy. Based on the contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging, the mean nCBV (mCBV) was measured using the manual method (manual mCBV), random regions of interest (ROIs) placement by the observer, or the semiautomatic segmentation method (semiautomatic mCBV). The volume of enhancing portion of the tumor was also measured during semiautomatic segmentation process. T-test, ROC curve analysis, Fisher's exact test and multivariate regression analysis were performed to compare the value and evaluate the diagnostic performance of each parameter. RESULTS: GBM showed a higher enhancing volume (P = 0.0307), a higher manual mCBV (P = 0.018) and a higher semiautomatic mCBV (P = 0.0111) than that of the PCNSL. Semiautomatic mCBV had the highest value (0.815) for the area under the curve (AUC), however, the AUCs of the three parameters were not significantly different from each other. The semiautomatic mCBV was the best independent predictor for the GBM and PCNSL differential diagnosis according to the stepwise multiple regression analysis. CONCLUSION: We found that the semiautomatic mCBV could be a better predictor than the manual mCBV for the GBM and PCNSL differentiation. We believe that the semiautomatic segmentation method can contribute to the advancement of perfusion based brain tumor evaluation.


Subject(s)
Area Under Curve , Biopsy , Blood Volume , Brain Neoplasms , Central Nervous System , Diagnosis, Differential , Glioblastoma , Humans , Lymphoma , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methods , Perfusion , ROC Curve
20.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 132-140, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-93435

ABSTRACT

Tryptophan metabolites regulate a variety of physiological processes, and their downstream metabolites enter the kynurenine pathway. Age-related changes of metabolites and activities of associated enzymes in this pathway are suggestable and would be potential intervention targets. Blood levels of serum tryptophan metabolites in C57BL/6 mice of different ages, ranging from 6 weeks to 10 months, were assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography, and the enzyme activities for each metabolic step were estimated using the ratio of appropriate metabolite levels. Mice were subjected to voluntary chronic aerobic exercise or high-fat diet to assess their ability to rescue age-related alterations in the kynurenine pathway. The ratio of serum kynurenic acid (KYNA) to 3-hydroxylkynurenine (3-HK) decreased with advancing age. Voluntary chronic aerobic exercise and high-fat diet rescued the decreased KYNA/3-HK ratio in the 6-month-old and 8-month-old mice groups. Tryptophan metabolites and their associated enzyme activities were significantly altered during aging, and the KYNA/3-HK ratio was a meaningful indicator of aging. Exercise and high-fat diet could potentially recover the reduction of the KYNA/3-HK ratio in the elderly.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aging , Animals , Chromatography, Liquid , Diet, High-Fat , Exercise , Humans , Infant , Kynurenic Acid , Kynurenine , Mice , Physiological Phenomena , Tryptophan
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