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1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 112-114, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919619

ABSTRACT

Digital pathology is being gradually adopted in hospitals due to technological advances. We propose that digital pathology can be used in Mohs micrographic surgery (Mohs surgery) to precisely check residual tumor cells in frozen tumor margin tissues. This would aid surgeons and pathologists in accurately recording tumor margins and give patients the benefit of shorter operation time.

2.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834574

ABSTRACT

Background@#Before publication of the new classification system named the Milan System for Reporting Salivary Gland Cytopathology (MSRSGC) in 2018, there was no standard classification for salivary gland lesions obtained by fine-needle aspiration (FNA). We therefore aimed to evaluate the diagnostic utility of this system by retrospectively reviewing FNA samples using the MSRSGC and to determine their risk of developing into neoplasms and becoming malignant. @*Methods@#Retrospective slide review and classification of salivary gland FNAs obtained over a 6-year period (2013–2018) at a single center were performed by two pathologists. The risks of neoplasm and malignancy for each category also were calculated. @*Results@#This study surveyed 374 FNAs (371 patients) performed over a six-year period and selected 148 cases that included documented surgical follow-up (39.6%). Among the surgically treated cases, the distributions of FNA categories were as follows: non-diagnostic (ND; 16.9%), non-neoplastic (NN; 2.7%), atypia of undetermined significance (AUS; 3.4%), benign (BN; 54.7%), salivary gland neoplasm of uncertain malignant potential (SUMP; 10.1%), suspicious for malignancy (SM; 6.8%), and malignant (M; 5.4%). The risk of malignancy (ROM) was 24.0% for ND, 0% for NN, 40.0% for AUS, 2.5% for BN, 46.7% for SUMP, 100% for SM, and 87.5% for M. The overall diagnostic accuracy was 95.9% (142/148 cases). @*Conclusions@#The newly proposed MSRSGC appears to be a reliable system for classification of salivary gland lesions according to the associated ROM.

3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834544

ABSTRACT

The Korean Society for Cytopathology has conducted the Continuous Quality Improvement program for cytopathology laboratories in Korea since 1995. In 2018 as part of the program, an annual survey of cytologic data was administered to determine the current status of cytopathology practices in Korea. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to 211 cytopathology laboratories. Individual laboratories submitted their annual statistics regarding cytopathology practices, diagnoses of gynecologic samples, inadequacy rates, and gynecologic cytology-histology correlation review (CHCR) data for 2018. In addition, proficiency tests and sample adequacy assessments were conducted using five consequent gynecologic slides. Results: Over 10 million cytologic exams were performed in 2018, and this number has almost tripled since this survey was first conducted in 2004 (compounded annual growth rate of 7.2%). The number of non-gynecologic samples has increased gradually over time and comprised 24% of all exams. The overall unsatisfactory rate was 0.14%. The ratio of the cases with atypical squamous cells to squamous intraepithelial lesions accounted for up to 4.24. The major discrepancy rate of the CHCR in gynecologic samples was 0.52%. In the proficiency test, the major discrepancy rate was approximately 1%. In the sample adequacy assessment, a discrepancy was observed in 0.1% of cases. Conclusions: This study represents the current status of cytopathology practices in Korea, illustrating the importance of the Continuous Quality Improvement program for increasing the accuracy and credibility of cytopathologic exams as well as developing national cancer exam guidelines and government projects on the prevention and treatment of cancer.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786127

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the present multi-institutional study, the prevalence and clinicopathologic characteristics of non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) were evaluated among Korean patients who underwent thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).METHODS: Data from 18,819 patients with PTC from eight university hospitals between January 2012 and February 2018 were retrospectively evaluated. Pathology reports of all PTCs and slides of potential NIFTP cases were reviewed. The strict criterion of no papillae was applied for the diagnosis of NIFTP. Due to assumptions regarding misclassification of NIFTP as non-PTC tumors, the lower boundary of NIFTP prevalence among PTCs was estimated. Mutational analysis for BRAF and three RAS isoforms was performed in 27 randomly selected NIFTP cases.RESULTS: The prevalence of NIFTP was 1.3% (238/18,819) of all PTCs when the same histologic criteria were applied for NIFTP regardless of the tumor size but decreased to 0.8% (152/18,819) when tumors ≥1 cm in size were included. The mean follow-up was 37.7 months and no patient with NIFTP had evidence of lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, or disease recurrence during the follow-up period. A difference in prevalence of NIFTP before and after NIFTP introduction was not observed. BRAF(V600E) mutation was not found in NIFTP. The mutation rate for the three RAS genes was 55.6% (15/27).CONCLUSIONS: The low prevalence and indolent clinical outcome of NIFTP in Korea was confirmed using the largest number of cases to date. The introduction of NIFTP may have a small overall impact in Korean practice.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Papillary , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Genes, ras , Hospitals, University , Humans , Korea , Lymph Nodes , Mutation Rate , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pathology , Prevalence , Protein Isoforms , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741199

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration cytology serves as a safe, economical tool in evaluating thyroid nodules. However, about 30% of the samples are categorized as indeterminate. Hence, many immunocytochemistry markers have been studied, but there has not been a single outstanding marker. We studied the efficacy of CD56 with human bone marrow endothelial cell marker-1 (HBME-1) in diagnosis in the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC) category III. METHODS: We reviewed ThinPrep liquid-based cytology (LBC) samples with Papanicolaou stain from July 1 to December 31, 2016 (2,195 cases) and selected TBSRTC category III cases (n = 363). Twenty-six cases were histologically confirmed as benign (six cases, 23%) or malignant (20 cases, 77%); we stained 26 LBC slides with HBME-1 and CD56 through the cell transfer method. For evaluation of reactivity of immunocytochemistry, we chose atypical follicular cell clusters. RESULTS: CD56 was not reactive in 18 of 20 cases (90%) of malignant nodules and showed cytoplasmic positivity in five of six cases (83%) of benign nodules. CD56 showed high sensitivity (90.0%) and relatively low specificity (83.3%) in detecting malignancy (p = .004). HBME-1 was reactive in 17 of 20 cases (85%) of malignant nodules and was not reactive in five of six cases (83%) of benign nodules. HBME-1 showed slightly lower sensitivity (85.0%) than CD56. The specificity in detecting malignancy by HBME-1 was similar to that of CD56 (83.3%, p = .008). CD56 and HBME-1 tests combined showed lower sensitivity (75.0% vs 90%) and higher specificity (93.8% vs 83.3%) in detecting malignancy compared to using CD56 alone. CONCLUSIONS: Using CD56 alone showed relatively low specificity despite high sensitivity for detecting malignancy. Combining CD56 with HBME-1 could increase the specificity. Thus, we suggest that CD56 could be a useful preoperative marker for differential diagnosis of TBSRTC category III samples.


Subject(s)
Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Bone Marrow , Cytoplasm , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Endothelial Cells , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Nodule
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741161

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Warthin-like variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (WLV-PTC) is a relatively rare variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma with favorable prognosis. However, preoperative diagnosis using fine-needle aspiration (FNA) specimens is challenging especially with lymphocytic thyroiditis characterized by Hürthle cells and lymphocytic background. To determine a helpful cytological differential point, we compared WLV-PTC FNA findings with conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma with lymphocytic thyroiditis (PTC-LT) and conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma without lymphocytic thyroiditis (PTC) regarding infiltrating inflammatory cells and their distribution. Preoperative diagnosis or potential for WLV-PTC will be helpful for surgeons to decide the scope of operation. METHODS: Of the 8,179 patients treated for papillary thyroid carcinoma between January 2007 and December 2012, 16 patients (0.2%) were pathologically confirmed as WLV-PTC and four cases were available for cytologic review. For comparison, we randomly selected six PTC-LT cases and five PTC cases during the same period. The number of intratumoral and background lymphocytes, histiocytes, neutrophils, and the presence of giant cells were evaluated and compared using conventional smear and ThinPrep preparations. RESULTS: WLV-PTC showed extensive lymphocytic smear with incorporation of thyroid follicular tumor cell clusters and frequent histiocytes. WLV-PTC was associated with higher intratumoral and background lymphocytes and histiocytes compared with PTC-LT or PTC. The difference was more distinct in liquid-based cytology. CONCLUSIONS: The lymphocytic smear pattern and the number of inflammatory cells of WLV-PTC are different from those of PTC-LT or PTC and will be helpful for the differential diagnosis of WLV-PTC in preoperative FNA.


Subject(s)
Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Giant Cells , Hashimoto Disease , Histiocytes , Humans , Lymphocytes , Neutrophils , Prognosis , Surgeons , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766481

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to explore women doctors' leadership experiences and to identify mechanisms of leadership development based on their experiences. Between November 1 and December 18, 2017, in-depth interviews were conducted with 12 women doctors whose professional roles included being the dean of a college of medicine, director of a university hospital system, director of a government institution, and member of the National Assembly. Twelve meaningful experiences were discovered, and 10 mechanisms and several action steps for developing women doctors' leadership were drawn from the interviews. Firstly, women doctors' leadership experiences can be divided into 4 periods: experiences before entering medical school, time during medical school, the training process, and experiences after completing board certification as a clinical specialist or PhD candidate. These periods were respectively designated as an unaffected leap, temporary break, involuntary interruption, and voluntary leap forward. Secondly, based on these results, 10 mechanisms for leadership development were identified. These included an intimate relationship with one's father, curiosity and concerns about various themes, accepting opportunities that arise, work-life balance from an individual perspective, promotion of social concerns regarding the under-representation of medical leaders, removal of traditional stereotypes about women doctors, remedies for invisible discrimination (glass ceiling) from a social perspective, as well as the provision of equal leadership experience and opportunities, the promotion of active mentoring, and the extension of formal and informal networks from an educational perspective. Currently, 25% of doctors are women, and they are not a token group any more. In order to resolve women's under-representation in medical leadership, practical and concrete efforts in individual, social, and educational domains, which are appropriate and adaptable to Korean culture, are needed.


Subject(s)
Certification , Discrimination, Psychological , Exploratory Behavior , Fathers , Female , Humans , Korea , Leadership , Mentors , Professional Role , Schools, Medical , Specialization
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738932

ABSTRACT

Pathologists play a critical role in the diagnosis and treatment planning of patients as well as in research. The first article of thyroid related research in Korea was reported in 1911. The Korean Society of Pathologists was found in 1946. In Korea thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology was introduced in the 1970s and became widely available in the 1980s. The Korean Society for Cytopathology was founded in 1986. Korean Endocrine Pathology Study Group was founded in 2007. Korean pathologists have been actively involved in internal and external scientific and educational activities. Herein, we briefly review the history of thyroid cytopathology and surgical pathology in Korea.


Subject(s)
Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Diagnosis , Education , Humans , Korea , Pathology , Pathology, Surgical , Thyroid Gland
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916102

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to explore women doctors' leadership experiences and to identify mechanisms of leadership development based on their experiences. Between November 1 and December 18, 2017, in-depth interviews were conducted with 12 women doctors whose professional roles included being the dean of a college of medicine, director of a university hospital system, director of a government institution, and member of the National Assembly. Twelve meaningful experiences were discovered, and 10 mechanisms and several action steps for developing women doctors' leadership were drawn from the interviews. Firstly, women doctors' leadership experiences can be divided into 4 periods: experiences before entering medical school, time during medical school, the training process, and experiences after completing board certification as a clinical specialist or PhD candidate. These periods were respectively designated as an unaffected leap, temporary break, involuntary interruption, and voluntary leap forward. Secondly, based on these results, 10 mechanisms for leadership development were identified. These included an intimate relationship with one's father, curiosity and concerns about various themes, accepting opportunities that arise, work-life balance from an individual perspective, promotion of social concerns regarding the under-representation of medical leaders, removal of traditional stereotypes about women doctors, remedies for invisible discrimination (glass ceiling) from a social perspective, as well as the provision of equal leadership experience and opportunities, the promotion of active mentoring, and the extension of formal and informal networks from an educational perspective. Currently, 25% of doctors are women, and they are not a token group any more. In order to resolve women's under-representation in medical leadership, practical and concrete efforts in individual, social, and educational domains, which are appropriate and adaptable to Korean culture, are needed.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-184097

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC) has standardized the reporting of thyroid cytology specimens. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the nationwide usage of TBSRTC and assess the malignancy rates in each category of TBSRTC in Korea. METHODS: Questionnaire surveys were used for data collection on the fine needle aspiration (FNA) of thyroid nodules at 74 institutes in 2012. The incidences and follow-up malignancy rates of each category diagnosed from January to December, 2011, in each institute were also collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Sixty out of 74 institutes answering the surveys reported the results of thyroid FNA in accordance with TBSRTC. The average malignancy rates for resected cases in 15 institutes were as follows: nondiagnostic, 45.6%; benign, 16.5%; atypical of undetermined significance, 68.8%; suspicious for follicular neoplasm (SFN), 30.2%; suspicious for malignancy, 97.5%; malignancy, 99.7%. CONCLUSIONS: More than 80% of Korean institutes were using TBSRTC as of 2012. All malignancy rates other than the SFN and malignancy categories were higher than those reported by other countries. Therefore, the guidelines for treating patients with thyroid nodules in Korea should be revisited based on the malignancy rates reported in this study.


Subject(s)
Academies and Institutes , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Data Collection , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Nodule
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-180375

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is frequently accompanied by lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT). Some reports claim that Hashimoto's thyroiditis (the clinical form of LT) enhances the likelihood of PTC; however, others suggest that LT has antitumor activity. This study was aimed to find out the relationship between the patterns of helper T cell (Th) cytokines in thyroid tissue of PTC with or without LT and the clinicopathological manifestation of PTC. METHODS: Fresh surgical samples of PTC with (13 cases) or without (10 cases) LT were used. The prognostic parameters (tumor size, extra-thyroidal extension of PTC, and lymph node metastasis) were analyzed. The mRNA levels of two subtypes of Th cytokines, Th1 (tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α], interferon γ [IFN-γ ], and interleukin [IL] 2) and Th2 (IL-4 and IL-10), were analyzed. Because most PTC cases were microcarcinomas and recent cases without clinical follow-up, negative or faint p27 immunoreactivity was used as a surrogate marker for lymph node metastasis. RESULTS: PTC with LT cases showed significantly higher expression of TNF-α (p = .043), IFN-γ (p < .010), IL-4 (p = .015) than those without LT cases. Although the data were not statistically significant, all analyzed cytokines (except for IL-4) were highly expressed in the cases with higher expression of p27 surrogate marker. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that mixed Th1 (TNF-α, IFN-γ , and IL-2) and Th2 (IL-10) immunity might play a role in the antitumor effect in terms of lymph node metastasis.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 , Cytokines , Follow-Up Studies , Interferons , Interleukin-4 , Interleukins , Lymph Nodes , Necrosis , Neoplasm Metastasis , RNA, Messenger , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroiditis , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune
12.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1196-1209, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-109756

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Although surgery is the standard curative treatment for gastric cancer, relapse occurs in a large number of patients, except in the case of early diagnosed gastric cancer. Following previous studies that identified endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin 1-α (ERO1L) as a potential marker for gastric cancer, we investigated the functional role of ERO1L in gastric cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For validation of microarray data, the mRNA expression level of ERO1L was measured by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in 56 independent stage III gastric cancer patients. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to examine the protein expression level of ERO1L in 231 gastric cancer patients. Correlation between gene expression and cancer prognosis was evaluated. RESULTS: Patients with high ERO1L expression had poorer survival than those with low expression (p < 0.01). Functional assays demonstrated that ERO1L knockdown inhibited cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and chemoresistance. In addition, involvement of inactivation of Akt and JNK signaling in molecular mechanisms of ERO1L inhibition was demonstrated. CONCLUSION: High expression of ERO1L is associated with poor prognosis of patients with gastric cancer. These results indicate that ERO1L expression may be a clinically promising therapeutic target for prevention of gastric cancer.


Subject(s)
Cell Proliferation , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Gene Expression , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prognosis , Recurrence , Reverse Transcription , RNA, Messenger , Stomach Neoplasms
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-11111

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Segmental glomerulosclerosis without significant mesangial or endocapillary proliferation is rarely seen in IgA nephropathy (IgAN), which simulates idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). We recently recognized aberrant blood vessels running through the adhesion sites of sclerosed tufts and Bowman's capsule in IgAN cases with mild glomerular histologic change. METHODS: To characterize aberrant blood vessels in relation to segmental sclerosis, we retrospectively reviewed the clinical and histologic features of 51 cases of FSGS-like IgAN and compared them with 51 age and gender-matched idiopathic FSGS cases. RESULTS: In FSGS-like IgAN, aberrant blood vessel formation was observed in 15.7% of cases, 1.0% of the total glomeruli, and 7.3% of the segmentally sclerosed glomeruli, significantly more frequently than in the idiopathic FSGS cases (p = .009). Aberrant blood vessels occasionally accompanied mild cellular proliferation surrounding penetrating neovessels. Clinically, all FSGS-like IgAN cases had hematuria; however, nephrotic range proteinuria was significantly less frequent than idiopathic FSGS. CONCLUSIONS: Aberrant blood vessels in IgAN are related to glomerular capillary injury and may indicate abnormal repair processes in IgAN.


Subject(s)
Blood Vessels , Bowman Capsule , Capillaries , Cell Proliferation , Glomerulonephritis, IGA , Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental , Hematuria , Immunoglobulin A , Kidney Glomerulus , Proteinuria , Retrospective Studies , Running , Sclerosis
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-188227

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The conventional method for decalcification of bone specimens uses hydrochloric acid (HCl) and is notorious for damaging cellular RNA, DNA, and proteins, thus complicating molecular and immunohistochemical analyses. A method that can effectively decalcify while preserving genetic material is necessary. METHODS: Pairs of bilateral bone marrow biopsies sampled from 53 patients were decalcified according to protocols of two comparison groups: EDTA versus HCl and RDO GOLD (RDO) versus HCl. Pairs of right and left bone marrow biopsy samples harvested from 28 cases were allocated into the EDTA versus HCl comparison group, and 25 cases to the RDO versus HCl comparison group. The decalcification protocols were compared with regards to histomorphology, immunohistochemistry, and molecular analysis. For molecular analysis, we randomly selected 5 cases from the EDTA versus HCl and RDO versus HCl groups. RESULTS: The decalcification time for appropriate histomorphologic analysis was the longest in the EDTA method and the shortest in the RDO method. EDTA was superior to RDO or HCl in DNA yield and integrity, assessed via DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction, and silver in situ hybridization using DNA probes. The EDTA method maintained intact nuclear protein staining on immunohistochemistry, while the HCl method produced poor quality images. Staining after the RDO method had equivocal results. RNA in situ hybridization using kappa and lambda RNA probes measured RNA integrity; the EDTA and RDO method had the best quality, followed by HCl. CONCLUSIONS: The EDTA protocol would be the best in preserving genetic material. RDO may be an acceptable alternative when rapid decalcification is necessary.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Bone Marrow , Decalcification Technique , DNA , DNA Probes , Edetic Acid , Humans , Hydrochloric Acid , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization , Nuclear Proteins , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA , RNA Probes , Silver
15.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 812-818, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-77281

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Decision to perform concurrent ipsilateral thyroidectomy on patients with hypopharyngeal cancer is important, and unnecessary thyroidectomy should be avoided if oncologically feasible. We hypothesized that concurrent ipsilateral thyroidectomy is not routinely required to prevent occult metastasis. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of histological thyroid invasion in patients with hypopharyngeal cancer, and to refine the indications for prophylactic ipsilateral thyroidectomy in patients with hypopharyngeal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of the medical records from the Department of Otolaryngology at Yonsei University College of Medicine was conducted from January 1994 to December 2009. A total of 49 patients underwent laryngopharyngectomy with thyroidectomy as a primary treatment of hypopharyngeal cancer. RESULTS: The incidence of thyroid gland involvement was 10.2%. The most common route of invasion was direct extension through the thyroid cartilage. Thyroid cartilage invasion (p=0.034) was the most significant factor associated with thyroid invasion. Disease-specific survival at 5 years was lower in patients with than without thyroid gland invasion (26.7% vs. 55.2%, respectively; p=0.032). Disease-free survival at 5 years was also lower in patients with than without thyroid gland invasion (20.0% vs. 52.1%, respectively; p=0.024). CONCLUSION: Ipsilateral thyroidectomy in combination with total laryngopharyngectomy is indicated when invasion of the thyroid cartilage is suspected in patients with hypopharyngeal cancer.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/epidemiology , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Incidence , Laryngectomy , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasms, Second Primary/epidemiology , Pharyngectomy , Predictive Value of Tests , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Gland/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/epidemiology , Thyroidectomy/methods
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-200085

ABSTRACT

Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia (SMECE) of the thyroid gland is a very rare carcinoma. We herein report on a case of SMECE with metastasis to bilateral lateral neck nodes, esophagus, and trachea. A 72-year-old woman presented with a neck mass found incidentally during a medical check-up. She had a history of cerebral stroke without sequelae 20 years ago and was taking aspirin regularly. The neck mass was confirmed as papillary thyroid carcinoma by fine needle aspiration biopsy. The patient underwent bilateral total thyroidectomy with central compartment and bilateral compartment lateral neck dissection. The right recurrent laryngeal nerve was sacrificed due to tumor invasion. The trachea wall and esophagus were also invaded by the cancer. Histologically, the tumor showed dense fibrohyaline stroma and a goblet cell, nested islands of squamoid cells, and marked stromal eosinophilia with perineural invasion and lymphovascular invasion, confirming the diagnosis of SMECE. After radiation therapy for three months, distant metastasis to the liver, lung, and bone were found on PET-CT. This case appears to be more aggressive than previously reported cases.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aspirin , Biopsy , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid , Diagnosis , Eosinophilia , Esophagus , Female , Goblet Cells , Humans , Islands , Liver , Lung , Neck , Neck Dissection , Neoplasm Metastasis , Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve , Stroke , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy , Trachea
17.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 187-192, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-226797

ABSTRACT

Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has a good prognosis and a low incidence of distant metastases. It is extremely rare for PTC to metastasize to the pancreas. Only five cases have been previously reported worldwide. Most cases are discovered incidentally by abdominal computed tomography (CT) or positron emission tomography-CT (PET-CT) during follow-up studies after thyroidectomies. Pancreatic metastasis of PTC is usually unidentifiable by a whole-body I131 scan, a common follow-up modality. When a pancreatic mass is found in patients with PTC, it must be differentiated from pancreatic cancer. In previous reports, patients with pancreatic metastases of PTC underwent operations for therapeutic diagnosis or underwent fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB). However, it is unclear whether the benefit of an operation outweighs the risk. We experienced a case of PTC with pancreatic metastasis that was found on PET-CT. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) was performed to evaluate the characteristics of the pancreatic mass and pathological confirmation was obtained cytologically via EUS-FNA.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Diagnosis , Electrons , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration , Endosonography , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pancreas , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Prognosis , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-170798

ABSTRACT

Incidence of thyroid carcinoma has increased dramatically; however, simultaneous occurrence of different tumors in a single thyroid gland is rare and the embryologic or molecular explanations for such cases lack a solid basis. We report on a 67-year-old woman who underwent surgery for cytologically undetermined nodules in the bilateral thyroid glands. Postoperative pathology findings indicated synchronous occurrence of discrete papillary, follicular, and medullary thyroid carcinoma. She has remained disease-free after postoperative radioactive iodine therapy (130 mCi). This is the fifth report on the synchronous occurrence of different tumors in a single thyroid gland worldwide, and the first ever in Asia.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma, Follicular , Aged , Asia , Carcinoma, Medullary , Female , Humans , Incidence , Iodine , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary , Pathology , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126546

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although congenital bronchogenic cysts in the cervical region, especially in the thyroid or perithyroidal area, are rare, distinguishing them from other cervical cystic lesions (e.g., thyroglossal duct and branchial cleft cysts) and metastatic cervical lymph nodes is difficult preoperatively. Additionally, cystic degeneration of metastatic lymph nodes is common in patients with thyroid cancer. We investigated the clinical characteristics and proper treatment for individuals with cervical bronchogenic cysts. METHODS: Of the 18,900 patients treated for thyroid cancer, 18 patients with pathologically confirmed bronchogenic cysts were retrospectively reviewed. Bilateral total thyroidectomy or less than total thyroidectomy with central compartment node dissection, including cystic mass excision was done and cystic mass was confirmed by postoperative pathologic examination. RESULTS: All cervical bronchogenic cysts were asymptomatic. Their mean size was 1.2 cm (range, 0.3 to 3 cm). Of these 18 patients, 15 did not have any abnormal radiological findings, except for lymphadenopathy during preoperative evaluations. Most bronchogenic cysts were detected around the thyroid and paratracheal areas. On preoperative imaging and intraoperatively, most were indistinguishable from metastatic cervical lymph nodes or other cystic lesions. CONCLUSION: Although cervical bronchogenic cysts are rare and benign, they should be distinguished from other cystic cervical masses, especially metastatic cervical lymph nodes associated with thyroid cancer. Possible cervical bronchogenic cysts found during thyroid cancer evaluation or surgery should be surgically excised.


Subject(s)
Branchial Region , Bronchogenic Cyst , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Diseases , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy
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