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1.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(6): 1021-1028, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134271

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To study the arterial segments of ovine kidney, present a proportional volume analysis of each kidney arterial segment, and analyze arterial injuries caused by simulated partial nephrectomy of cranial pole. Materials and Methods Forty-eight ovine kidneys injected with polyester resin into the renal arteries and collecting system were used in this study. Eighteen kidneys were used to study the arterial segments and the proportional volume of each renal segment. Other 30 kidneys were submitted to superior pole resection at a distance of 1.0cm, 0.5cm, or exactly at the cranial hilar edge, just before the resin hardening. These endocasts were used to evaluate the arterial injuries caused by these different resection planes. Results Ovine renal artery divided into two (ventral and dorsal) or three segmental arteries. Dorsal segment presented higher proportional volume than ventral segment. For kidneys with three segments, the third segment was on the caudal region (caudo-ventral or caudo-dorsal segment) and presented the lowest proportional volume. None of the resected kidneys (at 1.0, 0.5 or at the cranial hilar edge) presented injury of arterial branches that irrigate non-resected region. Conclusion The segmental distribution of renal artery, the proportional volume of each segment and arterial injuries after cranial pole resection in ovine kidneys are different from what is observed in human kidneys. Meanwhile, ovine kidneys show a primary segmental division on anterior and posterior, as in humans, but different from swine. These anatomical characteristics should be considered when using ovine as animal models for renal experimental and/or training procedures.


Subject(s)
Animals , Vascular System Injuries , Nephrectomy/adverse effects , Renal Artery , Swine , Sheep , Models, Animal , Kidney/surgery
2.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 26(1): 8-11, jan.-mar. 2019. il
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1016189

ABSTRACT

El Didelphis aurita, conocido como comadreja de orejas negras, es un marsupial con amplia distribución en la América del Sur, frecuente tanto en los ambientes silvestres como antrópicos debido a su gran plasticidad ecológica. Animales de esta especie son comúnmente atendidos en la medicina de animales silvestres y vienen siendo empleados como modelos experimentales alternativos a especies tradicionales. El objetivo de ese trabajo fue relatar la ocurrencia de un caso de vena renal doble en un espécimen adulto, macho, de D. aurita. Para eso, se ha disecado un cadáver fijado y conservado en solución de formaldehído 10%, previamente inyectado con látex de color azul por la porción torácica de la arteria aorta para facilitar la disección. El espécimen poseía dos venas renales derechas, una vena craneal (11,3 mm) y otra caudal (10,0 mm) que drenaban distintamente para una vena cava caudal. La vena renal izquierda y las arterias renales eran únicas. Aunque la duplicidad de la vena renal es reportada en otras especies como perros, gatos y felideos silvestres, este es el primer relato en el género Didelphis. El conocimiento de las variaciones anatómicas vasculares es relevante para la correcta ejecución de procedimientos veterinarios y en la interpretación de hallazgos experimentales en relación con el sistema urogenital.


Didelphis aurita, known as black eared oposum, is a marsupial widely distributed in South America, frequently seen in both wild and anthropogenic environments due to its great ecological plasticity. This species is commonly treated in wildlife veterinary services and has been used as alternative experimental models instead of conventional species. The aim of this report was to describe a case of double renal vein in a male, adult, specimen of D. aurita. In order to make the dissection easier, the cadaver was fixed and preserved in 10 % formaldehyde solution, and previously injected with latex in blue color by the thoracic aorta to facilitate dissection. The specimen had two right renal veins, one cranial (11.3 mm) and other caudal (10.0 mm) that drained distinctly for caudal vena cava. The left renal vein and the renal arteries were single. Although double renal vein has been reported in other species, such as dogs, cats and wild felids, this is the first mention in the genus Didelphis. The knowledge of the vascular anatomical variations is relevant for the correct execution of veterinary procedures and the interpretation of experimental findings in urogenital system research.


Subject(s)
Animals , Opossums , Animals, Wild , Cardiovascular System , Didelphis , Marsupialia
3.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(1): 195-221, Jan. 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-895555

ABSTRACT

O membro torácico é a parte do esqueleto pós-craniano que mais informações oferece sobre a locomoção e hábitos de vida de uma espécie. Objetivou-se realizar uma descrição macroscópica, comparativa, radiográfica e osteométrica do esqueleto do membro torácico de Lycalopex gymnocercus. Para tal foram analisados ossos de 24 espécimes adultos coletados mortos em rodovias. Foram realizadas descrições macroscópicas e comparadas com as de outros canídeos, imagens radiográficas para reconhecimento dos padrões de trabeculação e topografia óssea, mensurações lineares e tridimensionais e avaliações histológicas das clavículas. O esqueleto do membro torácico de L. gymnocercus apresentou adaptações morfofuncionais em todos os segmentos para a locomoção cursorial especializada e alguma capacidade de pronação e supinação para captura de presas de porte menor. Houve uma tendência de os ossos serem maiores nos machos, especialmente na região distal do úmero, presumivelmente para a fixação de músculos antebraquiais mais fortes. A clavícula vestigial foi encontrada em todos os espécimes, teve natureza predominantemente cartilagínea e foi significativamente maior nos machos. A conformação básica do esqueleto do membro torácico foi semelhante à dos canídeos domésticos e silvestres descritos na literatura, ainda que particularidades de L. gymnocercus sejam encontradas.(AU)


The forelimb is the part of the post-cranial skeleton that provides more information about locomotion and life habits of a species. The objective of this study was to perform a detailed macroscopic, comparative, radiographic and osteometric investigation of the thoracic limb of Lycalopex gymnocercus. Twenty-four adult specimens collected dead from roadkill were studied. Analysis included macroscopic and comparative descriptions to other canids, radiographic images for recognition of trabeculation patterns and topographical arrangement of bones, linear and three-dimensional measurements, and histological evaluation of the clavicles. The forelimb skeleton of L. gymnocercus presented morphological and functional adaptations in every segment for a specialized cursorial locomotion and some ability to pronation and supination for capture of small vertebrates. There was a tendency for the bones to be longer in males, especially in the distal end of humerus, presumably to fixation of stronger antebrachial muscles. The vestigial clavicle bone was found in all the specimens, had a predominantly cartilaginous nature and was significantly larger in males. The basic conformation of the forelimb skeleton was similar to that of domestic and wild canids described in the literature, although peculiar characteristics of L. gymnocercus have been found.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone and Bones/anatomy & histology , Canidae/anatomy & histology , Upper Extremity/anatomy & histology , Musculoskeletal System/anatomy & histology , Radiography, Thoracic/veterinary
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(3): 925-930, Sept. 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893075

ABSTRACT

This study described the anatomy of the coronary arteries and their main branches in Puma concolor. The hearts of six individuals of Puma concolor, were analyzed. The A. coronaria sinistra formed the ramus interventricularis paraconalis and the ramus circunflexus. A ramus septal was formed close to the origin of the ramus interventricularis paraconalis and yielded from six to eight ventricular branches. The circumflex branch originated from two to five atrial branches and from three to seven ventricular branches. The right coronary artery formed two to six atrial branches, and four to nine ventricular branches. In half of the individuals, an accessory coronary artery was identified as the first branch of the right coronary artery. In all individuals, the subsinusal interventricular branch originated in the right coronary artery. It could be inferred that coronary circulation in Puma concolor is balanced, as each coronary artery yielded an interventricular branch and there was no significant difference in the total number of branches that originated from each coronary artery. These findings are different from the descriptions of most carnivore species, and may aid a better understanding of the phylogenetic relationships and synapomorphies of carnivore coronary circulation, especially in the Felidae family.


En este estudio se describió la anatomía de las arterias coronarias, y sus principales ramas, en el Puma concolor. Se analizaron los corazones de seis especímenes de Puma concolor. La arteria coronaria izquierda formó la rama interventricular paraconal y la rama circunfleja. Una rama septal se formó cerca del origen de la rama paraconal y otorgó de seis a ocho ramas ventriculares. La rama circunfleja originó de dos a cinco ramas atriales y de tres a siete ramas ventriculares. La arteria coronaria derecha originó de dos a seis ramas atriales y de cuatro a nueve ramas ventriculares. En la mitad de los especímenes, se identificó una arteria coronaria accesoria como la primera rama de la arteria coronaria derecha. En todos los individuos, la rama interventricular subsinusal se originó en la arteria coronaria derecha. Se podría inferir que la circulación coronaria en el Puma concolor es equilibrada, ya que cada arteria coronaria produce una rama interventricular y no hay diferencia significativa en el número total de ramas que se originan de cada arteria coronaria. Estos hallazgos son diferentes de las descripciones de la mayoría de las especies carnívoras y pueden ayudar a una mejor comprensión de las relaciones filogenéticas y de las sinapomorfias de la circulación de los carnívoros, especialmente en la familia Felidae.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Coronary Circulation , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology , Puma/anatomy & histology , Cardiovascular System/anatomy & histology
5.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(9): 912-918, set. 2016. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-829321

ABSTRACT

As artérias mesentéricas das aves são importantes para a irrigação do aparelho digestório e encontram-se associadas ao ganho de peso e conversão alimentar. Objetivou-se descrever as origens, esqueletopias, medidas e principais ramificações das artérias mesentéricas cranial e caudal em avestruzes. Foram utilizados 41 cadáveres de filhotes de avestruzes, 23 machos e 18 fêmeas, obtidos de um criadouro após morte natural. Os cadáveres foram fixados com formaldeído a 10% e tiveram o sistema vascular preenchido com Petrolatex® S-65 colorido. As artérias mesentéricas, cranial e caudal e seus ramos proximais foram dissecados "in situ" e medidas com paquímetro digital. A artéria mesentérica cranial teve comprimento médio de 3,68 ± 1,04 cm e surgiu da aorta descendente ao nível da oitava vértebra torácica na maioria dos casos. Ramificou-se em artérias jejunal e ileocecal. A artéria jejunal ofereceu média de 14,04 ±2,08 ramos ao jejuno e a artéria ileocecal originou um ramo retal e outro que se bifurcou para derivar ramos para íleo, ceco e reto. Em um espécime macho a artéria ileocecal foi ramo da artéria celíaca. A artéria mesentérica caudal originou-se na porção terminal da aorta descendente predominantemente ao nível das 4ª e 6ª vértebras sacro-caudais. Perto da extremidade caudal do rim emitiu os ramos cranial e caudal. O primeiro irrigou o reto e anastomosou-se com ramo retal da artéria mesentérica cranial; o segundo irrigou a porção final do reto, cloaca e bolsa cloacal. Não houve diferença significativa (p<0,05) entre as medidas, esqueletopia e número de ramificações das artérias entre os sexos.(AU)


The mesenteric arteries of birds are important for the irrigation of the digestive tract and are associated with weight gain and food conversion. This study aimed to describe the origins, skeletopy, measures and main branches of cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries in ostriches. Forty-one cadavers of ostrich chicks, 23 males and 18 females, obtained from a farmer after natural death. The cadavers were fixed with 10% formaldehyde solution and their vascular system was filled with colored Petrolatex® S-65. The cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries and its proximal branches were dissected in situ and measured with a digital caliper. The mesenteric artery had an average length of 3.68cm±1.04 and emerged from the descending aorta at the level of the eighth thoracic vertebra in most cases; it branched into jejunal and ileocecal arteries. The jejunal artery sent a mean of 14 (14.04±2.08) branches to the jejunum. The ileocecal artery sent a rectal branch and another branch that irrigated ileum, cecum and rectum. In a male specimen the ileocecal artery was originated from the celiac artery. The caudal mesenteric artery emerged in the terminal portion of the descending aorta predominantly at the level of the 4th and 6th sacrocaudal vertebrae. Near the caudal end of the kidney it issued the cranial and caudal branches. The first irrigated the rectum and anastomosed with the rectal branch of the cranial mesenteric artery; the second irrigated the final part of the rectum, cloaca and cloacal bursa. There was no significant difference (p<0.05) between measurements, skeletopy and number of branches of the arteries between genders.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Intestines/blood supply , Mesenteric Arteries/anatomy & histology , Skull/blood supply , Struthioniformes/anatomy & histology , Tail/blood supply , Cardiovascular System/anatomy & histology
6.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 32(3): 705-712, may/june 2016. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-965512

ABSTRACT

The research of the structure of wild animal anatomy is important and can be used to help with species conservation. The objective of this study was to describe the methodology used to digitally scan bone structure of these animals. Thus, all the steps used to perform the scapula scan of an adult specimen of Cerdocyon thous was thoroughly described as a way to illustrate the process that is being developed for the study of skeletons. A scapula was chosen to be digitalized because it is a plane bone of the forelimb and is fundamental to unite the limb to the animal's trunk. Advanced morphometric analysis of osteometry was depicted by creating three-dimensional physical models of bone structures utilizing the 3D Model Uniscan, a computational engineering tool that enables accurate results of the bone structure in the model. The equipment works by reading the points of the piece through the reflection of the laser in the lenses and sensors. These points are computed and positioned by VXelements software which is responsible for the capture of the targets, which in turn, generates a triangular surface mesh in real time which reproduces the 3D surface of the bone instantaneously. Finally, these sets of acquired data can be converted into various file formats compatible with CAD software, such as Solidworks which allows the dimensions to be extracted at different points of the object. This way of characterization and modeling allows the analysis of the structures' dimensions to be more informative and real. The obtained results of such analyzes have application in the studies of ecomorphology and evolution.


O detalhamento da anatomia de animais silvestres é importante, uma vez que pode ser usado a favor da conservação. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, descrever a metodologia para realizar a digitalização da estrutura óssea desses animais. Assim, foram descritas todas as etapas utilizadas para efetuar a digitalização da escápula de um espécime adulto de Cerdocyon thous como uma forma de exemplificar o processo que está sendo desenvolvido para o estudo de esqueletos. Além disso, escolheu-se digitalizar a escápula, pois se trata de um osso plano do membro torácico, fundamental para unir o membro ao tronco do animal. As análises morfométricas avançadas de osteometria foram realizadas por meio da criação de modelos tridimensionais de estruturas ósseas, através de modelos físicos reais, com o uso do equipamento SCANNER 3D Modelo Uniscan, uma ferramenta de engenharia computacional que possibilita obter resultados precisos da estrutura óssea do modelo. O equipamento funciona por meio da leitura dos pontos da peça pela reflexão do laser nas lentes e sensores. Estes pontos são computados e posicionados pelo software VXelements que é responsável pela captação de alvos que, por sua vez, geram uma malha de superfície triangular em tempo real, o qual reproduz a superfície 3D instantânea do osso. Ao final, estes conjuntos de dados adquiridos podem ser convertidos em diversos formatos de arquivo compatíveis com softwares CAD como, por exemplo, o Solidworks que permite que as dimensões sejam extraídas em diferentes pontos do objeto. Sendo assim, esta forma de caracterização e modelagem permite tornar a análise da dimensão mais elucidativa e real. Os resultados obtidos nessas análises têm aplicação em estudos de ecomorfologia e evolução.


Subject(s)
Bone and Bones , Carnivora , Computer-Aided Design , Animals, Wild/anatomy & histology
7.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 23(1-2): 23-27, jan./jun. 2016. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-994651

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se determinar o local de desembocadura do ducto excretor da glândula salivar parótida nos canídeos silvestres Cerdocyon thous e Lycalopex gymnocercus e, assim, fornecer subsídios para procedimentos em medicina veterinária e estudos de anatomia comparada. Para tal, foram inspecionadas as papilas parotídeas de 28 cadáveres (56 hemiarcadas) recolhidos mortos em rodovias: C. thous (cinco machos e nove fêmeas) e L. gymnocercus (nove machos e cinco fêmeas). A partir da papila parotídea traçou-se uma linha imaginária vertical para determinar sua correspondência topográfica em relação aos dentes pré-molares (P) e molares (M). Dois cadáveres de cada espécie foram dissecados para determinação macroscópica da posição da glândula parótida e respectivo ducto. A glândula localizou-se ventralmente à cartilagem auricular e seu ducto apresentou trajeto sobre a face lateral do m. masseter, abrindo-se no vestíbulo oral. Quando consideradas as hemiarcadas, no C. thous houve predominância da abertura do ducto no nível entre P4 e M1 (53,6% dos casos), seguida pela abertura oposta a M1 (46,4%). Os machos de C. thous apresentaram local de desembocadura do ducto em nível significativamente (p-valor = 0,0006) mais caudal do que as fêmeas. No L. gymnocercus em metade das hemiarcadas a abertura ocorreu entre P4 e M1 e na outra metade opostamente a M1, não havendo diferença significativa entre sexos. Pode-se concluir que em ambas espécies a papila parotídea teve posição mais caudal em relação ao que é relatado para os cães domésticos.


This study aimed to determine point of opening of excretory parotid duct in the wild canids Cerdocyon thous and Lycalopex gymnocercus and compare the findings with those available for other carnivores. We analyzed 28 cadavers (56 hemiarcads) collected dead from highways, which included five males and nine females of C. thous and nine males and five females of L. gymnocercus. Thereafter, the parotid papilla was inspected and an imaginary vertical line was projected to determine its topography in relation to the premolars (P) and molars (M). Two cadavers of each species were macrodissected to determine the position of the salivary parotid gland and its duct. The parotid gland was located ventrally to the ear cartilage and its duct crossed on lateral surface of the masseter muscle, opening in the buccal region of the oral vestibule. When considered hemiarcades, the opening of the duct in C. thous predominated at the level between P4 and M1 (53.6% of cases), followed by opening opposite to the M1 (46.4%). Males of C. thous presented the duct opening in a significantly (p-value = 0.0006) caudally level when compared to females. In L. gymnocercus half of hemiarcades showed the opening at the level between P4 and M1 and the other half opposed to M1, with no significant difference between genders. It could be concluded that these two species have parotid papilla in a caudal position in relation to the reports concerning domestic dogs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Canidae
8.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 22(1): 3-9, jan.-mar.2015. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008779

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se descrever a tipologia do circuito arterial encefálico, a craniometria e a morfometria do encéfalo em gatos de ambos os sexos. As dissecções foram realizadas em 50 cadáveres de gatos adultos, 25 machos e 25 fêmeas, com média do comprimento rostro-sacral de 47,9cm e 46,6cm, respectivamente. Após fixação com solução de formaldeído a 10% e preenchimento do sistema arterial com solução de látex corado procedeu-se a craniometria, craniotomia, remoção e morfometria dos encéfalos e dissecção para a observação da tipologia dos vasos responsáveis pela formação circuito arterial. Na presente pesquisa foi observado que, os machos apresentaram comprimento total do crânio, comprimento do crânio, largura do crânio e largura da face maior que as fêmeas. As fêmeas apresentaram o maior comprimento da face. Machos apresentaram maior índice da face enquanto que as fêmeas apresentaram maior índice do crânio. Não houve diferença nas medidas do cérebro e cerebelo. As artérias da base do encéfalo estiveram na dependência dos sistemas carótico e vértebro-basilar, responsáveis pela formação do circuito arterial do encéfalo. O padrão vascular encefálico dos gatos apresentou tendência do subtipo 2 alfa ao subtipo 2 beta, e encontrou-se entre os estágios médio e final de seu desenvolvimento filogenético.


The aims of this study were to describe the typology of the arterial circuit of brain, craniometric measures and morphometry of the brain in cats of both sexes. The anatomical dissections were performed in 50 cadavers of adult cats, 25 male and 25 female, with a rostrum-sacral length of 47.9 cm and 46.6 cm respectively. After fixed with 10% formaldehyde solution and performing the injections with latex solution stained with pigment the craniometric measures, craniotomy, morphometry of the brain and dissection were made to identify the typology of the arterial circuit. In this study it was observed that males had total length of the skull, skull length, skull width and face width larger than the females. Females showed the greatest length of the face. Males had higher rates of the face while females had higher rates of the skull. There were no differences in measures of brain and cerebellum. The arteries of the base of the brain had been in the dependence of the carotid and vertebral-basilar systems, which are responsible for the brain arterial circuit formation. The cat's brain vascular pattern tended to be from subtype 2 alpha to beta 2 subtype, and considered among the middle and final stages of phylogenetic development.


Subject(s)
Cats , Cephalometry , Skull , Weights and Measures , Brain
9.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 21(4): 173-177, out.-dez.2014. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1021130

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se com este estudo descrever a topografia da intumescência lombar e do cone medular da medula espinhal do graxaim-do-campo (Lycalopex gymnocercus) a fim de estabelecer uma base anatômica para procedimentos de anestesia epidural nesta espécie, bem como fornecer dados para estudos comparativos em neuroanatomia animal. Para tal, foram utilizados cinco espécimes, quatro machos e uma fêmea, recolhidos mortos em rodovias da mesorregião sudoeste do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, e então fixados e conservados em solução de formaldeído. As macrodissecções e exames radiográficos digitais permitiram observar que a intumescência lombar mediu, em média, 31,40 ± 5,09 mm e ocupou o espaço sobre as vértebras L4 e L5 (80%; n =4) e entre L5 e L6 (20%; n = 1), sendo relativamente pequena se comparada a outras espécies carnívoras. O cone medular revelou dimensões alongadas típicas de canídeos de menor porte. Seu comprimento médio foi 68,28 ± 8,36mm e sua esqueletopia demonstrou base sobre a vértebra L5 e ápice sobre a S3 em quatro indivíduos; em um único espécime a base situou-se sobre L6 e o ápice sobre Cd1. O comprimento do cone medular teve forte correlação positiva com o comprimento rostrossacral (r = 0,8324). Os achados sugerem que a introdução da agulha para fins de anestesia epidural no Lycalopex gymnocercus seja mais segura no espaço sacrocaudal.


The aim of this study was to describe the topography of the lumbar intumescence and medullary conus in the spinal cord of the pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus), in order to establish anatomical basis for epidural anesthesia procedures in this species, as well as to give data for neuroanatomical comparative studies in animals. For this purpose, five specimens, four males and one female, collected dead from road kills at the southwest region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were embalmed and conserved in formaldehyde solution. Macrodissections and digital radiographs revealed that lumbar intumescence has an average length of 31.40 ± 5,09 mm, lies over L4 and L5 vertebrae and appears relatively shorter in comparison to other carnivore species. The medullary conus has an elongated dimension which seemed to be typical for smaller canids and an average length of 68.28 ± 8,36 mm. Its skeletopy exhibited a basis over L5 and an apices over S3 vertebrae in four specimens; in one individual the basis was over L6 and the apices over Cd1. The findings suggest that needle puncture for epidural anesthesia in Lycalopex gymnocercus is safer if done at the sacrocaudal space. Keywords: animal anatomy, epidural anesthesia, pampas fox, wild carnivores.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anatomy, Veterinary , Anesthesia, Epidural , Animals, Wild , Carnivora
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