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1.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(2): 305-309, Jan.-Feb. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366034

ABSTRACT

Abstract BACKGROUND: Meningitis is listed as one of the diseases requiring compulsory notification in Brazil. It can affect all age groups and also has no seasonality. Cases can be recorded in all months of the year and in all states of Brazil. Despite its importance, the obligation of immediate notification may have been compromised by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the immediate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on compulsory notifications of meningitis in Brazil and its states during the first wave of the pandemic. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was an ecological study involving all confirmed cases of meningitis in Brazil, in its regions and in its states. METHODS: Data for the months from 2015 to 2020 were obtained from the database of the Notifiable Diseases Information System (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação, SINAN), in the Department of Informatics of the National Health System (Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde, DATASUS). The P-score was used to obtain the percentage change in the numbers of cases reported in 2020. RESULTS: A 45.7% reduction in notifications of meningitis in Brazil was observed. Regarding the regions and the states, with the exception of Roraima, all of them showed a negative P-score, with decreasing curves each month. CONCLUSION: The pandemic caused a negative impact on meningitis notifications in Brazil.

2.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(9): 1221-1225, Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351477

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the indicators of urban mobility and the number of new cases of COVID-19 recorded daily between 2020 and 2021. METHODS: An observational study was carried out involving new cases of COVID-19 registered daily in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil between March 12, 2020 and March 28, 2021 and six indicators of urban mobility. For analysis, the study was divided into two periods: the first was composed of 295 days and represents the year 2020 and the second was composed of 86 days and represents the year 2021. Spearman's non-parametric correlation was used. RESULTS: In 2021, the greatest reductions in relation to the baseline were observed in parks (-29.0) and in retail and recreation areas (-28.7). However, these reductions were smaller than those observed in the previous year, indicating a greater circulation of people in 2021 when compared with mobility in 2020. In contrast, in residential areas, there was a reduction in the percentage change in relation to the previous year (11.2 in 2019 and 7.6 in 2021). In grocery and pharmacy, there was an increase 1.8 times greater than that observed in 2020 (9.1 in 2020 and 17.0 in 2021). It is also noteworthy that the daily average of new cases almost doubled in value (753.4 in 2020 and 1409.1 in 2021). CONCLUSION: More vigorous measures must be taken to adequately control the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , Brazil , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(2): 416-422, ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339143

ABSTRACT

Resumo Hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS) e diabetes mellitus (DM) são dois dos principais fatores de risco para a mortalidade por COVID-19. Descrever a prevalência e o perfil clínico-epidemiológico de óbito por COVID-19 ocorridos em Pernambuco, Brasil, entre 12 de março e 14 de maio de 2020 entre pacientes que possuíam hipertensão arterial sistêmica e/ou diabetes mellitus como doenças prévias. Estudo observacional transversal. Foram analisadas as seguintes variáveis: município de procedência, sexo, faixa etária, tempo entre o início dos sinais/sintomas e o óbito, sinais/sintomas, tipo de comorbidades e hábitos de vida. Variáveis categóricas foram descritas por meio de frequências e variáveis contínuas por meio de medidas de tendência central e de dispersão. Os testes de Mann-Whitney e Kruskal-Wallis foram utilizados. Dos 1.276 registros incluídos no estudo, 410 apresentavam HAS e/ou DM. A prevalência de HAS foi 26,5% (n=338) e de DM foi 19,7% (n=252). Dos registros, 158 (12,4%) eram de pacientes que possuíam somente HAS, 72 (5,6%) somente DM e 180 (14,1%) apresentavam HAS e DM. Dos indivíduos com HAS, 53,3% apresentavam DM e 71,4% dos diabéticos apresentam HAS. A mediana (em dias) do tempo entre o início dos sinais/sintomas e o desfecho óbito foi 8,0 (IIQ 9,0), sem diferença significativa entre os grupos de comorbidades (p=0,633), sexo (p=0,364) e faixa etária (p=0,111). Observou-se maior prevalência de DM e HAS na população masculina (DM — 61,3% eram homens e 38,9% mulheres; HAS — 53,2% eram homens e 46,8% mulheres). Os sinais/sintomas mais frequentes foram dispneia (74,1%; n=304), tosse (72,2%; n=296), febre (68,5%; n=281) e saturação de O2<95% (66,1%; n=271). Dos hipertensos, 73,3% (n=100) apresentavam outras comorbidades/fatores de risco associados, e 54,2% (n=39) dos diabéticos apresentavam outras comorbidades/fatores de risco associados. Destacaramse as cardiopatias (19,5%; n=80), obesidade (8,3%; n=34), doença respiratória prévia (7,3%; n=30) e nefropatia (7,8%; n=32). A prevalência de tabagismo foi 8,8% (n=36) e de etilismo alcançou 3,4% (n=14). O estudo mostrou que a prevalência de HAS foi superior à prevalência de DM nos indivíduos que foram a óbito por COVID-19. Em idosos, a prevalência foi superior à observada em indivíduos não idosos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Hypertension/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(1): 51-60, July. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285244

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamentos As doenças isquêmicas do coração (DIC) são a primeira causa de mortes dentre as doenças cardiovasculares (DCV). Objetivo Descrever o perfil sociodemográfico e analisar tendência da taxa de mortalidade por DIC, segundo sexo e por faixa etária, nos estados da região Nordeste do Brasil, 1996-2016. Métodos Estudo ecológico envolvendo a mortalidade por DIC nos estados do Nordeste. Variáveis analisadas: sexo, idade, escolaridade, estado civil, categoria do CID-10 e estado de residências. Foram calculadas taxas brutas e padronizadas. Os dados de óbitos foram coletados do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade; e os dados populacionais, do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). Nas análises temporais, utilizou-se o modelo de regressão por pontos de inflexão, com cálculo do percentual de variação anual (APC, Annual Percent Change) e do percentual de variação médio do período (AAPC, Average Annual Percent Change). Considerou-se intervalo de confiança de 95% e significância de 5%. Resultados Registrou-se 405.916 óbitos por DIC na região Nordeste durante o período estudado. O perfil de óbitos caracteriza-se por homens (n=229.006; 56,42%), idosos (n=301.379; 74,25%), raça/cor parda (n=197.936; 48,76%), fundamental ou <4 anos na escola (n=232.599; 57,30%) e casados (n=179.599; 44,25%). Houve destaque incomum para o aumento na taxa de incremento anual na faixa etária de adolescentes (AAPC: 5,2%, p<0,01). A taxa de mortalidade regional padronizada cresceu de 30,7/100 mil habitantes, em 1996, para 53,8/100 mil, em 2016 (AAPC:2,8%; p<0,01). Todos os nove estados apresentaram tendência estatisticamente significante de crescimento, com ênfases para o Maranhão (AAPC:7,6%; p<0,01) e o Piauí (AAPC:6,0%; p<0,01). Conclusão O perfil prevalente observado foi de homens, idosos, raça/cor parda, baixa escolaridade e casados. A mortalidade por DIC apresentou tendência de crescimento em todos os estados, ainda que com padrão desigual entre as unidades federadas.


Abstract Background Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is the leading cause of death among cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Objective To describe the sociodemographic profile and analyze the trend in the mortality rate due to IHD, according to sex and by age group, in the states of the Northeast region of Brazil, from 1996 to 2016. Methods Ecological study involving IHD mortality in the northeastern states. Variables analyzed: sex, age, education, marital status, ICD-10 category and state of residence. Crude and standardized rates were calculated. Death data were collected from the Mortality Information System (SIM) and population data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). In temporal analyzes the regression model by inflection points was used, with the calculation of annual percent change (APC) and average annual percent change of the period (AAPC). A 95% confidence interval and a significance level of 5% were considered. Results 405916 deaths due to IHD were registered in the northeast region during the study period. The death profile is characterized by men (n=229006; 56,42%), elderly (n=301379; 74,25%), race/color brown (n=197936; 48,76%), elementary or <4 years at school (n=232599; 57,30%) and married (n=179599; 44,25%). There was an unusual highlight to the increase in the annual growth rate in the age group of adolescents (AAPC: 5,2%, p <0.01). The standardized regional mortality rate grew from 30,7 per 100,000 inhabitants in 1996 to 53.8 per 100,000 in 2016 (AAPC 2.8%; p<0.01). All nine states presented a statistically significant growth trend, with emphasis on Maranhão (AAPC 7,6%; p<0.01) and Piauí (AAPC 6,0%; p<0.01). Conclusion The prevalent observed profile was male, elderly, race/color brown, low education level and married. Mortality due to IHD presented an upward trend in all states, although with an uneven pattern among the federated units.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases , Myocardial Ischemia , Brazil/epidemiology , Mortality , Educational Status , Geography
5.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(3): 388-396, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288236

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The present study intends to systematically review the literature on the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: The research was carried out according to the recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyzes (PRISMA). Studies were selected from PubMed/MEDLINE and LILACS databases between December 2019 and May 17 2020, using the descriptors "ECMO AND COVID-19", "Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation AND COVID-19", "ECLS AND COVID-19", and "Extracorporeal Life Support AND COVID-19". Exclusion criteria were government epidemiological bulletins, comments, literature reviews, and articles without full access to content. Results: Two hundred and thirty-three scientific productions were found, however only 18 did not met the exclusion criteria and could be included in this study, amouting to a total of 911 patients - 624 (68.5%) men, 261 (28.6%) women, and 26 (2.8%) without sex information. The mean age of the patients was 53.7 years. ECMO was necessary in 274 (30.1%) people (200 [73%] submitted to veno-venous ECMO, nine [3.3%] to veno-arterial ECMO, and seven [2.5%] moved between these two types or needed a more specific ECMO according to the disease prognosis). Five studies did not specify the type of ECMO used, amounting 57 (20.8%) patients. Five patients (1.8%) were discharged, 77 (28.1%) died, 125 (45.6%) remained hospitalized until publication time of their respective studies, and 67 patients (24.4%) had no outcome information. Conclusion: It is evident that more research, covering larger populations, must be carried out in order to clearly elucidate the role of ECMO in the treatment of COVID-19.

6.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(2): 159-167, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154559

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs) are the second leading cause of death in Brazil. Objective This study aimed to describe the epidemiological profile and to analyze the spatiotemporal dynamics of mortality from cerebrovascular disease in the elderly in Alagoas from 2000-2016. Methods This is a multilevel ecological study of all deaths from CVD in individuals aged 60 years or older. Data were collected from the Mortality Information System. The variables were submitted to descriptive analysis, trend analysis by Joinpoint Regression method and spatial analysis with Global Moran's and local statistics; 95% confidence interval and significance of 5% were considered in the analysis. Results There were 21,440 deaths in the study period, 50.4% (n=10,797) male, 40.5% (n=8,670) aged ≥ 80 years, 44.5% (n=9,465) of "brown" race, 30.1% (n=6,448) married and 36.5% (n=7,828) with less than four years of schooling. Female and male mortality rates were 460.24/100,000 and 602.23 / 100,000, respectively. An annual decreasing trend of -1.4% (p<0.001) in overall and male mortality was observed from 2007 on. The highest mortality rates were concentrated in the eastern region of Alagoas (Moran's I =0.766288; p=0.01). Twenty-two municipalities were in quadrant Q1 of Moran's scattering diagram and considered priorities. Conclusion Death from CVD in Alagoas occurred equally in men and women in the study period, mostly in individuals of mixed race, married, and with low education attainment. The highest rates were observed in the eastern region of the state . The results highlight the need for public policies aimed at healthy aging in the state. (Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)

7.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(4): 1501-1510, abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285933

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este trabalho objetivou analisar a tendência e a distribuição espacial da mortalidade de motociclistas em acidentes de transporte no estado de Alagoas. Trata-se de um estudo ecológico referente a todos os óbitos decorrentes de acidentes motociclísticos no estado no período 2001-2015. Os dados de mortalidade foram obtidos do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (SIM). As taxas de mortalidade foram calculadas e estratificadas por sexo. Para a análise de tendência, foi empregado o modelo de regressão por pontos de inflexão. Calculou-se a Variação Percentual Anual (VPA). Significância de 5%. Para a análise espacial, aplicou-se modelagem bayesiana empírica local, estatística de Moran e estatística de varredura espacial. Foram registrados 1.458 óbitos de motociclistas no período estudado, sendo 91,3% homens. Três comportamentos temporais foram observados nessa população: crescimento (2001-2005), padrão estacionário (2005-2013) e declínio a partir de 2013. As maiores taxas foram observadas no agreste e sertão. Cinco aglomerados espaciais foram evidenciados no que se refere à mortalidade geral e masculina, todos situados no agreste e sertão alagoanos. A modelagem mostrou redução da mortalidade a partir de 2013 e a análise espacial evidenciou que o problema é mais grave no interior do estado.


Abstract The scope of this work was to analyze the trend and distribution of mortality among motorcyclists in traffic accidents in the State of Alagoas. It involved an ecological study relating to all deaths resulting from motorcycle accidents in the state in the period from 2001 to 2015. Mortality data were obtained from the Mortality Information System (MIS). Mortality rates were calculated and stratified by gender. The joinpoint regression model was used for trend analysis and the Annual Percentage Variation (APV) was calculated with a significance rate of 5%. For the spatial analysis, local empirical Bayesian modeling and Moran statistics and spatial scanning statistics were applied. There were 1,458 deaths of motorcyclists in the period studied, 91.3% of which were men. Three temporal behaviors were observed in this population group: growth (2001-2005), stationary pattern (2005-2013) and decline from 2013 onwards. The highest rates were observed in the 'agreste' and 'sertão' regions of the state of Alagoas. Five spatial clusters were revealed with relation to general and male mortality, all located in the 'agreste' and 'sertão' hinterlands of Alagoas. The modeling showed a reduction of mortality from 2013 onwards and the spatial analysis revealed that the problem is more acute in the interior of the state.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Motorcycles , Accidents, Traffic , Brazil/epidemiology , Bayes Theorem , Spatial Analysis
8.
Cad. saúde colet., (Rio J.) ; 29(1): 133-142, jan.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285886

ABSTRACT

Resumo Introdução A mortalidade infantil ainda representa um desafio para os países em desenvolvimento. Objetivo Analisar a tendência da mortalidade infantil e seus componentes nos estados do Nordeste brasileiro entre 2001 e 2015. Método Estudo ecológico envolvendo quatro indicadores de mortalidade infantil: geral, neonatal precoce, neonatal tardia e pós-neonatal. Foi aplicado o modelo de regressão por pontos de inflexão (joinpoint regression). A tendência foi classificada em crescente, decrescente ou estacionária. Calculou-se o Percentual de Variação Anual (APC, Annual Percent Change), considerando Intervalo de Confiança de 95%. Resultados Foi observada tendência decrescente da mortalidade infantil geral no Nordeste (-3,9%) e em todos os estados, sendo Pernambuco com maior redução (-5,2%). Na mortalidade neonatal precoce, somente o Maranhão apresentou tendência estacionária (-0,2%). Na mortalidade neonatal tardia, Maranhão, Piauí, Paraíba e Sergipe apresentaram padrão estacionário. A mortalidade pós-neonatal foi a que apresentou maior redução, tendo destaque Alagoas (-8,6%) e Pernambuco (-7,6%). No Nordeste, esse componente apresentou variação anual de -6,1%. A partir do final da primeira década, a mortalidade pós-neonatal apresentou padrão estacionário no Nordeste, destacando-se Maranhão, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte e Sergipe. Conclusão Embora tenha sido verificada redução da mortalidade infantil no Nordeste do Brasil, o comportamento estacionário em alguns estados configura motivo de preocupação, tendo em vista que os valores ainda são muito elevados quando comparados aos de locais desenvolvidos.


Abstract Background Infant mortality still represents a challenge for developing countries. Objective To assess the infant mortality trend and its components in the Brazilian Northeast states between 2001 and 2015. Method Ecological study consisting of four indicators of infant mortality were analyzed as following: general, early neonatal, late neonatal and post-neonatal mortalities. A regression analysis was applied to fit the inflection point (joinpoint regression). The trends were classified as increasing, decreasing or stationary. The Annual Percent Change (APC) was calculated considering a 95% confidence interval. Results Decreasing trend of overall infant mortality in the Northeast region (-3.9%) could be measured; the state of Pernambuco showed the greatest reduction (-5.2%). Regarding the early neonatal mortality, only the state of Maranhão showed stationary trends (-0.2%). With respect to the late neonatal mortality, the states of Maranhão, Piauí, Paraíba and Sergipe showed stationary pattern. The post-neonatal mortality presented the greatest reduction, being highlighted the values of this significant reduction in the states of Alagoas (-8.6) and Pernambuco (-7.6). Considering the entire region, this component showed an APC of -6.1%. At the end of the first decade, post-neonatal mortality showed a stationary pattern over the Northeast region, with the highest values in the states of Maranhão, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte and Sergipe. Conclusion Although it has been a reduction in infant mortality in Northeastern Brazil, the stationary pattern in some states produced reasons for concern, considering that rates are still very elevated when compared to developed areas.

9.
Rev. bras. med. fam. comunidade ; 16(43): 2379, 20210126. ilus, graf
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1292037

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A hanseníase é uma doença tropical negligenciada causada por Mycobacterium leprae. O Brasil é um dos principais países endêmicos para a doença, persistindo como problema de saúde pública. Além disso, é a principal doença infecciosa causadora de incapacidades físicas. Objetivos: Analisar a magnitude e os fatores associados à limitação de atividade nos casos novos de hanseníase diagnosticados no centro de referência do nordeste do Brasil. Métodos: Trata-se de estudo transversal envolvendo 50 pessoas com diagnóstico de hanseníase. Foram coletadas variáveis clínicas e sociodemográficas além de aplicação da escala SALSA para análise da limitação funcional. Empregou-se regressão logística com cálculo de odds ratio. Resultados: A presença de limitações funcionais foi registrada em 32% (n=16) dos casos analisados, destacando-se sexo feminino (56,3%), idosos (37,5%), baixa escolaridade (87,6%), forma dimorfa (62,5%), classificação multibacilar (75,0%) e grau 2 de incapacidade física (50,0%). A limitação funcional esteve associada a faixa etária ≥45 anos (OR 3,80; p=0,047), classificação multibacilar (OR 4,28; p=0,021) e escore OMP ≥6 (OR 4,69; p=0,041). Conclusão: Observou-se elevada frequência de pessoas com incapacidade físicas. Os fatores associados à limitação funcional foram idade igual ou superior a 45 anos, classificação multibacilar e escore OMP maior ou igual a seis.


Introduction: Leprosy is a neglected tropical disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Brazil is one of the main endemic countries for the disease, persisting as a public health problem. In addition, it is the main infectious disease that causes physical disabilities. Objectives: To analyze the magnitude and factors associated with activity limitation in new cases of leprosy diagnosed in the reference center in Northeastern Brazil. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving 50 people diagnosed with leprosy. Clinical and sociodemographic variables were collected in addition to the application of the SALSA scale for the analysis of functional limitations. Logistic regression was used with the calculation of odds ratio. Results: The presence of functional limitations was registered in 32% (n=16) of the cases analyzed, especially female (56.3%), elderly (37.5%), low education (87.6%), dimorphic form (62.5%), multibacillary classification (75.0%), and degree 2 of physical disability (50.0%). Functional limitation was associated with an age range ≥45 years (OR 3.80; p=0.047), multibacillary classification (OR 4.28; p=0.021), and OMP score ≥6 (OR 4.69; p=0.041). Conclusion: There was a high frequency of people with physical disabilities. The factors associated with functional limitation were age equal to or greater than 45 years, multibacillary classification and OMP score greater than or equal to six.


Introducción: La lepra es una enfermedad tropical desatendida causada por Mycobacterium leprae. Brasil es uno de los principales países endémicos de la enfermedad, persistiendo como problema de salud pública. Además, es la principal enfermedad infecciosa que causa discapacidades físicas. Objetivo: Analizar la magnitud y los factores asociados a la limitación de la actividad en los nuevos casos de lepra diagnosticados en el centro de referencia del noreste de Brasil. Métodos: Se trata de un estudio transversal en el que participaron 50 personas diagnosticadas con lepra. Se recogieron variables clínicas y sociodemográficas además de la aplicación de la escala SALSA para el análisis de limitaciones funcionales. Se utilizó regresión logística con el cálculo del odds ratio. Resultados: La presencia de limitaciones funcionales se registró en el 32% (n=16) de los casos analizados, especialmente mujeres (56,3%), ancianos (37,5%), baja escolaridad (87,6%), forma dismórfica (62,5%), clasificación multibacilar (75,0%) y grado 2 de discapacidad física (50,0%). La limitación funcional se asoció con un rango de edad ≥45 años (OR 3,80; p=0,047), clasificación multibacilar (OR 4,28; p=0,021) y puntuación OMP ≥6 (OR 4,69; p=0,041). Conclusión: Hubo una alta frecuencia de personas con discapacidad física. Los factores asociados a la limitación funcional fueron edad igual o superior a 45 años, clasificación multibacilar y puntuación OMP mayor o igual a seis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disability Evaluation , Leprosy , Socioeconomic Factors , Risk Factors
10.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(1): 89-99, Jan. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152977

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento As doenças cerebrovasculares (DCBV) constituem a segunda causa de mortes no mundo. Objetivo Analisar a tendência da mortalidade por DCVB no Brasil (1996-2015) e associação com o índice de desenvolvimento humano (IDH) e o índice de vulnerabilidade social (IVS). Métodos Trata-se de estudo ecológico envolvendo as taxas de mortalidade padronizadas por DCBV. Os dados dos óbitos foram obtidos do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade e os dados populacionais, do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Para as análises temporais, foi utilizado o modelo de regressão por pontos de inflexão, sendo calculado o percentual de variação anual (annual percent change [APC]) e médio do período (average annual percent change [AAPC]), com intervalo de confiança de 95% e significância de 5%. As tendências foram classificadas em crescente, decrescente ou estacionária. O modelo de regressão multivariada foi utilizado para testar a associação entre a mortalidade por DCBV, IDH e IVS. Resultados Foram registrados 1.850.811 óbitos por DCBV no período estudado. Observou-se redução da taxa de mortalidade nacional (APC: -2,4; p = 0,001). Vinte unidades federativas apresentaram tendências significativas, sendo 13 de redução, incluindo todos das regiões Centro-Oeste (n = 4), Sudeste (n = 4) e Sul (n = 3). O IDH teve associação positiva e o IVS, associação negativa com a mortalidade (p = 0,046 e p = 0,026, respectivamente). Conclusão O estudo mostrou comportamento epidemiológico desigual da mortalidade entre as regiões, sendo maior nos estados do Sudeste e Sul, porém com tendência significativa de redução, e menor nos estados do Norte e Nordeste, mas com tendência significativa de crescimento. O IDH e o IVS associaram-se com a mortalidade. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(1):89-99)


Abstract Background Cerebrovascular diseases (CBVD) are the second major cause of death in the world. Objective To analyze the mortality trend of CBVD in Brazil (1996 to 2015) and its association with Human Development Index (HDI) and the Social Vulnerability Index (SVI). Methods This is an ecological study. We analyzed the mortality rate standardized by CBVD. Death data were obtained from the Mortality Information System (SIM) and populational data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). The model of regression by inflection points (Joinpoint regression) was used to perform the temporal analysis, calculating the Annual Percent Change (APC) and Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC), with 95% of confidence interval and a significance of 5%. Trends were classified as increasing, decreasing or stationary. A multivariate regression model was used to analyze the association between mortality by CBVD, HDI and SVI. Results During this period, 1,850,811 deaths by CBVD were recorded. We observed a reduction in the national mortality rate (APC -2.4; p = 0.001). Twenty federation units showed a significant trend, of which 13 showed reduction, including all states in the Midwest (n=4), Southeast (n=4) and South (n=3). The HDI was positively associated and the SVI was negatively associated with mortality (p = 0.046 and p = 0.026, respectively). Conclusion An unequal epidemiological course of mortality was observed between the regions, being higher in the Southeast and South states, with a significative tendency of reduction, and lower in the North and Northeast states, but with a significative tendency of increase. HDI and SVI showed an association with mortality. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(1):89-99)


Subject(s)
Humans , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Brazil/epidemiology , Mortality , Abstracting and Indexing , Geography
11.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(1): 140-149, Jan. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287801

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: To review the literature and to report a clinical case with initial suspicion of pure neural leprosy and final diagnosis of amyloid neuropathy. METHODS: The study was conducted in two stages. In stage one, a systematic literature review was carried out, with searches performed in the PubMed, Medline, and Lilacs databases, as well as in the leprosy sectoral library of the Virtual Health Library, using the following descriptors: neuritic leprosy, pure neural leprosy, primary neural leprosy, pure neuritic leprosy, amyloid polyneuropathy, amyloid neuropathies, and amyloid polyneuropathy. The search was carried out on May 28, 2020. Clinical trials, cohort studies, cross-sectional studies, clinical cases, and case studies published in Portuguese, English or Spanish between 2010 and 2020 were included. Stage two reports a case with initial suspicion of pure neural leprosy. Laboratory tests, electroneuromyography, ultrasound, and biopsy of the sural nerve were requested. RESULTS: Twenty-three scientific texts were included. No publications were found that contained both topics together. The challenging diagnosis of pure neural leprosy and the possibility of using auxiliary resources in diagnosis were the most emphasized themes in the studies. In the clinical case, the patient's electroneuromyography showed sensitive and motor polyneuropathy of the lower limbs, which was predominantly sensory and axonal, symmetrical, of moderate intensity, and the mixed type (axonal-demyelinating). Ultrasonography of the sural nerve revealed changes in the contour of the deep fibular nerves; biopsy of the sural nerve showed an accumulation of amorphous eosinophilic material in the nerve path, and Congo red stain showed apple-green birefringence of the deposit under polarized light. The final diagnosis was amyloid neuropathy. CONCLUSIONS: The final clinical diagnosis was amyloid neuropathy. The diagnosis of pure neural leprosy in endemic areas in Brasil is still a challenge for the health system.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leprosy, Tuberculoid/diagnosis , Amyloid Neuropathies , Leprosy , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies
12.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(1): 19-25, Jan. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287796

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological and neurofunctional profile, as well as the prevalence of factors associated with the occurrence of physical disabilities due to leprosy in a reference center in Northeast Brasil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study including 50 leprosy patients diagnosed in Juazeiro-Bahia. Variables analyzed: sex, age, history of leprosy in the family, time to diagnosis, clinical form, operational classification, degree of disability, eyes-hand-foot score, peripheral nerve function, muscle strength and sensitivity. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics (χ² test or Fisher's exact, Poisson regression with robust estimation and prevalence reason were used. Significance of 5%). RESULTS: An equal distribution was found between men and women of economically active age and low education; multibacillary forms in men (64%) and paucibacillary forms in women (60%). 78% of individuals had some degree of disability and 64% had a compromised ulnar nerve. Plantar sensitivity was decreased in 66% of patients. The predictors of disability were: age ≥45 years (PR 1.44; p=0.005), no education (PR 1.21; p=0.013) and OMP score ≥6 (PR 1.29; p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The findings show the importance of monitoring neural functions and developing measures that allow early diagnosis, the opportune method and the prevention of disabilities, especially in the male population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Leprosy/complications , Leprosy/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies
14.
Rev. bras. educ. méd ; 45(2): e077, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251131

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Introdução: A Covid-19 trouxe uma série de desafios para o Sistema Único de Saúde. Na atenção primária à saúde (APS), tais desafios se somam aos já existentes. Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar a vivência de enfrentamento da pandemia de Covid-19 entre médicos do Programa Mais Médicos Brasil, mestrandos em Saúde da Família e atuantes na APS. Método: Trata-se de estudo qualitativo envolvendo oito médicos da APS de Alagoas que cursam o Mestrado Profissional em Saúde da Família (PROFSAÚDE). Foram elaboradas cinco questões, cujas respostas foram analisadas com base na teoria de Análise de Conteúdo. Resultado: Observaram-se três categorias e quatro subcategorias: categoria 1 - "Processo de estudo e de trabalho" (subcategoria 1.1 - "Características do PROFSAÚDE" - e subcategoria 1.2 - "Estratégias pessoais desenvolvidas"), categoria 2 - "Desafios no gerenciamento da vida" (subcategoria 2.1 - "Mudanças no cotidiano" - e subcategoria 2.2 - "Impacto nas emoções") e categoria 3 - "Crescimento pessoal e profissional". Conclusão: Em tempos de pandemia, os profissionais médicos vivenciam situações complexas e dinâmicas em razão de um duplo e acumulativo processo - o trabalho na APS e a condição de mestrando. Apesar de todas as dificuldades enfrentadas, o mestrado possibilitou o aprimoramento das habilidades em lidar com situações críticas.


Abstract: Introduction: COVID-19 has brought numerous challenges for the Health System in Brazil. In Primary Health Care, these challenges add to those that already exist. Objective: To analyze the experience of facing the COVID-19 pandemic among doctors of the Mais Médicos Brasil Program and master's degree students in Family Health and those working in Primary Health Care. Methods: Qualitative study involving eight doctors from Primary Health Care in Alagoas who are also studying the professional master's degree in Family Health (PROFSAÚDE). Five questions were developed, the answers to which were analyzed based on Content Analysis theory. Results: Three categories and four subcategories were observed: Category 1 - Study and work process (Subcategory 1.1- Characteristics of PROFSAÚDE; Subcategory 1.2 - Personal strategies developed); Category 2 - Challenges in Life Management (Subcategory 2.1 - Changes in daily life; Subcategory 2.2 - Impact on emotions) and Category 3 - Personal and Professional Growth. Conclusion: During the pandemic, medical professionals experience complex and dynamic situations due to a dual and cumulative process - working in PHC and studying for their master's degree. Despite all the difficulties faced, the master's degree allowed them to improve skills in dealing with critical situations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Primary Health Care , Education, Medical, Graduate , Physicians, Primary Care , COVID-19/therapy , Surveys and Questionnaires , Family Health Strategy , Health Consortia
15.
Rev. bras. educ. méd ; 45(1): e010, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155893

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Introdução: A acupuntura objetiva o equilíbrio energético por meio de estímulos na pele com a inserção de agulhas em pontos específicos. Ela faz parte do conjunto de conhecimentos teórico práticos da medicina tradicional chinesa. Atualmente, a Organização Mundial da Saúde vem apoiando ações relacionadas ao ensino, à pesquisa e à troca de informações em todo o mundo. Este estudo busca responder à seguinte questão de pesquisa: "Quais são as evidências sobre a inserção da acupuntura no ensino médico no Brasil?". Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivo revisar a literatura no que concerne à inserção da acupuntura nas escolas médias do Brasil. Método: Trata-se de uma revisão sistemática, realizada em fevereiro de 2020, com a busca da combinação das expressões e dos termos "medicinas alternativas e complementares", "acupuntura", "acupuntura médica", "ensino médico" e "Brasil", com as adaptações terminológicas para as línguas inglesa e espanhola, e de acordo com as bases de dados: PubMed/Medline, Medline/BVS, Lilacs, HomeoIndex, Scopus e SciELO. Os manuscritos incluídos foram avaliados na íntegra por dois pesquisadores com a finalidade de identificar núcleos temáticos de discussão, a saber: "Acupuntura no Brasil: desafios e perspectivas"; "Acupuntura na graduação médica: experiências, percepções e desafios"; "Especialização/residência em acupuntura médica"; "Divulgação científica: importância na educação médica". Resultados: Os 16 artigos selecionados foram classificados segundo objetivos, método, resultados e conclusões, e discutidos com base nos núcleos temáticos identificados. Conclusão: Os dados do estudo mostram que a acupuntura vem crescendo no Brasil, com maior divulgação e ensino lato sensu, com resumida participação durante a graduação. Espera-se que as políticas públicas voltadas para o Sistema Único de Saúde possam incentivar maiores investimentos no ensino durante a graduação.


Abstract: Introduction: Acupuncture aims to ensure energetic balance by means of skin stimulation with the insertion of needles at specific points. It is part of the theoretical-practical knowledge set of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The World Health Organization has been supporting acupuncture educational, research, and knowledge exchange actions all over the world. This study seeks to answer the following research question: "What evidence is there of acupuncture being included in Brazilian medical training?" Objective: To present a systematic review to answer the research question. Method: Systematic review conducted in February 2020, involving a search in the databases PubMed/Medline, Medline/BVS, Lilacs, Homeoindex, Scopus e Scielo for combinations of the following terms in English, Portuguese and Spanish: "complementary and alternative medicine teaching", "Acupuncture medicine teaching" and "Brazil". The manuscripts returned by the search were fully evaluated by two researchers to identify relevant discussion themes: acupuncture in Brazil: challenges and perspectives; acupuncture in undergraduate medical training: experiences, perceptions, and challenges; acupuncture medical specialization/residency; scientific publication: importance in Medical Education. Results: The sixteen selected papers were classified according to their objectives, method, results, and conclusions, and discussed based on the identified themes. Conclusion: The study data show that acupuncture is growing in Brazil, with greater publicity and latu sense teaching, with summary participation during undergraduate medical training. It is hoped that public policies focused on the Unified Health System can encourage more investment in teaching for undergraduate training.


Subject(s)
Humans , Schools, Medical , Curriculum , Acupuncture/education , Education, Medical , Brazil
16.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(6): 743-747, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142113

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to analyze the trend of epidemiological and operational indicators of leprosy in Brazil, from 2001 to 2017. This was a time series study involving nine indicators. The inflection point regression model was used. Decreasing trends were observed for the following: general detection (−4.8%), children under 15 (−3.7%), prevalence (−7.0%), and grade 2/million inhabitants (−3.5%). The proportion of individuals with grade 2 disability showed an upward trend (2.0%) from 2001 as well as contacts examined from 2003 (5.0%). The proportions of cure and of individuals with a degree of disability assessed at the time of the diagnosis and the cure showed a stationary behavior. Although advances are noted, there are still challenges to be overcome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Disabled Persons , Leprosy/diagnosis , Leprosy/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence
17.
J. bras. psiquiatr ; 69(4): 239-246, out.-dez. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143157

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever o perfil das vítimas de tentativas de suicídio atendidas pelo Corpo de Bombeiros de um município do semiárido brasileiro. Métodos: Estudo transversal contendo dados do atendimento a vítimas de tentativas de suicídio, realizado pelos bombeiros militares do estado de Alagoas, no período de 1º de janeiro de 2000 a 31 de dezembro de 2017. Foram selecionadas as variáveis: sexo, idade, desfecho, intoxicação, uso de álcool, transtorno mental, estação do ano, dia da semana, horário, natureza da ocorrência e tempo de resposta, de transporte e total. Foram utilizados os testes qui-quadrado, exato de Fisher e Kruskal-Wallis. Resultados: Foram atendidas 144 vítimas de tentativas de suicídio. A frequência de atendimentos entre homens (n = 73; 50,7%) e mulheres (n = 71; 49,3%) foi semelhante. As mulheres apresentaram idade mais jovem (p < 0,001) e utilizaram o método da intoxicação (p < 0,001) duas vezes mais que os homens. A presença de transtorno mental (p = 0,04) foi mais comum entre os homens e o tempo consumido durante o atendimento pré-hospitalar foi maior entre eles, indicando que, possivelmente, as tentativas de suicídio cometidas por homens demandam maiores cuidados durante a assistência realizada pelos bombeiros. Conclusões: O perfil das vítimas de tentativas de suicídio apresentou frequência semelhante entre homens e mulheres, sendo as mulheres mais jovens. Nas mulheres, observou-se predomínio de intoxicações. Em homens, os transtornos mentais foram mais prevalentes. Além disso, fazem-se necessários o reconhecimento precoce dos casos de tentativas de suicídio, as principais formas de atuação e o preenchimento adequado das fichas de atendimento pré-hospitalar.


ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the profile of suicide attempts assisted by the Fire Department of a Brazilian semi-arid municipality. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study, containing data of care provided to victims of suicide attempts, conducted by the military firefighters of the state of Alagoas, from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2017. The following variables were selected: sex, age, outcome, intoxication, alcohol use, mental disorder, season of the year, day of the week, schedule, nature of occurrence, response time, transportation time and total time. The chi-square, Fisher's exact test and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used. Results: Between 2000 and 2017, 144 victims of suicide attempts were cared. The frequency of care between men (n = 73; 50,7%) and women (n = 71; 49,3%) was similar. The women showed younger age (p < 0,001) and used the intoxication method (p < 0,001) twice as often as the men. The presence of mental disorder (p = 0,04) was more common among the men and the time consumed during prehospital care was higher among them, indicating that, possibly, suicide attempts committed by men require greater care for the assistance provided by firefighters. Conclusions: The profile of victims of suicide attempts showed a similar frequency between men and women, with younger women. In women, there was a predominance of intoxications. Besides that, mental disorders were more prevalent. However, it is necessary to early recognition of cases of suicide attempts, the main forms of action and the adequate completion of pre-hospital care forms.

18.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(6): 397-402, nov.-dez. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156157

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: We aimed to describe the clinical and phenotypic manifestations as well as the visual prognosis of a family with CA in Northeastern Brazil. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 31 individuals (56 eyes) from the same family presenting CA phenotypes. The study population resided in the municipality of Água Branca, in the backlands of the state of Alagoas, Northeastern Brazil. The clinical and phenotypic variables were analyzed. For the analysis, descriptive statistics (absolute and relative frequency and measures of central tendency and dispersion) and inferential statistics (Shapiro-Wilk and Student's t tests) were used, with 95% confidence intervals and significance set at 5%. Results: Of the 31 individuals, 18 (58.1%) were male, with a mean age of 27.45 ± 17.49 years, with no difference between sexes. Of the 56 eyes evaluated, 26 and 30 were right and left eyes, respectively; 61.3% (n = 19) individuals had complete bilateral aniridia and 25.8% (n = 8) reported a total loss of light perception in both the eyes. The most prevalent ocular abnormalities were nystagmus (n = 27; 87.09%), cataract (n = 20; 64.5%), strabismus (n = 14; 45.2%), corneal changes such as opacities and/or vascularization (n = 13; 41.93%), and ectopia lentis (n = 6; 19.4%). Further, 13 individuals underwent retinal optical coherence tomography, six man and seven women aged 9-48 (mean, 30.15 ± 15.9) years. All patients presented absence of foveal depression as well as reduced macular thickness and visual acuity. Nine subjects underwent phacoemulsification. Conclusion: The study showed wide phenotypic variation among the studied individuals, with poor visual prognosis. The study highlights the need to establish comprehensive care mechanisms for families with the disease.


Resumo Objetivo: Descrever manifestações clínicas e fenotípicas e o prognóstico visual de uma família com aniridia congênita (AC). Métodos: Trata-se de estudo transversal envolvendo 31 indivíduos (56 olhos), de uma mesma família com fenótipo de AC residindo no município de Água Branca, no sertão do estado de Alagoas, região nordeste do Brasil. Foram analisadas variáveis clínicas e fenotípicas. Para a análise, foi utilizada a estatística descritiva (frequência absoluta e relativa e medidas de tendência central e de dispersão) e inferencial (testes de Shapiro-Wilk e t Student). Considerou-se o intervalo de confiança de 95% e a significância de 5%. Resultados: Dos 31 indivíduos, 18 (58,1%) eram do sexo masculino, com média de idade de 27,45±17,49, sem diferença entre os sexos. Dos 56 olhos avaliados, 26 eram olhos direitos e 30 olhos esquerdos: 61,3% (n=19) apresentavam aniridia bilateral total; 25,8% (n=8) referiam perda total de percepção da luz em ambos os olhos. As anormalidades oculares mais prevalentes foram o nistagmo (n=27; 87,09%), catarata (n=20; 64,5%), estrabismo 14 (45,2%), alterações opacidades ou vascularização corneanas (n=13; 41,93%) e ectopia lentis (n=6; 19,4%). Os 13 indivíduos submetidos à tomografia de coerência óptica (OCT) retiniana apresentavam perda da depressão foveal, redução da espessura macular e redução da acuidade visual. Nove indivíduos foram submetidos a cirurgia de facoemulsificação. Conclusão: O estudo mostrou ampla variação fenotípica entre os indivíduos estudados, com pobre prognóstico visual. O estudo destaca a necessidade de estabelecer mecanismos de cuidado integral para as famílias com a doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Family , Aniridia/diagnosis , PAX6 Transcription Factor , Prognosis , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Study
19.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(10): 1355-1360, Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136154

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: To analyze the mortality trend of young men who were victims of traffic injuries involving motorcycles in all Brazilian capitals from 2001 to 2015. METHODS: A time-series study on all deaths of men aged 20-39 years old due to traffic injuries involving motorcycles in all 27 Brazilian capitals. We used the joinpoint regression model for temporal analysis and calculated the Annual Percent Change (APC) and Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) to verify the mortality trends. RESULTS: A total of 12,058 deaths of young men were recorded in the Brazilian capitals during the period studied. The highest mortality rates were observed in Boa Vista/Roraima (34.0/100,000 population) and Palmas/Tocantins (29.80/100,000). Twelve of the 27 capitals showed an increasing trend in mortality, with the highest percentage increase being observed in Salvador (APC: 29.0%) and São Paulo (APC: 13.1%). None of the capitals showed a decline in the trend of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the mortality of young men from traffic injuries involving motorcycles shows an increasing trend in 12 of the 27 capitals, which represents a public health problem that requires the implementation of more effective public policies.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: Analisar a tendência temporal da mortalidade de homens jovens vítimas de acidente de trânsito envolvendo motocicletas em todas as capitais brasileiras de 2001 a 2015. MÉTODOS: Estudo de séries temporais incluindo as mortes de homens de 20 a 39 anos por lesões no trânsito envolvendo motocicletas nas 27 capitais brasileiras. Para a análise, foi utilizado o modelo de regressão do ponto de inflexão e calculada a Variação Percentual Anual (APC) e a Variação Percentual Anual Média (AAPC). RESULTADOS: Foram registradas 12.058 mortes de homens jovens nas capitais brasileiras durante o período estudado. As maiores taxas de mortalidade foram observadas em Boa Vista/Roraima (34,0/100.000 habitantes) e Palmas/Tocantins (29,80/100.000). Doze capitais apresentaram tendência crescente de mortalidade, sendo o maior aumento percentual em Salvador (APC: 29,0%) e São Paulo (APC: 13,1%). Nenhuma das capitais mostrou declínio nas taxas. CONCLUSÕES: A mortalidade de jovens por lesões no trânsito envolvendo motocicletas tem mostrado uma tendência crescente em 12 capitais, o que representa um problema de saúde pública que requer a implementação de políticas públicas mais eficazes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Androgen Antagonists/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus
20.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(9): 1196-1202, Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136368

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: To describe the temporal trend, clinical profile, and the prevalence of risk factors and associated comorbidities in new cases of tuberculosis in the Northeast (2001-2016). METHODS: A prevalence study involving all tuberculosis cases registered in Northeast Brasil, 2001-2016. Data were obtained from the National System of Notification of Disorders. For statistical analysis, the inflection point regression model and descriptive statistics were used. RESULTS: 331,245 cases of tuberculosis were reported. The overall incidence rate decreased from 44.84/100,000 inhabitants (2001) to 30.92/100,000 inhabitants (2016), with a decreasing trend (AAPC: −2.3; p<0.001). The profile was characterized by men (73.53%), age 20-59 years (73.56%), pulmonary tuberculosis (86.37%), positive smear microscopy (54.78%). The main risk factors and comorbidities were: AIDS (4.64%), HIV (12.10%), Diabetes mellitus (5.46%), alcohol (11.63%), institutionalized, (4.31%) and deprived of liberty (2.30%). The cure rate was 70.66% and the abandonment rate was 9.11%. CONCLUSIONS: Even with a reduced incidence, tuberculosis represents a real public health problem in the Northeast region. The profile was characterized by a male population, in economically-active age, lung smear-positive pulmonary presentation, and the risk factors and comorbidities of Aids, TB/HIV co-infection, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption, institutionalized and deprived of freedom reflect the complexity of the challenges in facing the disease.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: Descrever a tendência temporal, o perfil clínico e a prevalência de fatores de risco e comorbidades associadas em casos novos de tuberculose no Nordeste (2001-2016). MÉTODOS: Estudo de prevalência envolvendo todos os casos de tuberculose registrados no Nordeste do Brasil, no período 2001-2016. Os dados foram obtidos do Sistema de Nacional de Agravos de Notificação. Para a análise estatística, empregaram-se o modelo de regressão por pontos de inflexão e a estatística descritiva. RESULTADOS: Foram notificados 331.245 casos de tuberculose. A taxa de incidência geral reduziu de 44,84/100.000 habitantes (2001) para 30,92/100.000 habitantes (2016), com tendência decrescente (AAPC: −2,3; p<0,001). O perfil foi caracterizado por homens (73,53%), idade 20-59 anos (73,56%), tuberculose pulmonar (86,37%), baciloscopia positiva (54,78%). Os principais fatores de risco e comorbidade foram: Aids (4,64%), HIV (12,10%), Diabetes mellitus (5,46%), álcool (11,63%), institucionalizados (4,31%) e população privada de liberdade (2,30%). A taxa de cura foi 70,66% e a de abandono, 9,11%. CONCLUSÕES: Mesmo com redução da incidência, a tuberculose representa um real problema de saúde pública na região Nordeste. O perfil caracterizado pela população masculina, idade economicamente ativa, forma pulmonar com baciloscopia positiva e os fatores e comorbidade Aids, coinfecção TB/HIV, diabetes mellitus, consumo de álcool, institucionalizados e privados de liberdade refletem a complexidade dos desafios para o enfrentamento à doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Brazil , Comorbidity , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Middle Aged
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