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1.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214844

ABSTRACT

The basic tool for hip joint study is radiography. Pelvic radiograph helps in deciding whether the hip joint is normal and also includes opposite hip joint for comparison. It also helps in identification of signs of degenerative and inflammatory changes, avascular necrosis, soft tissue calcification and bone tumours. The investigation of choice to assess the bone marrow, acetabular labrum, articular cartilage, peri-articular muscles, tendons, ligaments and bursae is MRI. Pain at hip joint has different aetiologies divided into intra-articular, peri-articular and extra-articular conditions in adults and children. This study is being done to evaluate painful hip joint with radiography and MRI.METHODS50 cases of painful hip joint referred to the Radiology Department, Bharati Hospital were evaluated with radiography and MRI over a period of 24 months.RESULTSOut of 50 patients 20 were diagnosed as AVN, 10 cases showed changes of osteoarthritis, 7 cases had joint effusion, 5 cases were of fracture of neck of femur, 4 cases had sacroiliitis and 4 cases revealed metastatic disease of hip joint. Of the 50 cases that presented with pain in hip joint, 26 cases showed radiographic findings. The rest 24 radiographs were normal.CONCLUSIONSRadiography is easily available and economical for imaging the hip joint. Radiography is the initial investigation for evaluation of joint pain. MRI is non-invasive. There is no radiation exposure. It is a valuable tool in diagnosing hip pain when radiography shows subtle or no findings. MR imaging is the most sensitive imaging modality for bone pain.

2.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-212707

ABSTRACT

Background: Venous abnormalities of lower limb are a fairly common cause of morbidity. Although clinical diagnosis is the cornerstone of the diagnosis of lower limb venous disease, Colour Doppler ultrasound has become the investigation of choice to confirm the diagnosis. This study evaluated the role of Colour Doppler ultrasound in various venous pathologies of the lower limb and the sonographic findings were correlated with surgical and clinical findings.Methods: 100 patients of all age groups of either sex presenting with clinically suspected entities affecting venous system of the lower limb were selected for this study.Results: Our study showed a definite male preponderance (65%) with an incidence of 41% in the age group of 21-40 years. Isolated varicose veins had an incidence of 58% followed by isolated deep vein thrombosis (DVT) (29%), varicose veins with thrombophlebitis (5%), DVT with thrombophlebitis (5%), DVT with varicose veins (2%) and hematoma (1%). The findings correlated with surgery and gave a sensitivity of 100%.Conclusions: Colour Doppler ultrasound is unique due to its feasibility, accessibility and cost effectiveness. Its dynamism is also exploited by various maneuvers done by the patients, radiologist and the machine parameters to bring about changes in blood flow to reach the exact diagnosis.

3.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 54: e03659, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1143698

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar as características epidemiológicas e tendência dos casos novos de hanseníase em menores de 15 anos no estado da Bahia, no Brasil, entre 2007 e 2017. Método Análise quantitativa, transversal e descritiva dos casos registrados no Sistema de Informação de Agravo de Notificação. As variáveis sociodemográficas foram analisadas estatisticamente por meio do teste G, e a classificação das tendências, por meio da regressão linear, juntamente com a tendência ou mudança percentual. Resultados Constituído por 2.298 casos novos, o estudo apresentou taxa de detecção decrescente, proporção de contatos examinados crescente e proporção de cura decrescente. Os casos Paucibacilares se destacaram, com 63,27%, predominando entre pessoas do sexo feminino, com ensino fundamental incompleto, raça/cor parda e com zona de residência urbana. Quanto a forma clínica, incapacidade física e modo de detecção, 26,68% foram tuberculoide, 73,72%, grau 0 e 36,42%, encaminhamento, respectivamente. Conclusão A tendência aumentada na proporção de contatos examinados e a diminuição na proporção de cura revelaram uma necessidade de melhoramento por parte do sistema de saúde no acompanhamento dos pacientes durante o tratamento contra a hanseníase.


RESUMEN Objetivo Evaluar las características y tendencias epidemiológicas de los nuevos casos de lepra en los menores de 15 años en el Estado de Bahia (Brasil) entre 2007 y 2017. Método Estudio cuantitativo, transversal y descriptivo de los casos registrados en el Sistema de Información de Agravamientos de Notificación (Sistema de Informação de Agravo de Notificação). Las variables sociodemográficas se analizaron estadísticamente mediante la prueba G y las tendencias se clasificaron mediante una regresión lineal, junto con la tendencia o el cambio porcentual. Resultados Con 2.298 nuevos casos, el estudio mostró una disminución de la tasa de detección, un aumento de la proporción de contactos examinados y una disminución de la proporción de curaciones. Se destacaron los casos paucibacilares, con un 63,27%, predominando en el sexo femenino, con educación primaria incompleta, raza/color pardo y con zona de residencia urbana. En cuanto a la forma clínica, la discapacidad física y el modo de detección, el 26,68% eran tuberculoides, el 73,72%, grado 0 y el 36,42%, de referencia, respectivamente. Conclusión El aumento de la tendencia en el porcentaje de contactos examinados y la disminución de la proporción de curaciones reveló la necesidad de que el sistema de salud mejore el seguimiento de los pacientes durante el tratamiento contra la lepra.


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the epidemiological characteristics and tendency of new leprosy cases in people younger than 15 years in the state of Bahia, Brazil, between 2007 and 2017. Method Quantitative, cross-sectional, descriptive study of cases registered in the Notifiable Diseases Information System. The sociodemographic variables were statistically analyzed through the G-test and trend classification was analyzed through linear regression, along with the tendency or percentage change. Results The study comprised 2,298 new cases and presented decreasing rate of detection, growing proportion of investigated contacts, and decreasing proportion of healing. Paucibacillary cases are emphasized, with a 63.27% proportion and predominance among females with incomplete primary education and brown race/color living in urban zones. Regarding clinical forms, physical disabilities, and modes of detection, 26.68% were tuberculoid, 73.72% were grade zero, and 36.42% were referral, respectively. Conclusion The increased tendency in the proportion of investigated contacts and the decrease in the proportion of healing revealed a need for the health system to improve patient follow-up during treatment against leprosy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Leprosy/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Disease Notification , Leprosy/classification
4.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e024, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001615

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of chitosan or nanodiamond incorporation on the color stability and surface roughness of a bisacrylic resin subjected to artificial aging. Four bisacrylic resins were evaluated, namely, control, chitosan-modified material, nanodiamond-modified material, and chitosan-nanodiamond-modified material. Twenty-four specimens were prepared for each material. The surface roughness was determined using a profilometer with a cut-off of 0.25 mm. The baseline color was measured according to the CIE L*a*b* system using a reflectance spectrophotometer. After these tests, the specimens were individually immersed in cola soft drink, red wine, or distilled water (n = 8) for 28 days. After the aging, the surface roughness and final color were re-evaluated. The color stability was determined using the difference between the coordinates obtained before and after the aging process. The data on roughness and color change were evaluated using ANOVA and the Tukey test (α = 0.05). The results show that the incorporation of nanodiamonds and chitosan into a bisacrylic resin provided a better color stability to the materials (p = 0.007). The storage in red wine resulted in a higher variation in the surface roughness values, especially when only the nanodiamond was incorporated to the material (p < 0.05). The incorporation of both chitosan and nanodiamonds are promising in providing an improvement in the properties of the bisacrylic resin when they are simultaneously incorporated in the product.


Subject(s)
Acrylic Resins/chemistry , Color , Composite Resins/chemistry , Chitosan/chemistry , Nanodiamonds/chemistry , Reference Values , Spectrophotometry , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Wine , Materials Testing , Carbonated Beverages , Water/chemistry , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric
5.
Rev. bras. eng. biomed ; 29(1): 97-109, jan.-mar. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-670977

ABSTRACT

Neste artigo é descrito um sistema com potencial para identificar a privação do sono, que, com base no levantamento bibliográfico realizado, ainda não foi abordado na literatura. Este sistema integra simultaneamente duas metodologias, o teste de vigilância psicomotora (Psychomotor vigilance test, PVT) e a pupilometria, que se destacam no estudo da privação do sono. Entretanto, para atender às peculiaridades destas metodologias, permitindo que coexistam em um único sistema, algumas adaptações foram realizadas em seus procedimentos. Esta integração poderá garantir não só a complementariedade de indicadores que torna a identificação da privação do sono mais robusta, assim como estabelecer a equalização do estado psicofisiológico do sujeito, o que não é possível em testes realizados com defasagem temporal. Neste estudo, a validação das métricas do sistema foi realizada com sujeitos em estado de alerta. Os resultados mostraram-se coerentes com a literatura. Entretanto, algumas métricas apresentam um deslocamento em seus valores médios, que segundo as avaliações realizadas são determinadas pelas exigências técnicas do sistema. Os resultados obtidos nesta avaliação, somados à crescente demanda de ferramentas de aplicação em larga escala e que possam ser utilizadas além dos limites laboratoriais para estudos em distúrbios e privação do sono, apontam este sistema como uma potencial ferramenta. Entretanto, será necessário o estabelecimento de um experimento rigoroso, para avaliar se os indicadores oriundos das métricas do sistema permitem a identificação robusta da privação do sono.


This paper describes a system with potential for identification of sleep deprivation, which, based on our bibliographical survey, has not yet been described in the literature. The system combines two methodologies, i. e., Psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) and pupillometry, which are among the leading methods for the study of sleep deprivation. However, due to peculiarities of both methodologies, some adaptations were made in their procedures to allow them to co-exist in the same system. Such integration may not only ensure the complementarity of indexes, making the identification of sleep deprivation more solid, but also set up the equalization of the subject's psycho-physiological state, which is not possible in tests performed with a time lag. In this study, the performance of measurements provided by the system was assessed in subjects on alert. However, some measurements present a displacement with respect to their average values, which, according to assessment, are determined by system's technical requirements. The results obtained in this assessment, combined with the increasing demand for large scale application tools, able to be used outside the limits of the laboratory environment for studies in sleep deprivation disorders, point to this system as a potential tool. However, the undertaking of a rigorous experiment is necessary to assess whether the indexes obtained by the system allow the robust identification of sleep deprivation.

6.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-152926

ABSTRACT

Improvement of bio-availability of poorly water soluble drugs presents one of the furthermost challenge in drug formulations. One of the most admired and commercially viable formulation approach for this challenge is solid self micro emulsifying drug delivery system (S-SMEDDS). There are many techniques to convert liquid SMEDDS to solid, but an adsorption technique is simple and economic. Hence aim of present study was to develop S-SMEDDS of poorly water soluble drug Telmisartan (TEL) using Aerosil 200 as solid carrier. Liquid SMEDDS was prepared using Acrysol EL 135, Tween 80 and PEG 400 as oil, surfactant and co-surfactant and was converted to S-SMEDDS by adsorbing it on Aerosil 200. Prepared S-SMEDDS was evaluated for flow properties, drug content, reconstitution properties, DSC, SEM, in-vitro drug release and ex-vivo intestinal permeability study. Results showed that prepared S-SMEDDS have good flow property with 99.45 ± 0.02% drug content. Dilution study by visual observation showed that there was spontaneous micro emulsification and no sign of phase separation. Droplet size was found to be 0.34 μm with polydispersity index of 0.25. DSC thermogram showed that crystallization of TEL was inhibited. SEM photograph showed smooth surface of S-SMEDDS with less aggregation. Drug releases from S- SMEDDS were found to be significantly higher as compared with that of plain TEL. Ex-vivo intestinal permeability study revealed that diffusion of drug was significantly higher from S-SMEDDS than that of suspension of plain TEL. Study concluded that S-SMEDDS can effectively formulated by adsorption technique with enhanced dissolution rate and concomitantly bioavailability.

7.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-167902

ABSTRACT

Improvement of bio-availability of poorly water soluble drugs presents one of the furthermost challenge in drug formulations. One of the most admired and commercially viable formulation approach for this challenge is solid self micro emulsifying drug delivery system (S-SMEDDS). There are many techniques to convert liquid SMEDDS to solid, but an adsorption technique is simple and economic. Hence aim of present study was to develop S-SMEDDS of poorly water soluble drug Telmisartan (TEL) using Aerosil 200 as solid carrier. Liquid SMEDDS was prepared using Acrysol EL 135, Tween 80 and PEG 400 as oil, surfactant and co-surfactant and was converted to S-SMEDDS by adsorbing it on Aerosil 200. Prepared S-SMEDDS was evaluated for flow properties, drug content, reconstitution properties, DSC, SEM, in-vitro drug release and ex-vivo intestinal permeability study. Results showed that prepared S-SMEDDS have good flow property with 99.45 ± 0.02% drug content. Dilution study by visual observation showed that there was spontaneous micro emulsification and no sign of phase separation. Droplet size was found to be 0.34 μm with polydispersity index of 0.25. DSC thermogram showed that crystallization of TEL was inhibited. SEM photograph showed smooth surface of S-SMEDDS with less aggregation. Drug releases from S- SMEDDS were found to be significantly higher as compared with that of plain TEL. Ex-vivo intestinal permeability study revealed that diffusion of drug was significantly higher from S-SMEDDS than that of suspension of plain TEL. Study concluded that S-SMEDDS can effectively formulated by adsorption technique with enhanced dissolution rate and concomitant-ly bioavailability.

8.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 66(supl.5): 9-15, set.-out. 2003. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-360362

ABSTRACT

Patient that make use of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, drugs which are frequently administered for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erithromatosus or malaria, may suffer alterations in color vision and in contrast sensitivity. The present work evaluates the visual functions of these patients in a joint study of the University of São Paulo (USP), in São Paulo, and of the Federal University of Pará (UFPA), in belém. Thirty two chloroquine user patients without alterations in the eye fundus exam were evaluated in São Paulo (n=10; aged 38 to 71 years; mean=55,8 years) and in Belém (n=22; aged 20 to 67; mean=40 years). The described accumulated chloroquine dose was 45 to 430g (mean=213g; as=152g) for the São Paulo group, and 36 to 540g (mean=174g; sd=183g) for the Belém group. Tests were performed monocularly corrected eye refractive state. Color discrimination was evaluated using the Cambridge Colour Test (CCT): the color discrimination threshold was measured first in the protan, deutan and tritan axes and , in succession, three MacAdamÆs ellipses were determined. The patientÆs color vision was also evaluated with color arrangement tests: the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue (FM100), the Farnsworth-Munsell D15, and the Lanthony Desaturated (D15d) tests. We also measured the contrast sensitivity for black-and-white sine wave grating of twenty two patients. The results were compared with control without ophthalmologic or neuro-ophthalmologic pathologies. Twenty four patients presented acquired dyschromatopsia. There were cases of selective loss (11 patients) and of diffuse loss (13 patients). Although losses were present in the FM100 there was no correlation between the FM100 error score and the ellipse area measured by the CCT. Moreover, three patients that scored normal in the FM100, failed to reach normal threshold in the CCT. The Lanthony test was less sensitive than the other two tests, since it failed to indicate loss in about half the patients, and the D15 was the least sensitive test, having failed to indicate loss in 9 out of 10 patients. Contrast sensitivity was within normal values for patients submitted to this test. The extent of losses in color discrimination was positively correlated with the accumulated dose. The CCT is recommended for follow up since it provides quantitative data that can be directly interpreted in CIE (Commission Internationalle dÆÉclairage) color space.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Chloroquine , Color Perception , Contrast Sensitivity , Color Perception Tests/methods
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