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1.
J Environ Biol ; 2009 July; 30(4): 551-556
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-146236

ABSTRACT

Faunal diversity is an indicator of soil amelioration. Estimating the population size or density of an animal species in an area is fundamental to understand its status and demography, and to plan for its management and conservation. Considering this, faunal diversity in reclamed sodic land was monitored during rainy season 2000-01 at different locations of district viz., Aligarh, Etah, Fatehpur, Mainpuri and Raebareli in Uttar Pradesh. The Shannon-Weiner species diversity index (H) of different fauna complex of each location was compared with zero years (1995-1996) indexes (before reclamation). Insects diversity index, in reclaimed sodic soil, varied from 3.8178(Fatehpur: Bariyampur) to 4.623 (Fatehpur: Katoghan), which was 3.028 in zero year at Katoghan in Fatehpur. ‘H’ index of other-arthropods ranged widely from 0.9743 (Etah: Bawali) to 2.0674 (Mainpuri: Pundari). The species diversity index of molluscs registered as high as 1.8637 at Ladhauwa site in Aligarh, which exhibited identical with Saripur site of Raebareli. ‘H’index of mammal resulted with the highest (2.19) at Pundari in district Mainpuri.The avifauna and amphibian’s indices were recovered maximal at Saripur site of Raebareli and Bariyampur site of Fatehpur, respectively. Our result revealed that various fauna enriched with soil reclamation, which is good indicator of restoration of land, primarily due to soil- arthropods and earthworms and its eventual improvement along with succeeding rice-wheat cropping system widespread over there. It clearly shows that soil fauna strongly affects the composition of natural vegetation and we suggest that this knowledge might improve the restoration and conservation of biodiversity.

2.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-86445

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The present case-control study was undertaken with the objective to study the nutritional risk factors associated with esophageal cancer. METHODOLOGY: One hundred and fifty diagnosed esophageal cancer patients and an equal number of healthy individuals constituted the patient and control groups, respectively. Dietary consumption pattern during the preceding 20 years prior to the diagnosis of esophageal cancer was assessed utilising the standard food frequency questionnaire method. Information on alcohol consumption, smoking habits, chewing of betel leaf with tobacco was also collected. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis revealed that the risk of esophageal cancer was 7.81 times (p < 0.01) higher with daily consumption of alcohol. The risk increased to 3.16 times (p < 0.01) with the daily habit of chewing of betel leaf with tobacco. Nearly a two fold risk was observed when the consumption of "other vegetables" was less than four times per week. A 1.95 times (p < 0.01) increase in risk was observed with the daily habit of bidi smoking. CONCLUSION: Cancers in general are multifactorial in origin, and several environmental interactions are possible. It is not easy to quantify the contribution of diet to cancer risk. However, the results of the present study suggested that nutritional factors do play a role.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Areca/adverse effects , Esophageal Neoplasms/etiology , Female , Feeding Behavior , Humans , India , Male , Middle Aged , Plants, Medicinal , Risk Factors , Smoking/adverse effects , Vegetables
12.
Indian Pediatr ; 1994 Nov; 31(11): 1393-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-15535

ABSTRACT

In this study 500 full term breast fed and 500 full term top fed babies were divided into 2 groups of weight > 2.5 kg and < or = 2.5 kg each, and were followed up for the mortality pattern. Eight hundred of these completed the full follow up period of 6 months. Neonatal mortality in term babies in the present study was 40 per thousand and mortality during 1-6 months period was 55 per thousand. Early neonatal mortality in breast fed > 2.5 kg was 0.55% against 7.8% in < or = 2.5 kg breast fed babies. The corresponding figures in artificially fed was 1.17% and 9.37% respectively. Late neonatal mortality in breast fed > 2.5 kg was 0 and in < or = 2.5 kg was 2.14%. These values in artificially fed were 0 and 3.12%, respectively. Mortality in 1-6 months period in breastfed > 2.5 kg was 0.64% and in < or = 2.5 kg was 15.5%; and in artificially fed 1.66% and 23% respectively. Thus LBW babies whether breast fed or artificially fed had higher mortality and artificially fed had overall higher mortality in comparison to breast fed. It is concluded that attention should be directed towards promotion of breast feeding and on prevention of low birth weight for decreasing mortality in early infancy.


Subject(s)
Bottle Feeding/statistics & numerical data , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , Cause of Death , Follow-Up Studies , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant , Infant Mortality , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Infant, Newborn
13.
Indian Pediatr ; 1994 Sep; 31(9): 1079-82
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-14658

ABSTRACT

The present study comprised 100 mothers of newborn babies with regard to their belief and practices about lactation. A vast majority (98.2%) of the mothers were breast feeding, 87.9% mothers used prelacteal feeds of one sort or the other. Only 0.5% breast fed their babies within 6 hours and nearly 50% started after 48 hours. Colostrum was discarded by 82.9% of mother and nearly 73% wanted to continue breast feeding beyond 1 year. The age of weaning preferred was after 1 year by 91%. Only 24.7% mothers had undergone antenatal check ups. Hence, much needs to be done with regards to proper antenatal care and advice to discourage wrong and harmful feeding practices.


Subject(s)
Attitude , Breast Feeding/psychology , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , India , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Prospective Studies , Time Factors , Weaning
14.
Indian Pediatr ; 1993 Dec; 30(12): 1433-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-6395

ABSTRACT

Awareness regarding different aspects of prevention and treatment of diarrheal diseases among parents in rural and urban areas of Patna district were studied. Survey was done in 245 households from 30 villages of Bihta block and about 275 households from 30 different mohallas of Patna town. All aspects were poorly known to the rural community, particularly the illiterates and a large segment of literates of Bihta block. Rural people were significantly less aware than their urban counterparts regarding value of prolonged breast feeding, spoon feeding rather than bottle feeding, using hand pump and tap water for drinking and using latrine for nightsoil disposal in preventing diarrhea. Utility of measles immunization in prevention of diarrhea was unknown to the community. Generally parents thought antidiarrheal drugs a must for treatment. Knowledge regarding ORS and its use in diarrhea and vomiting was very poor and significant difference (p < 0.001) in awareness was observed between educated and illiterates. Majority parents did not know the correct method of preparation and uses of ORS and SSS. Due to high literacy rate and health consciousness, the educated and majority of literate parents of Patna town were better aware, more factual and had rational view regarding causes, method of prevention, fundamentals of use of ORS and home management of diarrhea in children, although certain aspects are yet to be cleared to them.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)


Subject(s)
Attitude to Health , Child , Child Welfare , Child, Preschool , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Fluid Therapy , Health Education , Health Promotion , Health Surveys , Humans , India , Infant , Infant, Newborn , National Health Programs , Rural Population , Urban Population
15.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1992 May; 30(5): 399-401
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-62877

ABSTRACT

Effect of styrene (100 or 200 mg/kg body wt/day) for 60 days was observed on testicular enzymes of postnatally maturing rats. A significant decrease in epididymal spermatozoa count was observed only at 200 mg/kg body weight dose. Activities of testicular sorbitol dehydrogenase and acid phosphatase decreased while activities of lactate dehydrogenase, beta-glucuronidase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase significantly increased only in animals exposed to styrene at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight. The results suggest that exposure to high dose of styrene during developmental period alters the activities of enzymes associated with specific cell type of testis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Male , Rats , Rats, Wistar/growth & development , Sperm Count/drug effects , Styrene , Styrenes/administration & dosage , Testis/drug effects
16.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1991 Nov; 29(11): 1044-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-62632

ABSTRACT

In utero exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP; 1000 mg/kg body weight) significantly decreased activities of testicular sorbitol dehydrogenase and acid phosphatase and increased gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, lactate dehydrogenase and beta-glucuronidase activities at early ages. A decrease in the sperm count of the epididymal spermatozoa was also observed in the sexually matured animals of DEHP exposed group. The data suggest that in utero exposure to DEHP may affect the normal development of testes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diethylhexyl Phthalate/toxicity , Female , Male , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Rats , Rats, Inbred Strains , Testis/drug effects
17.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1991 Oct; 29(10): 943-5
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-55853

ABSTRACT

Mancozeb, a commonly used fungicide, has been shown to induce tumours in mouse skin and maneb, unit constituent of mancozeb, is reported to induce tumours in rats. The mechanism by which mancozeb induced tumorigenicity is not known. Since the levels of inositol phospholipids and phosphatidic acid have roles in the regulation of cell proliferation, the effects of mancozeb on the levels of these lipids were studied in rats. Daily oral administration of commercial grade mancozeb at a concentration of 50 mg/kg body wt for 30 days (5 days a week) caused no significant change in the levels of inositol phospholipids and phosphatidic acid (PA) in both cerebrum and liver, while at high concentration (250 mg/kg body wt) under the same treatment schedule mancozeb increased the levels of these lipids. In cerebrum, the levels of phosphatidylinositol (PI) and PA were increased by 36 and 43% respectively without affecting the levels of polyphosphoinositides, whereas in liver the levels of not only PI (50%) and PA (49%) but also those of polyphosphoinositides were increased. These results show that mancozeb influences the levels of PA and inositol phospholipids, involved in phospholipase C-pathway of signalling.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain/anatomy & histology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Fungicides, Industrial/pharmacology , Liver/anatomy & histology , Maneb/pharmacology , Organ Size , Phosphatidic Acids/biosynthesis , Pregnancy , Rats , Zineb/pharmacology
18.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1990 Jan; 28(1): 67-70
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-58684

ABSTRACT

Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) was administered to adult male rats by gavage at the doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight/day for 15 days. A significant decrease in epididymal spermatozoa counts was observed at 500 and 1000 mg/kg doses of DBP. The activity of sorbitol dehydrogenase was found to be significantly decreased while that of lactate dehydrogenase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, beta-glucuronidase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, significantly increased in the animals exposed to 500 and 1000 mg/kg of DBP. Decrease in the activity of acid phosphatase was also observed at all dose levels. Histopathological studies revealed marked degeneration of seminiferous tubules, further confirming testicular toxicity of DBP. The results suggest that testicular atrophy caused by DBP is associated with an alteration in the activities of enzymes related with specific events of spermatogenesis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Atrophy , Dibutyl Phthalate/toxicity , Male , Phthalic Acids/toxicity , Rats , Rats, Inbred Strains , Spermatogenesis/drug effects , Testis/drug effects
19.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1989 Oct; 27(10): 885-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-57051

ABSTRACT

Oral administration of DEHP, 1000 mg/kg body weight, to rats daily from 6 to 15 day of gestation resulted in retardation of fetal growth and increase in fetal liver weight which contained significant quantities of DEHP. The activities of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, cytochrome c oxidase and adenosine triphosphatase were decreased in fetal liver. The data indicate that exposure of mothers to DEHP during pregnancy could adversely affect the fetal livers by interfering with bioenergetics of the cell.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Animals , Diethylhexyl Phthalate/toxicity , Female , Fetus/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Maternal-Fetal Exchange , Phthalic Acids/toxicity , Pregnancy , Rats
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