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2.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(6): 1198-1206, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340028

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of a previous standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) on the outcomes of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS). Materials and Methods: Outcomes of RIRS performed from January 2017 to January 2020 in adult patients with residual stone fragments ≤20mm after a standard PCNL (Post-PCNL) and symptomatic adult patients with kidney stones ≤20mm (Control) were prospectively studied. Stone-free rate (SFR) was evaluated on a postoperative day 90 non-contrast computed tomography. Surgical complications based on Clavien-Dindo classification during the 90 days of follow-up were recorded. Results: Outcomes of 55 patients and 57 renal units of the post-PCNL group were compared to 92 patients and 115 renal units of the control group. SFR was lower in post-PCNL group than in control (28/57, 49.1% vs. 86/115, 74.8%, p <0.001). Overall complications were more frequent in post-PCNL group (p=0.004). Infundibula strictures were identified and incised with laser in 15/57 (26.3%) renal units of the post-PCNL group. Thirteen renal units had infundibulum stricture at the site of previous percutaneous tract (13/15; 86.7%, p=0.004) and one renal unit had three infundibula strictures. Postoperative complications were not affected by the treatment of infundibula strictures (p=0.198). Conclusions: Previous standard PCNL significantly impairs the outcomes of RIRS. Infundibula strictures can be found in 26.3% of the patients with residual stone fragments after standard PCNL for large burden kidney stones. The main site of infundibulum stricture after standard PCNL is the infundibulum of the entry calyx.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Nephrostomy, Percutaneous/adverse effects , Kidney Calculi/surgery , Nephrolithotomy, Percutaneous/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Kidney/surgery , Kidney/diagnostic imaging
3.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(6): 1136-1147, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340023

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: to evaluate the effect of low-calorie diet on 24-hour urinary metabolic parameters of obese adults with idiopathic calcium oxalate kidney stones. Materials and Methods: Adult idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers, with body mass index (BMI) ≥30kg/m2 and a known lithogenic metabolic abnormality, were submitted to low-calorie diet for twelve weeks. After enrolment, anthropometric measures, serum exams, 24-hour urinary metabolic parameters and body impedance were collected one month prior to dietary intervention and at the end of twelve weeks. Correlations between weight loss, waist circumference loss, fat loss and variation in 24-hour urinary lithogenic parameters and calcium oxalate urinary supersaturation (CaOx SS) as per Tiselius equation were analysed. Results: From January 2017 to January 2018, 39 patients were enrolled to participate in this study. Median (range) prescribed diet was 1300 (1100-2100) Kcal/day. Mean age was 51.7±11.0 (29-68) years old and 69.2% were female. 30.8% of the participants shifted from obesity to BMI <30kg/m2 and none to BMI <25kg/m2. A significant correlation was found between baseline 24-hour urinary oxalate and weight (p=0.018) and BMI (p=0.026). No correlation was found between variation of weight, waist circumference, fat mass and 24-h urinary stone risk factors or CaOx SS. Conclusions: Short-term modest weight loss induced by twelve weeks of low-calorie diet is not associated with a decrease of 24-hour urinary lithogenic parameters in idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers. Calcium oxalate urinary stone formation is probably multifactorial and driven by other factors than weight.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Kidney Calculi/etiology , Urinary Calculi , Calcium Oxalate , Calcium , Caloric Restriction , Obesity/complications
4.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(6): 1274-1276, Nov.-Dec. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340015

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Surgical training models prepare the resident for a more ethical surgical practice as well as providing a less steep learning curve. In urology, there are well-known models of pyeloplasty simulation, urethro-vesical anastomosis and nephrectomy, which have helped in the training of urology residents (1-3). Learning laparoscopic prostatectomy is a difficult surgery and requires advanced surgical skill from the surgeon (4), requires operate without a direct view of the surgical field in a two-dimensional space and with longer instruments (5). Laparoscopic prostatectomy step by step makes the surgeon's learning curve less difficult, lead to less intraoperative complications, such as blood loss, while also enabling shorter operative time and less positive surgical margins (6). The objective of surgical models is to simulate surgical procedures in a reliable way thus preparing the surgeon for his daily practice, surgical simulations in animal models have been described to compensate for inadequate clinical exposure (7). The canine model of prostate cancer has many similarities with humans. Despite trying to develop a model that is as credible as possible, there are ethical issues in several countries, such as Brazil, that do not allow the use of live dogs for scientific experimentation and there is a difficulty in not standardizing the animals used (8, 9). The swine surgical training model is widely known, accepted and used as a valuable tool in the teaching of new surgeons (10). The porcine video laparoscopic prostatectomy model allows the urologist in training to exercise the skills required in a real surgical situation, practicing them in a single session (10). We will present an experimental model in pigs for training urology residents in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy with current techniques (11-13). The limitations found are that the prostate has no limits as well defined as in humans, the urethra is long and coiled, the fat surrounding the pelvic organs is scarce and there is no postoperative follow-up for evaluating functionality after the procedure, as well as the effectiveness of the surgery with surgical margins. However, it is similar in surgical model presented, it is reproducible and can provide a realistic simulation environment to the beginner surgeon. Material and Methods: In this paper, according to the institutional protocol approved by the institutional ethics and research committee FMUSP n° 964/2017 and protocol was in accordance with current international regulations for the use of animals in Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) guide. Ten male pigs weighing 20 to 22kg were used. The animals were anesthetized with a combination of Telazol (5mg/kg), Xylazine (1.5mg/kg), Cetamine (22mg/kg) and Atropine (0.04mg/kg) for orotracheal intubation followed by Isoflurane (2%). Animals were euthanized at the end of the procedure with a lethal dose of KCl (2mEq/kg). The trocar insertion points were marked using the epigastric vessels and umbilical region as reference points. Initially, urethral catheterization was performed using a hydrophilic Nitinol guidewire, followed by a perineal incision to dissect the tortuous urethra of the porcine model. A malleable urethral catheter 8Fr was inserted into their bladder. The animal was placed in the Trendelenburg position inserted and 12mm trocars were inserted in its umbilical region, utilizing 10mm in the surgeon's dominant hand, 5mm in his non-dominant hand of the surgeon, and 5mm in the first assistant's trocar. The surgeon replicates the steps performed in a laparoscopic radical prostatectomy in humans, including the bladder catheterization, dissection of the anterior bladder plane, the vesicular and prostatic dissection, the suture of the dorsal venous plexus, a prostatectomy, an urethral vesical anast omosis, as well as the waterproof test, even including the performing of surgical steps using current concepts of anterior urethral suspension as the reconstruction of the posterior plane of the rhabdosphincter. Results: All steps of surgery could be reproduced in all ten porcine cases. No significant bleeding was observed and the surgical time was gradually reduced fifty percent from case one to last cases. Conclusions: The porcine model allowed the surgeon to replicate all the steps usually performed in a laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. The junior surgeons are better prepared to such difficult surgery. However, further studies will be necessary to prove the impact of the animal model presented in urological clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Laparoscopy , Internship and Residency , Prostatectomy , Swine , Clinical Competence , Video-Assisted Surgery
5.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(5): 989-996, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286811

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: The big data provided by Google Trends may reveal patterns in health information-seeking behavior on population from Brazil and United States (US). Our objective was to explore and compare patterns of stone disease online information-seeking behaviors in both nations. Materials and Methods: To compare Relative Search Volume (RSV) among different urologic key words we chose "US" and "Brazil" as country and "01/01/2009 - 31/12/2018" as time-range. The final selection included 12 key words in each language. We defined "ureteroscopy" as a reference and compared RSV against it for each term. RSV was adjusted by the reference and normalized in a scale from 0-100. Trend presence was evaluated by Mann Kendall Test and magnitude by Sen's Slope (SS) Estimator. Results: We found an upward trend (p <0.01) in most of the researched terms in both countries. Higher temporal trends were seen for "Kidney Stone" (SS=0.36), "Kidney Pain" (SS=0.39) and "Tamsulosin" (SS=0.21) in the US. Technical treatment terms had little search volumes and no increasing trend. "Kidney Stent" and "Double J" had a significant increase in search trend over time and had a relevant search volume overall in 2018. In Brazil, "Calculo Renal", "Colica Renal", "Dor no Rim" and "Pedra no Rim" had a significant increase in RSV (p <0.001). More common and popular terms as "Kidney Stent" and "Tamsulosin" were highly correlated with "Kidney Pain" and "Kidney Stone" in both countries. Conclusions: In the last decade, there was a significant increase in online search for medical information related to stone-disease. Population from both countries tend to look more for generic terms related to symptoms, the disease, medical management and kidney stent, than for technical treatment vocabulary.


Subject(s)
Humans , Kidney Calculi , Search Engine , United States/epidemiology , Ureteroscopy , Information Seeking Behavior , Language
7.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(3): 680-681, May-June 2021.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154513

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: To demonstrate the entire surgeon's point of view of a prone split-leg (PSL) endoscopic guided percutaneous nephrolithotomy (ePCNL) recorded with a GoPro® camera for standardization of the essential technical steps towards a successful procedure (1). Materials and methods: A 40y.o female patient presented with right flank pain for three years. She had previously been submitted to shock wave lithotripsy without success. Non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) revealed a 2cm stone in the renal pelvis with 1400HU and stone-to-skin distance of 11cm (Guy's Stone Score 1). PCNL approach was chosen for providing higher chances of stone-free after a single procedure. Informed consent was obtained. The PSL ePCNL was uneventful with a single access in a mid-pole. The surgeon had a Full HD GoPro Hero 4® camera mounted on his head, controlled by the surgical staff with a remote control. All essential surgical steps were recorded. Results: Operative time was 90 minutes. Hemoglobin drop was 0.7g/dL. The post-operative NCCT scan was stone-free. The patient was discharged 24h after surgery. Kidney stent was left with a string and removed after 5days. The camera worked properly and didn't cause any kind of discomfort to the surgeon. The quality of the recorded movie was excellent. Conclusion: By recording the surgeon's perspective of an endoscopic urological procedure, we were able to provide a comprehensive understanding of the surgical technique by assembling the endoscopic, fluoroscopic, and operative field views. The GoPro® camera proved to be an interesting tool to document surgical procedures without compromising outcomes and has great potential for educational purposes.

8.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(2): 251-262, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154446

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT COVID-19 pandemic is a rapidly spreading virus that is changing the World and the way doctors are practicing medicine. The huge number of patients searching for medical care and needing intensive care beds led the health care system to a burnout status especially in places where the care system was already overloaded. In this setting, and also due to the absence of a specific treatment for the disease, health authorities had to opt for recommending or imposing social distancing to relieve the health system and reduce deaths. All other medical specialties nondirectly related to the treatment of COVID-19 had to interrupt or strongly reduce their activities in order to give room to seriously ill patients, since no one knows so far the real extent of the virus damage on human body and the consequences of doing non deferrable procedures in this pandemic era. Despite not been a urological disease, the urologist needs to be updated on how to deal with these patients and how to take care of himself and of the medical team he works with. The aim of this article is to review briefly some practical aspects of COVID-19 and its implications in the urological practice in our country.


Subject(s)
Humans , Urologic Diseases/therapy , Urology/trends , Pandemics , COVID-19
11.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 48: e20212965, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340675

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT A main challenge in the clinical management of prostate cancer is to identify which tumor is aggressive and needs invasive treatment. Thus, being able to predict which cancer will progress to biochemical recurrence is a great strategy to stratify prostate cancer patients. With that in mind, we created a mathematical formula that takes into account the patients clinical and pathological data resulting in a quantitative variable, called PSA density of the lesion, which has the potential to predict biochemical recurrence. To test if our variable is able to predict biochemical recurrence, we use a cohort of 219 prostate cancer patients, associating our new variable and classic parameters of prostate cancer with biochemical recurrence. Total PSA, lesion weight, volume and classic PSA density were positively associated with biochemical recurrence (p<0.05). ISUP score was also associated with biochemical recurrence in both biopsy and surgical specimen (p<0.001). The increase of PSA density of the lesion was significantly associated with the biochemical recurrence (p=0.03). Variables derived from the formula, PSA 15% and PSA 152, were also positive associated with the biochemical recurrence (p=0.01 and p=0.002 respectively). Logistic regression analysis shows that classic PSA density, PSA density of the lesion and total PSA, together, can explain up to 13% of cases of biochemical recurrence. PSA density of the lesion alone would have the ability to explain up to 7% of cases of biochemical recurrence. In conclusion, this new mathematical approach could be a useful tool to predict disease recurrence in prostate cancer.


RESUMO Um dos principais desafios no manejo clínico do câncer de próstata é identificar qual tumor é agressivo e precisa de tratamento invasivo. Assim, ser capaz de prever qual irá progredir para recorrência bioquímica é uma ótima estratégia para estratificar pacientes com câncer de próstata. Pensando nisso, criamos uma fórmula matemática que leva em consideração os dados clínicos e patológicos resultando em uma variável quantitativa, denominada densidade de PSA da lesão, que tem potencial para predizer recidiva bioquímica. Para testar se nossa variável é capaz de predizer recorrência bioquímica, usamos uma coorte de 219 pacientes com câncer de próstata, associando nossas variáveis e parâmetros clássicos como a recorrência bioquímica. PSA total, peso da lesão, volume e densidade de PSA clássico foram associados com recorrência bioquímica (p<0,05). O escore ISUP também foi associado à recorrência bioquímica na biópsia e na amostra cirúrgica (p<0,001). O aumento da densidade do PSA da lesão foi significativamente associado à recidiva bioquímica (p=0,03). As variáveis ??derivadas da fórmula, PSA 15% e PSA 152, também foram associadas positivamente à recorrência bioquímica (p=0,01 e p=0,002 respectivamente). A análise de regressão logística mostra que a densidade do PSA clássico, do PSA da lesão e PSA total, juntos, podem explicar até 13% dos casos de recorrência. A densidade de PSA da lesão por si só poderia explicar até 7% dos casos de recorrência. Em conclusão, esta nova abordagem matemática pode ser uma ferramenta útil para prever a recorrência da doença no câncer de próstata.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatectomy , Biopsy , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/diagnosis
12.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(12): 1696-1701, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143677

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY INTRODUCTION: Patients with bilateral kidney stones and burdened by large stones are challenging cases for endourologists. Simultaneous bilateral percutaneous nephrolithotomy (sbPCNL) is an option; however, it may be accompanied by important morbidity. An alternative is a staged PCNL, operating one side each time. Herein, we compare the impact of sbPCNL and staged PCNL on complication rates and renal function. METHODS: Patients who underwent sbPCNL or staged bilateral PCNL with a frame time of 6 months were searched in our prospectively collected kidney stone database. Groups were compared for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities (classification by the American Society of Anesthesiology - ASA), stone size, Guy's score, stone-free status, renal function, blood loss, blood transfusion rate, complication rate, and length of hospital stay. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients and 52 kidney units were enrolled. The mean operative time was 134.7 min. Only 11.3% of cases had complications, all of them minor (Clavien ≤ 2). Overall, the stone-free rate was 61.50%. Comparing the groups, there was a significantly longer operative time in the sbPCNL group (172.5 vs. 126.3 min; p=0.016), as well as a higher transfusion rate (12.5% vs. 5.6%; p=0.036). There was no statistically significant difference in creatinine levels between the groups. Regarding the stone-free rate, there was a significantly higher proportion of patients in the staged PCNL group (64.9% vs. 43.8%; p=0.012). CONCLUSION: sbPCNL is a safe procedure; however, when compared to staged procedures it has a higher transfusion and lower stone-free rate.


RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO: Paciente com cálculos renais bilaterais e de grande volume são casos desafiadores para os endourologistas. A nefrolitotripsia percutânea bilateral simultânea (NLPbs) é um opção, entretanto esse procedimento pode ser acompanhado de morbidade importante. Uma alternativa é a NLP estagiada, operando um lado de cada vez. Aqui, nós comparamos o impacto da NLPbs e da NLP estagiada nas taxas de complicações e função renal. MÉTODOS: Pacientes que foram submetidos a NLPsb ou NLP stagiada com intervalo de até 6 meses foram pesquisados em nossa base de dados de cálculos renais prospectivamente coletada. Os grupos foram comparados em idade, gênero, índice de massa corpórea (IMC), comorbidades (classificação da Sociedade Americana de Anestesiologia - ASA), tamanho do cálculo, Classificação de Guys, taxa de pacientes livres de cálculos, função renal, perda sanguínea, taxa de transfusão, taxa de complicações e tempo de internação hospitalar. RESULTADOS: Vinte e seis paciente e 52 unidades renais foram incluídas. O tempo operatório médio foi de 134,7 min. Apenas 11.3% dos casos tiveram complicações, sendo todas menores (Clavien ≤ 2). No geral, a taxa de pacientes livres de cálculos foi de 61,5%. Comparando os grupos houve um tempo operatório significativamente maior no grupo NLPbs(172,5 vs. 126,3 min; p=0,016), assim como uma maior taxa de transfusão (12,5% vs. 5,6%; p=0.036). Não houve diferença significante nos níveis de creatinina entre os grupos. Em relação a taxa de doentes livre de cálculos houve uma proporção significativamente maior de pacientes livres de cálculos na NLP estagiada (64,9% vs. 43,8%; p=0,012). CONCLUSÃO: A NLPsb é um procedimento seguro, entretando quando comparada ao procedimento estagiado apresenta uma maior taxa de transfusão e uma menor taxa de pacientes livres de cálculos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nephrostomy, Percutaneous/adverse effects , Kidney Calculi/surgery , Nephrolithotomy, Percutaneous/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Operative Time , Length of Stay
14.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(1): 15-25, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056363

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease characterized by epithelioid noncaseating granulomas associated with clinical and radiologic findings. The cause of this disease is still uncertain. Sarcoidosis affects mostly lungs and lymph nodes and is not usually considered a urological disease, therefore, this etiology may be overlooked in several urological disorders, such as hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria and nephrolithiasis. It affects all races and genders. This review aims to describe the urological manifestations of sarcoidosis and to elucidate how the disease may affect the management of numerous urological conditions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sarcoidosis/pathology , Kidney Diseases/pathology , Sarcoidosis/diagnosis , Sarcoidosis/therapy , Biopsy , Chronic Disease , Hypercalciuria/diagnosis , Hypercalciuria/pathology , Hypercalcemia/diagnosis , Hypercalcemia/pathology , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Kidney Diseases/therapy
15.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 47: e20202605, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1136559

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: despite being infrequent, urinary incontinence has a huge impact on the quality of life of patients undergoing radical prostatectomy, even with the robotic-assisted technique. Objective: to assess the evolution of urinary symptoms from preoperative to 12 months after robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy. Methods: data was collected from 998 patients who underwent robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy. Demographic data, preoperative and postoperative information on patients were documented. The ICIQ and IPSS questionnaires were also applied preoperatively and after 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after the operation. Results: Out of 998 patients, 257 correctly completed all questionnaires. The mean age of the patients was 60 ± 0.74 years. We found that the total IPSS increased initially and at 6 months after the operation, it was already lower than the initial preoperative value (7.76 at 6 months vs. 9.90 preoperative, p <0.001), being that questions regarding voiding symptoms were the first to improve followed by the questions regarding post micturition and storage symptoms. As for the ICIQ variables, there was an increase with radical prostatectomy and none of them returned to the preoperative level (p<0.001). Conclusions: robotic assisted radical prostatectomy causes, at first, a worsening of urinary symptoms in the lower tract with subsequent recovery. Recovery begins with voiding symptoms, followed by post micturition and storage symptoms. The symptoms assessed by the IPSS evolve to better parameters even than those of the preoperative period, while the symptoms of incontinence assessed by the ICIQ do not reach the preoperative levels in the studied interval.


RESUMO Introdução: apesar de infrequente, a incontinência urinária gera imenso impacto na qualidade de vida dos pacientes submetidos a prostatectomia radical, mesmo com a técnica robótica-assistida. Objetivo: avaliar a evolução dos sintomas urinários desde o pré-operatório até 12 meses após a prostatectomia radical robótica-assistida. Métodos: foram coletados os dados de 998 pacientes submetidos à prostatectomia radical robótica-assistida. Foram documentados dados demográficos, informações pré-operatórias e pós-operatórias dos pacientes. Também foram aplicados os questionários ICIQ e IPSS no pré-operatório e após 1, 3, 6 e 12 meses de pós-operatório. Resultados: de 998 pacientes, 257 preencheram corretamente todos os questionários. A idade média dos pacientes foi de 60±0,74 anos. Verificou-se que o IPSS total subia inicialmente e aos 6 meses após a operação, este já se tornava inferior ao valor inicial pré-operatório (7,76 aos 6 meses vs. 9,90 pré-operatório, p<0.001), sendo que as questões referentes a sintomas de esvaziamento foram as primeiras a melhorar e posteriormente as questões referentes a sintomas pós-miccionais e de armazenamento. Quanto às variáveis do ICIQ, houve elevação com a prostatectomia radical e nenhuma delas retornou ao patamar pré-operatório (p<0,001). Conclusões: a prostatectomia radical robótica assistida causa num primeiro momento uma piora nos sintomas urinários do trato inferior com uma recuperação subsequente. A recuperação se inicia pelos sintomas de esvaziamento, seguido dos sintomas pós-miccionais e de armazenamento. Os sintomas avaliados pelo IPSS acabam evoluindo a parâmetros melhores inclusive que os do pré-operatório, enquanto os sintomas de perda urinária avaliados pelo ICIQ não atingem os níveis pré-operatórios no intervalo estudado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatectomy/adverse effects , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Quality of Life , Urinary Incontinence/etiology , Urination Disorders/etiology , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/complications , Robotic Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Prostatectomy/methods , Urination , Treatment Outcome , Middle Aged
16.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(5): 948-955, Sept.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040069

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives Measurements of stone features may vary according to the non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) technique. Using magnified bone window is the most accurate method to measure urinary stones. Possible differences between stone measurements in different NCCT windows have not been evaluated in stones located in the kidney. The aim of this study is to compare measurements of kidney stone features between NCCT bone and soft tissue windows in patients submitted to retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS). Materials and Methods Preoperative and 90th postoperative day NCCT were performed in 92 consecutive symptomatic adult patients (115 renal units) with kidney stones between 5 mm to 20 mm (< 15 mm in the lower calyx) treated by RIRS. NCCT were evaluated in the magnified bone window and soft tissue window in three axes in a different time by a single radiologist blinded for the measurements of the NCCT other method. Results Stone largest size (7.92±3.81 vs. 9.13±4.08; mm), volume (435.5±472.7 vs. 683.1±665.0; mm3) and density (989.4±330.2 vs. 893.0±324.6; HU) differed between bone and soft-tissue windows, respectively (p<0.0001) 5.2% of the renal units (6/115) were reclassified from residual fragments > 2 mm on soft tissue window to 0-2 mm on bone window. Conclusion Kidney stone measurements vary according to NCCT window. Measurements in soft tissue window NCCT of stone diameter and volume are larger and stone density is lesser than in bone window. These differences may have impact on clinical decisions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Kidney Calculi/pathology , Kidney Calculi/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Postoperative Period , Reference Values , Time Factors , Kidney Calculi/surgery , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Preoperative Period
17.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(4): 658-670, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019879

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose to critically review all literature concerning the cost-effectiveness of flexible ureteroscopy comparing single-use with reusable scopes. Materials and Methods A systematic online literature review was performed in PubMed, Embase and Google Scholar databases. All factors potentially affecting surgical costs or clinical outcomes were considered. Prospective assessments, case control and case series studies were included. Results 741 studies were found. Of those, 18 were duplicated and 77 were not related to urology procedures. Of the remaining 646 studies, 59 were considered of relevance and selected for further analysis. Stone free and complication rates were similar between single-use and reusable scopes. Operative time was in average 20% shorter with digital scopes, single-use or not. Reusable digital scopes seem to last longer than optic ones, though scope longevity is very variable worldwide. New scopes usually last four times more than refurbished ones and single-use ureterorenoscopes have good resilience throughout long cases. Longer scope longevity is achieved with Cidex and if a dedicated nurse takes care of the sterilization process. The main surgical factors that negatively impact device longevity are lower pole pathologies, large stone burden and non-use of a ureteral access sheath. We have built a comprehensive financial cost-effective decision model to flexible ureteroscope acquisition. Conclusions The cost-effectiveness of a flexible ureteroscopy program is dependent of several aspects. We have developed a equation to allow a literature-based and adaptable decision model to every interested stakeholder. Disposable devices are already a reality and will progressively become the standard as manufacturing price falls.


Subject(s)
Humans , Equipment Reuse/economics , Ureteroscopy/economics , Ureteroscopes/economics , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Equipment Reuse/statistics & numerical data , Ureteroscopy/instrumentation , Ureteroscopy/statistics & numerical data , Ureteroscopes/standards , Ureteroscopes/statistics & numerical data , Equipment Design , Operative Time
18.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(3): 605-614, May-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012315

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To cross-culturally adapt and check for the reliability and validity of the neurogenic bladder symptom score questionnaire to Brazilian Portuguese, in patients with spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis. Materials and Methods: The questionnaire was culturally adapted according to international guidelines. The Brazilian version was applied in patients diagnosed with neurogenic bladder due to spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis, twice in a range of 7 to 14 days. Psychometric properties were tested such as content validity, construct validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability. Results: Sixty-eight patients participated in the study. Good internal consistency of the Portuguese version was observed, with Cronbach α of 0.81. The test-retest reliability was also high, with an Intraclass Correlation Coefficient of 0.86 [0.76 - 0.92] (p<0.0001). In the construct validity, the Pearson Correlation revealed a moderate correlation between the Portuguese version of the NBSS and the Qualiveen-SF questionnaire (r = 0.66 [0.40-0.82]; p <0.0001). Conclusions: The process of cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the NBSS questionnaire for the Brazilian Portuguese in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction was concluded.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic/diagnosis , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Symptom Assessment/standards , Psychometrics , Quality of Life , Reference Standards , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Symptom Assessment/methods , Language , Middle Aged
19.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(3): 514-522, May-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012319

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate risk factors for complications in patients undergoing adrenalectomy. Materials and Methods: A retrospective search of our institutional database was performed of patients who underwent adrenalectomy, between 2014 and 2018. Clinical parameters and adrenal disorder characteristics were assessed and correlated to intra and post-operative course. Complications were analyzed within 30-days after surgery. A logistic regression was performed in order to identify independent predictors of morbidity in patients after adrenalectomy. Results: The files of 154 patients were reviewed. Median age and Body Mass Index (BMI) were 52-years and 27.8kg/m2, respectively. Mean tumor size was 4.9±4cm. Median surgery duration and estimated blood loss were 140min and 50mL, respectively. There were six conversions to open surgery. Minor and major post-operative complications occurred in 17.5% and 8.4% of the patients. Intra-operative complications occurred in 26.6% of the patients. Four patients died. Mean hospitalization duration was 4-days (Interquartile Range: 3-8). Patients age (p=0.004), comorbidities (p=0.003) and pathological diagnosis (p=0.003) were independent predictors of post-operative complications. Tumor size (p<0.001) and BMI (p=0.009) were independent predictors of intra-operative complications. Pathological diagnosis (p<0.001) and Charlson score (p=0.013) were independent predictors of death. Conclusion: Diligent care is needed with older patients, with multiple comorbidities and harboring unfavorable adrenal disorders (adrenocortical carcinoma and pheocromocytoma), who have greater risk of post-operative complications. Patients with elevated BMI and larger tumors have higher risk of intra, but not of post-operative complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Adrenal Gland Diseases/surgery , Adrenalectomy/adverse effects , Intraoperative Complications/etiology , Time Factors , Logistic Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms/surgery , Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms/complications , Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms/pathology , Adrenal Gland Diseases/complications , Adrenal Gland Diseases/pathology , Adrenocortical Carcinoma/complications , Adrenocortical Carcinoma/pathology , Adrenocortical Carcinoma/blood , Statistics, Nonparametric , Tumor Burden , Middle Aged
20.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(1): 100-107, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989963

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: Nephrectomy due to stone disease may be a challenging procedure owing to the presence of significant inflammation and infection, involving high complication rate. The objective of our study was to identify predictors for complications of nephrectomy for urolithiasis. Patients and Methods: A retrospective review of 149 consecutive patients > 18y submitted to simple nephrectomy for urolithiasis from January 2006 to July 2012 was performed. Clinical data, computed tomography findings and pathology report were analyzed. Postoperative complications were categorized based on Clavien - Dindo classification. Logistic multivariate regression models assessed the predictors for surgical complications of nephrectomy for urolithiasis. Results: Eighty-three (55.7%) patients were submitted to laparoscopic nephrectomy and 66 (44.2%) to open procedure. Conversion to open surgery was necessary in 19.2% (16 / 83). On univariable analysis, higher preoperative chronic kidney stage (p = 0.02), Charlson comorbidity index ≥ 2 (p = 0.04), higher ASA score (p = 0.001), urgency due to sepsis (p = 0.01), kidney size ≥ 12 cm (p = 0.006), renal and perirenal abscess (p = 0.004 and 0.002 respectively) and visceral adhesion (p = 0.04) were associated with Clavien - Dindo score > 1. On multivariate analysis, higher ASA score (p = 0.01), urgency due to sepsis (p = 0.03), kidney size ≥ 12 cm (p = 0.04) and preoperative abscess (p = 0.04) remained significantly associated with complications. End - stage renal disease with dialysis was needed post - operatively in 3.4% (5 / 144) of patients. Conclusions: We identified that higher ASA score, urgency due to sepsis, kidney size ≥ 12 cm and preoperative abscess were associated with Clavien - Dindo score > 1.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Laparoscopy/adverse effects , Urolithiasis/surgery , Nephrectomy/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications , Retrospective Studies , Laparoscopy/methods , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Middle Aged
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