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1.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(6): 1274-1276, Nov.-Dec. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340015

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Surgical training models prepare the resident for a more ethical surgical practice as well as providing a less steep learning curve. In urology, there are well-known models of pyeloplasty simulation, urethro-vesical anastomosis and nephrectomy, which have helped in the training of urology residents (1-3). Learning laparoscopic prostatectomy is a difficult surgery and requires advanced surgical skill from the surgeon (4), requires operate without a direct view of the surgical field in a two-dimensional space and with longer instruments (5). Laparoscopic prostatectomy step by step makes the surgeon's learning curve less difficult, lead to less intraoperative complications, such as blood loss, while also enabling shorter operative time and less positive surgical margins (6). The objective of surgical models is to simulate surgical procedures in a reliable way thus preparing the surgeon for his daily practice, surgical simulations in animal models have been described to compensate for inadequate clinical exposure (7). The canine model of prostate cancer has many similarities with humans. Despite trying to develop a model that is as credible as possible, there are ethical issues in several countries, such as Brazil, that do not allow the use of live dogs for scientific experimentation and there is a difficulty in not standardizing the animals used (8, 9). The swine surgical training model is widely known, accepted and used as a valuable tool in the teaching of new surgeons (10). The porcine video laparoscopic prostatectomy model allows the urologist in training to exercise the skills required in a real surgical situation, practicing them in a single session (10). We will present an experimental model in pigs for training urology residents in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy with current techniques (11-13). The limitations found are that the prostate has no limits as well defined as in humans, the urethra is long and coiled, the fat surrounding the pelvic organs is scarce and there is no postoperative follow-up for evaluating functionality after the procedure, as well as the effectiveness of the surgery with surgical margins. However, it is similar in surgical model presented, it is reproducible and can provide a realistic simulation environment to the beginner surgeon. Material and Methods: In this paper, according to the institutional protocol approved by the institutional ethics and research committee FMUSP n° 964/2017 and protocol was in accordance with current international regulations for the use of animals in Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) guide. Ten male pigs weighing 20 to 22kg were used. The animals were anesthetized with a combination of Telazol (5mg/kg), Xylazine (1.5mg/kg), Cetamine (22mg/kg) and Atropine (0.04mg/kg) for orotracheal intubation followed by Isoflurane (2%). Animals were euthanized at the end of the procedure with a lethal dose of KCl (2mEq/kg). The trocar insertion points were marked using the epigastric vessels and umbilical region as reference points. Initially, urethral catheterization was performed using a hydrophilic Nitinol guidewire, followed by a perineal incision to dissect the tortuous urethra of the porcine model. A malleable urethral catheter 8Fr was inserted into their bladder. The animal was placed in the Trendelenburg position inserted and 12mm trocars were inserted in its umbilical region, utilizing 10mm in the surgeon's dominant hand, 5mm in his non-dominant hand of the surgeon, and 5mm in the first assistant's trocar. The surgeon replicates the steps performed in a laparoscopic radical prostatectomy in humans, including the bladder catheterization, dissection of the anterior bladder plane, the vesicular and prostatic dissection, the suture of the dorsal venous plexus, a prostatectomy, an urethral vesical anast omosis, as well as the waterproof test, even including the performing of surgical steps using current concepts of anterior urethral suspension as the reconstruction of the posterior plane of the rhabdosphincter. Results: All steps of surgery could be reproduced in all ten porcine cases. No significant bleeding was observed and the surgical time was gradually reduced fifty percent from case one to last cases. Conclusions: The porcine model allowed the surgeon to replicate all the steps usually performed in a laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. The junior surgeons are better prepared to such difficult surgery. However, further studies will be necessary to prove the impact of the animal model presented in urological clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Laparoscopy , Internship and Residency , Prostatectomy , Swine , Clinical Competence , Video-Assisted Surgery
3.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(3): 514-522, May-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012319

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate risk factors for complications in patients undergoing adrenalectomy. Materials and Methods: A retrospective search of our institutional database was performed of patients who underwent adrenalectomy, between 2014 and 2018. Clinical parameters and adrenal disorder characteristics were assessed and correlated to intra and post-operative course. Complications were analyzed within 30-days after surgery. A logistic regression was performed in order to identify independent predictors of morbidity in patients after adrenalectomy. Results: The files of 154 patients were reviewed. Median age and Body Mass Index (BMI) were 52-years and 27.8kg/m2, respectively. Mean tumor size was 4.9±4cm. Median surgery duration and estimated blood loss were 140min and 50mL, respectively. There were six conversions to open surgery. Minor and major post-operative complications occurred in 17.5% and 8.4% of the patients. Intra-operative complications occurred in 26.6% of the patients. Four patients died. Mean hospitalization duration was 4-days (Interquartile Range: 3-8). Patients age (p=0.004), comorbidities (p=0.003) and pathological diagnosis (p=0.003) were independent predictors of post-operative complications. Tumor size (p<0.001) and BMI (p=0.009) were independent predictors of intra-operative complications. Pathological diagnosis (p<0.001) and Charlson score (p=0.013) were independent predictors of death. Conclusion: Diligent care is needed with older patients, with multiple comorbidities and harboring unfavorable adrenal disorders (adrenocortical carcinoma and pheocromocytoma), who have greater risk of post-operative complications. Patients with elevated BMI and larger tumors have higher risk of intra, but not of post-operative complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Adrenal Gland Diseases/surgery , Adrenalectomy/adverse effects , Intraoperative Complications/etiology , Time Factors , Logistic Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms/surgery , Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms/complications , Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms/pathology , Adrenal Gland Diseases/complications , Adrenal Gland Diseases/pathology , Adrenocortical Carcinoma/complications , Adrenocortical Carcinoma/pathology , Adrenocortical Carcinoma/blood , Statistics, Nonparametric , Tumor Burden , Middle Aged
4.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(1): 14-21, Jan.-Feb. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-892957

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background Radical prostatectomy (RP) has been used as the main primary treatment for prostate cancer (PCa) for many years with excellent oncologic results. However, approximately 20-40% of those patients has failed to RP and presented biochemical recurrence (BCR). Prostatic specific antigen (PSA) has been the pivotal tool for recurrence diagnosis, but there is no consensus about the best PSA threshold to define BCR until this moment. The natural history of BCR after surgical procedure is highly variable, but it is important to distinguish biochemical and clinical recurrence and to find the correct timing to start multimodal treatment strategy. Also, it is important to understand the role of each clinical and pathological feature of prostate cancer in BCR, progression to metastatic disease and cancer specific mortality (CSM). Review design A simple review was made in Medline for articles written in English language about biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Objective To provide an updated assessment of BCR definition, its meaning, PCa natural history after BCR and the weight of each clinical/pathological feature and risk group classifications in BCR, metastatic disease and CSM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery , Prostatectomy , Risk Factors , Disease-Free Survival , Disease Progression
5.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 43(6): 1144-1151, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-892931

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Urethral duplication is rare. Characterized by the presence of two urethral channels. This anomaly presents a great variety of clinical findings that depend on the type of duplication that often is associated with other anomalies. Material and Methods: We report thirteen boys with urethral duplication managed in our institution between 1988-2015. Clinical findings, associated anomalies, treatment of urethral duplication and our results are described. Patients were classified according to Effmann classification. Results: Mean patient's age was 38.3±34.7 months (3-136 months). Mean follow-up was 7.7±3.4 years (3y8m-14y2m). Type II A2 was the most common pattern (8/13 patients, 61.5%), followed by type IA (3/13 patients, 23%) and IIA1 (2/13 patients, 15.3%). The most frequent clinical manifestations were urinary tract infections (UTI) observed in 11/13 patients (84.6%) and anal urinary leakage, found in 7/13 patients (53.8%). Associated anomalies were found in 9/13 patients (69.2%). Required surgeries were 3.53±2.84 procedures per patient. Considering groups: Type IIA2 4.25±3.28, type IIA1 4±1.41 and type IA 1.33±0.57 needed procedures per patient. Complications rate were 0% for type IA, 50% for type IIA1 and 75% for type IIA2. Conclusions: Patients with incomplete duplication (type I A or I B) can totally be asymptomatic, with no need of surgical correction. Type IIA2 is the most complex form of duplication to correct and multiple procedures might be required because of the very hypoplastic orthotopic dorsal urethral tissue. Surgical treatment should be individualized and parents should be advised on complications and need of multiple surgeries according to urethral duplication type.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Urethra/abnormalities , Urethra/surgery , Reoperation , Urologic Surgical Procedures , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies
6.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 43(5): 841-848, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-892887

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the role of ARDT after surgical resection of ACC. Materials and Methods: Records of patients from our institutional ACC database were retrospectively assessed. A paired comparison analysis was used to evaluate the oncological outcomes between patients treated with surgery followed by ARDT or surgery only (control). The endpoints were LRFS, RFS, and OS. A systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis was also performed to evaluate local recurrence of ACC when ARDT was used. Results: Ten patients were included in each Group. The median follow-up times were 32 months and 35 months for the ARDT and control Groups, respectively. The results for LRFS (p=0.11), RFS (p=0.92), and OS (p=0.47) were similar among subsets. The mean time to present with local recurrence was significantly longer in the ARDT group compared with the control Group (419±206 days vs. 181±86 days, respectively; p=0.03). ARDT was well tolerated by the patients; there were no reports of late toxicity. The meta-analysis, which included four retrospective series, revealed that ARDT had a protective effect on LRFS (HR=0.4; CI=0.17-0.94). Conclusions: ARDT may reduce the chance and prolong the time to ACC local recurrence. However, there were no benefits for disease recurrence control or overall survival for patients who underwent this complementary therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms , Adrenocortical Carcinoma/radiotherapy , Case-Control Studies , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms/surgery , Adrenocortical Carcinoma/surgery , Adrenalectomy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant/methods , Disease-Free Survival , Middle Aged
7.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 42(4): 671-677, July-Aug. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794685

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the presentation and early surgical outcomes of elderly patients undergoing adrenalectomy for phaeochromocytoma. Patients and Methods: A retrospective search was performed of our adrenal disorders database for patients who underwent surgery for phaeochromocytoma or paraganglioma between 2009 and 2014. Patients >60 years old were classified as elderly. The clinical manifestations, intraoperative course, and early postoperative outcomes of elderly patients were compared to those of younger individuals (<60 years old). Results: The mean (±standard deviation) age in the older (n=10) and younger (n=36) groups was 69.6±5.3 years and 34.0±12.9 years. Germ-line mutations were more common in younger patients (50.0% versus 0%; p=0.004), whereas incidental lesions were more common in the elderly (40.0% versus 5.3%; p=0.003). In both groups, surgery was most commonly performed by videolaparoscopy (90% in the elderly and 82% in the younger group), with similar intraoperative anesthetic and surgical outcomes. Postoperatively, the older group more commonly received vasoactive drugs (60.0% versus 10.5%; p<0.001) and had a longer intensive care unit stay (3.1±2.8 versus 1.4±1.0 days; p=0.014), more clinical complications (60% versus 18.9%; p=0.01), and longer hospital stay (10.2±8.4 versus 5.7±4.9 days; p=0.028). Conclusions: Although all patients received the same preoperative preparation, the elderly group exhibited a slower and more complicated recovery after adrenalectomy. Meticulous perioperative care should be used in the elderly when treating phaeochromocytoma; nevertheless, adrenalectomy is a relatively safe procedure in this patient population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Pheochromocytoma/surgery , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms/surgery , Adrenalectomy/standards , Postoperative Complications/classification , Chi-Square Distribution , Feasibility Studies , Retrospective Studies , Age Factors , Middle Aged
8.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 41(5): 953-958, Sept.-Oct. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-767052

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the efficiency of a novel device coupled with ultrassound for renal percutaneous puncture. Materials and Methods: After establishing hydronephrosis, ten pigs had three calyxes of each kidney punctured by the same urology resident, with and without the new device ("Punctiometer"). Time for procedure completion, number of attempts to reach the calyx, puncture precision and puncture complications were recorded in both groups and compared. Results: Puncture success on the first attempt was achieved in 25 punctures (83%) with the Punctiometer and in 13 punctures (43%) without the Punctiometer (p=0.011). The mean time required to perform three punctures in each kidney was 14.5 minutes with the Punctiometer and 22.4 minutes without the Punctiometer (p=0.025). The only complications noted were renal hematomas. In the Punctiometer group, all kidneys had small hematomas. In the no Punctiometer group 80% had small hematomas, 10% had a medium hematoma and 10% had a big hematoma. There was no difference in complications between both groups. Conclusions: The Punctiometer is an effective device to increase the likelihood of an accurate renal calyx puncture during PCNL, with a shorter time required to perform the procedure.


Subject(s)
Animals , Kidney Calices/surgery , Nephrostomy, Percutaneous/instrumentation , Punctures/instrumentation , Ultrasonography, Interventional/instrumentation , Equipment Design , Models, Animal , Nephrostomy, Percutaneous/methods , Punctures/methods , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Swine , Time Factors , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods
10.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 37(4): 507-513, July-Aug. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-600816

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Socioeconomic status (SES) may influence cancer characteristics and behavior in several aspects. We analyzed PCa characteristics and behavior among low income uninsured men, and compare them to high income patients with health insurance in a developing country. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was performed on 934 patients with clinically localized PCa who underwent radical prostatectomy between March, 1999 and July, 2009. Patients were divided in two groups, according to their SES. In group 1 (n=380), all had low income, low educational levels and couldn't afford medical insurance. In group 2 (n=554), all had higher income, higher education and had medical insurance. RESULTS: Patients from group 1 were older, had higher Gleason scores, higher rates of seminal vesicle and bladder neck involvement. The Kaplan Meier disease-free survival curve demonstrated that after a follow-up of four years, about 50 percent of uninsured patients had biochemical recurrence, versus 21 percent of insured patients (Log rank test: p < 0.001). A multivariate Cox regression analysis for the risk of disease recurrence demonstrated that only PSA levels, Gleason score, seminal vesicle involvement and SES were statistically significant variables. Patients with a low SES presented 1.8 times the risk of recurrence as compared to patients with a high SES. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with low SES were older, presented more aggressive PCa characteristics and a high rate of disease recurrence. A low SES constituted an independent predictor for disease recurrence.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prostatectomy , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Social Class , Case-Control Studies , Chi-Square Distribution , Developing Countries , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Neoplasm Staging , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/blood , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
11.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 35(4): 427-431, July-Aug. 2009. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-527200

ABSTRACT

Objective: The incidence of solid renal masses has increased sharply in recent years due to widespread use of abdominal imaging studies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence of benign lesions in solid renal masses according to tumor size. Materials and Methods: The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of 305 patients with 328 renal solid masses treated by surgery. Based on a report by one pathologist, the specimen tumor size and the histology of each lesion were tabulated. The frequency of renal cell carcinoma and benign renal lesions was evaluated and a correlation between tumor size and pathological features of the masses was observed. Results: The frequency of malignant lesions in the 328 renal masses was 83.2 percent. When lesions were stratified into groups with diameters ¡Ü 3 cm or > 3 cm, the incidence of benign histology was 22.9 percent and 13.3 percent, respectively (p = 0.026). The odds ratios for finding a benign lesion in masses ¡Ü 3 cm was 1.93 (IC 95 percent, 1.07 - 3.46) compared to masses > 3 cm. Conclusion: The incidence of benign lesions is significantly higher in renal masses smaller than 3 cm in diameter, which should be taken in account when the treatment of renal solid masses is planned.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Kidney Diseases/pathology , Incidence , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Kidney Neoplasms/epidemiology , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Tumor Burden , Young Adult
12.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 35(3): 354-361, May-June 2009. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-523161

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study is to investigate the anti-neoplastic effect of curcumin in prostate cancer cell lines. Specifically, we are using the LNCaP cell line and another prostate cell line developed in our laboratory, PcBra1. The PcBra1 cells were derived from a localized, obstructive prostate cancer with a Gleason score of 9 (4+5). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prostate cancer cell line was isolated from a localized, obstructive prostate cancer with a Gleason score of 9 (4+5), and it was characterized using immunohistochemistry. After six passages, the new cell line was treated with varying doses of curcumin: 10 µM, 25 µM or 50 µM. Apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry using Annexin V FITC. For comparison, the same experiment was performed using the well-established metastatic prostate cancer cell line, LNCaP. RESULTS: Increasing concentrations of curcumin promoted more apoptosis in the PcBra1 cells. Exposure to 10 and 25 µM curcumin induced apoptosis in 31.9 percent and 52.2 percent of cells, respectively. Late apoptosis was induced in 37 percent of cells after treatment with 10 µM curcumin and 35 percent of cells with a 25 µM treatment. Necrosis accounted for less than 10 percent of the death in these cells at those two concentrations. When curcumin was used at 50 µM, apoptosis was observed in 64.3 percent of the cells. Including late apoptosis and necrosis, 98.6 percent of the cells died in response to 50 µM curcumin. Results with the LNCaP cells were similar although late apoptosis was the main phenomenon at 25 µM. CONCLUSION: We have shown that curcumin acts on localized prostate cancer to induce apoptosis and may therefore be an option as a future therapeutic agent.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Apoptosis/drug effects , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cell Line, Tumor , Prostatic Neoplasms/metabolism
13.
Clinics ; 63(6): 759-762, 2008. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-497887

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To establish a formula that estimates tumor volume in localized prostate cancer based on serum prostate specific antigen levels. One of the main prognostic variables in localized prostate cancer is tumor volume, which can be precisely defined only after prostate extirpation. The present study defines a simple method that allows for estimation of tumor volume before treatment, which can help to establish a better therapeutic strategy for each patient. METHODS: From 1997 to 2002, 735 patients with prostate cancer of stagesT1c-T2c without any previous treatment were submitted to radical prostatectomy. Surgical specimens were evaluated by the same pathologist and the total tumor volume (in cc) and the relative tumor volume (as the percent of the total prostate volume) were determined using the grid morphometric method. Pretreatment serum prostate specific antigen was correlated with tumor volume in each patient using a linear regression model. RESULTS: There were positive correlations between the serum levels of prostate specific antigen and the total tumor volume in cc (p<0.001) and the relative tumor volume as a percentage (p<0.001). For each ng/ml unit increment of serum prostate specific antigen, there was a 0.302 cc increase in total tumor volume and a 0.7 percent increase in relative tumor volume. Total and percent tumor volume could be calculated, respectively, using the formulas Volume (cc) = 3.476 + 0.302 x PSA (ng/ml) and Volume ( percent) = 11.331 + 0.704 x prostate specific antigen (ng/ml). CONCLUSIONS: Tumor volume in patients with prostate cancer can be determined before treatment based on the serum prostate specific antigen levels.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adenocarcinoma/blood , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Adenocarcinoma/surgery , Neoplasm Staging , Predictive Value of Tests , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Regression Analysis , Retrospective Studies
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