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Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-4


Introduction: Colonoscopy is an investigation for the evaluation of lower gastrointestinal symptoms. Just like any other conditions, it is important to be aware of the spectrum of findings so that appropriate referral and decisions can be made. Materials and Methods: Patients (mean age 52.3 ± 15.3 years old with almost equal proportion of genders) referred for colonoscopy in RIPAS Hospital over a five year period (January 2003 to December 2007) were retrospectively identified and studied. Results: The most common indication for colonoscopy was bleeding per rectum (22.9%), followed by evaluation of abdominal pain (18.6%), anaemia (11.7%), colorectal cancer screening (11.7%), evaluation of constipation (5.9%) and altered bowel habits (3.8%). A large proportion (58.4%) colonoscopy was normal. The most common positive finding was haemorrhoids (30.3%), majority of which were categorised as grade I. This was followed by colonic polyps (17.6%), diverticular disease (12.1%), non-specific colitis (4.0%), colorectal cancers (4.0%) and ulcers (3.6%), melanosis coli (0.4%) and telangiectasia (0.1%). Colorectal cancer was most common among the Malays (4.4%), followed by the Chinese (4.0%), the indigenous (2.8%) and the others (1.2%). Conclusions: Our study showed that the most common indication was for the evaluation of bleeding per rectum. Majority had normal colonoscopy and the most common positive finding was haemorrhoids. Importantly colorectal neoplasms accounted for one fifth of procedures with colorectal cancers accounting for four percent.

Diabetes Complications , Diabetic Foot , Microbiology , Bacteriology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-70


Introduction: Molecular markers determined by immunohistochemistry are routinely used for predicting and prognosticating cancers including breast cancer. Molecular markers for breast cancer such as oestrogen and progesterone receptors, Her2, p53, pS2, Bcl2, EGFR, Ki67, CD34 and Cathepsin D have been used in Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha (RIPAS) Hospital. This study assessed the ethnic variations in breast cancer incidence as well as the relationships between expression of these markers with tumour stage and grade and patient survival in Brunei Darussalam . Materials and Methods: Records of breast cancer patients between 2001 and 2009 were retrieved and abstracted from the Cancer Registry maintained by the Department of Pathology at the RIPAS Hospital. These were reviewed and analysed using appropriate statistical methods. Results: Overall, the mean age at diagnosis was 49.2 years. The incidence rate of breast cancer among Chinese (56.4 per 100,000 per year) was significantly higher than Malays (27.8) and the other ethnic groups (12.3). The expression of oestrogen and progesterone receptors and pS2 was significantly greater in the more differentiated tumours while that of Ki67 and p53 in tumours and CD34 in blood vessels within the tumour was significantly greater in the less differentiated tumours. Positivity for oestrogen receptor was significantly associated with the absence of metastases in regional lymph nodes. Expression of oestrogen and progesterone receptors in tumour cells was significantly associated with enhanced patient survival, while the detection of CD34 in blood vessels within tumours was associated with poorer survival. Survival trends seen for other markers were not statistically significant. Conclusions: The different incidence of breast cancer among the different ethnic groups merits more detailed investigation of the responsible genetic, social and environmental factors. Oestrogen and progesterone receptors and CD34 are confirmed as useful markers for prognosis among our population with breast cancer. Expression of p53, Ki67 and pS2 may also be useful. These markers will be helpful in determining treatment options and for patient education.