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1.
Gut and Liver ; : 70-76, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874576

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease for which new serological markers are required. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of the mucosaassociated epithelial chemokine CCL28 in UC. @*Methods@#The study included 50 patients; of these, 25 were patients with UC, and 25 were healthy controls. The levels of serum CCL28 were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. CCL28 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 15 representative colon tissues biopsied based on disease activity (UC patients with severe activity, five samples;UC patients with mild activity, five samples; healthy controls, five samples). @*Results@#The serum CCL28 levels were remarkably higher (p<0.05) in patients with UC (median, 235.7 pg/mL; IQR, 63.8 to 117.2 pg/mL) than in healthy controls (median, 48.9, pg/mL; IQR, 35.9 to 42.0 pg/mL). However, there was no significant difference in serum CCL28 according to disease extent or activity. In contrast, IHC analysis revealed a significant difference in CCL28 consistent with disease status, disease extent, and disease activity. @*Conclusions@#CCL28 could be useful for diagnosing UC. However, further validations of CCL28 on disease activity and severity are needed.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914968

ABSTRACT

Tumors of the small intestine are rare and generally asymptomatic or with nonspecific symptoms. The small intestine is difficult to approach using conventional endoscopy, and early diagnosis of the small intestinal tumors is difficult. Therefore, many of the small intestinal tumors are diagnosed at an advanced stage, which makes the prognosis poor. Premalignant lesions of the small intestine or known risk factors of small bowel cancer are sporadic adenoma, adenoma associated with familial adenomatous polyposis, hamartomatous polyp associated with PeutzJeghers syndrome, Crohn’s disease, and celiac disease. Therefore, it is necessary to recognize that the small bowel cancer can occur in these patients with premalignant lesions or risk factors of small bowel cancer. To reduce the possibility of small bowel cancer or to detect at an earlier stage, attention should be paid to screening and surveillance of these patients with premalignant lesions or risk factors of the small bowel cancer.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899903

ABSTRACT

Background@#The patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a worldwide pandemic infection, frequently complain of olfactory disorders. However, psychophysical olfactory tests performed by an examiner are very difficult in these highly infectious patients. This study aimed to develop and validate a questionnaire for olfactory function that can be readily used to evaluate olfactory loss. @*Methods@#Fourteen smell-related questions were created based on smells familiar to Koreans. Among them, questions with a κ value of 0.6 or higher were finally selected through a test-retest reliability analysis. The correlations between the scores of the olfactory questionnaire and those of olfactory function tests (Butanol Threshold Test [BTT] and Cross Cultural Smell Identification Test [CCSIT]) were analyzed. To evaluate the predictive ability of the questionnaire and elicit cutoff values, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated. @*Results@#Out of the 14 questions in the questionnaire, 11 (κ > 0.6) were selected for the olfactory questionnaire. We analyzed 2,273 subjects, and there was a significant correlation between the total score of the olfactory questionnaire and the BTT (r = 0.643, P < 0.001) or CCSIT (r = 0.615, P < 0.001) scores. ROC curves for the olfactory questionnaire, BTT, and CCSIT all demonstrated high predictive power to discriminate anosmia and severe hyposmia from normosmia. Regarding mild to moderate hyposmia, however, ROC curve for the olfactory questionnaire alone showed high predictive power of discrimination from normosmia. Based on the results of ROC curves among the subclasses, we suggest the classification of the total score of the questionnaire as 0–4, 5–17, 18–27, 28–41, and 42–44, for anosmia, severe hyposmia, moderate hyposmia, mild hyposmia, and normosmia, respectively. @*Conclusion@#The total scores of the questionnaires correlated with the BTT and CCSIT scores. The symptom questionnaire for olfactory dysfunction may be useful as an alternative tool for olfactory function testing, when unavailable.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892199

ABSTRACT

Background@#The patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a worldwide pandemic infection, frequently complain of olfactory disorders. However, psychophysical olfactory tests performed by an examiner are very difficult in these highly infectious patients. This study aimed to develop and validate a questionnaire for olfactory function that can be readily used to evaluate olfactory loss. @*Methods@#Fourteen smell-related questions were created based on smells familiar to Koreans. Among them, questions with a κ value of 0.6 or higher were finally selected through a test-retest reliability analysis. The correlations between the scores of the olfactory questionnaire and those of olfactory function tests (Butanol Threshold Test [BTT] and Cross Cultural Smell Identification Test [CCSIT]) were analyzed. To evaluate the predictive ability of the questionnaire and elicit cutoff values, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated. @*Results@#Out of the 14 questions in the questionnaire, 11 (κ > 0.6) were selected for the olfactory questionnaire. We analyzed 2,273 subjects, and there was a significant correlation between the total score of the olfactory questionnaire and the BTT (r = 0.643, P < 0.001) or CCSIT (r = 0.615, P < 0.001) scores. ROC curves for the olfactory questionnaire, BTT, and CCSIT all demonstrated high predictive power to discriminate anosmia and severe hyposmia from normosmia. Regarding mild to moderate hyposmia, however, ROC curve for the olfactory questionnaire alone showed high predictive power of discrimination from normosmia. Based on the results of ROC curves among the subclasses, we suggest the classification of the total score of the questionnaire as 0–4, 5–17, 18–27, 28–41, and 42–44, for anosmia, severe hyposmia, moderate hyposmia, mild hyposmia, and normosmia, respectively. @*Conclusion@#The total scores of the questionnaires correlated with the BTT and CCSIT scores. The symptom questionnaire for olfactory dysfunction may be useful as an alternative tool for olfactory function testing, when unavailable.

5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787238

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Public hospitals were established to provide high quality medical services to low socioeconomic status patients. This study examined the effects of public hospitals on the treatment and prognosis of patients with five-major gastrointestinal (GI) cancers (stomach cancer, colon cancer, liver cancer, bile duct cancer, and pancreatic cancer).METHODS: Among the 1,268 patients treated at Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center from January 2010 to December 2017, 164 (13%) were in the medicare group. The data were analyzed to identify and compare the clinical manifestations, treatment modality, and clinical outcomes between the groups.RESULTS: No statistically significant differences in the clinical data (age, sex), treatment method, and five-year survival rate were observed between the health insurance group and medicare group in the five major GI cancer patients. On the other hand, some medicare group patients tended more comorbidities and fewer treatment options than health insurance patients.CONCLUSIONS: Public hospitals have a positive effect on the treatment and prognosis in medicare group patients with the five-major GI cancers.


Subject(s)
Bile Duct Neoplasms , Colonic Neoplasms , Comorbidity , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms , Hand , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Insurance Coverage , Insurance, Health , Liver Neoplasms , Medicare , Methods , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Seoul , Social Class , Survival Rate
6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831799

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Capsule endoscopy (CE) is widely used for the diagnosis of small bowel diseases. The clinical performance and complications of small bowel CE, including completion rate, capsule retention rate, and indications, have been previously described in Korea. This study aimed at estimating the recent changes in clinical performance and complications of small bowel CE based on 17-year data from a Korean Capsule Endoscopy Registry. @*Methods@#CE registry data from 35 hospitals were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical information, including completion rate, capsule retention rate, and indications, was collected and analyzed. In addition, the most recent 5-year data for CE examinations were compared with the previous 12-year data. @*Results@#A total of 4,650 CE examinations were analyzed. The most common indication for CE was obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). The overall incomplete examination rate was 16% and the capsule retention rate was 3%. Crohn’s disease was a risk factor for capsule retention. Inadequate bowel preparation was significantly associated with capsule retention and incomplete examination. An indication other than OGIB was a risk factor for incomplete examination. A recent increasing trend of CE diagnosis of Crohn’s disease was observed. The most recent 5-year incomplete examination rate for CE examinations decreased compared with that of the previous 12 years. @*Conclusions@#The 17-year data suggested that CE is a useful and safe tool for diagnosing small bowel diseases. The incomplete examination rate of CE decreased with time, and OGIB was consistently the main indication for CE. Inadequate bowel preparation was significantly associated with capsule retention and incomplete examination.

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831702

ABSTRACT

Background@#In response to the disaster of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, Seoul Metropolitan Government (SMG) established a patient facility for mild condition patients other than hospital. This study was conducted to investigate the operation and necessary resources of a community treatment center (CTC) operated in Seoul, a metropolitan city with a population of 10 million. @*Methods@#To respond COVID-19 epidemic, the SMG designated 5 municipal hospitals as dedicated COVID-19 hospitals and implemented one CTC cooperated with the Boramae Municipal Hospital for COVID-19 patients in Seoul. As a retrospective cross-sectional observational study, retrospective medical records review was conducted for patients admitted to the Seoul CTC. The admission and discharge route of CTC patients were investigated. The patient characteristics were compared according to route of discharge whether the patient was discharged to home or transferred to hospital. To report the operation of CTC, the daily mean number of tests (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and chest X-ray) and consultations by medical staffs were calculated per week. The list of frequent used medications and who used medication most frequently were investigated. @*Results@#Until May 27 when the Seoul CTC was closed, 26.5% (n = 213) of total 803 COVID-19 patients in Seoul were admitted to the CTC. It was 35.7% (n = 213) of 597 newly diagnosed patients in Seoul during the 11 weeks of operation. The median length of stay was 21 days (interquartile range, 12–29 days). A total of 191 patients (89.7%) were discharged to home after virologic remission and 22 (10.3%) were transferred to hospital for further treatment.Fifty percent of transferred patients were within a week since CTC admission. Daily 2.5–3.6consultations by doctors or nurses and 0.4–0.9 tests were provided to one patient. The most frequently prescribed medication was symptomatic medication for COVID-19 (cough/ sputum and rhinorrhea). The next ranking was psychiatric medication for sleep problem and depression/anxiety, which was prescribed more than digestive drug. @*Conclusion@#In the time of an infectious disease disaster, a metropolitan city can operate a temporary patient facility such as CTC to make a surge capacity and appropriately allocate scarce medical resource.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900528

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aim of this study was to compare microRNA (miRNA) gene expression in saliva using miRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) arrays in healthy and aggressive periodontitis (AP) patients. @*Methods@#PCR arrays of 84 miRNAs related to the human inflammatory response and autoimmunity from the saliva samples of 4 patients with AP and 4 healthy controls were performed. The functions and diseases related to the miRNAs were obtained using TAM 2.0. Experimentally validated targets of differentially expressed miRNAs were obtained from mirTarBase. Gene ontology terms and pathways were analyzed using ConsensusPathDB. @*Results@#Four downregulated miRNAs (hsa-let-7a-5p, hsa-let-7f-5p, hsa-miR-181b-5p, and hsa-miR-23b-3p) were identified in patients with AP. These miRNAs are associated with cell death and innate immunity, and they target genes associated with osteoclast development and function. @*Conclusions@#This study is the first analysis of miRNAs in the saliva of patients with AP.Identifying discriminatory human salivary miRNA biomarkers reflective of periodontal disease in a non-invasive screening assay is crucial for the development of salivary diagnostics. These data provide a first step towards the discovery of key salivary miRNA biomarkers for AP.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892824

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aim of this study was to compare microRNA (miRNA) gene expression in saliva using miRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) arrays in healthy and aggressive periodontitis (AP) patients. @*Methods@#PCR arrays of 84 miRNAs related to the human inflammatory response and autoimmunity from the saliva samples of 4 patients with AP and 4 healthy controls were performed. The functions and diseases related to the miRNAs were obtained using TAM 2.0. Experimentally validated targets of differentially expressed miRNAs were obtained from mirTarBase. Gene ontology terms and pathways were analyzed using ConsensusPathDB. @*Results@#Four downregulated miRNAs (hsa-let-7a-5p, hsa-let-7f-5p, hsa-miR-181b-5p, and hsa-miR-23b-3p) were identified in patients with AP. These miRNAs are associated with cell death and innate immunity, and they target genes associated with osteoclast development and function. @*Conclusions@#This study is the first analysis of miRNAs in the saliva of patients with AP.Identifying discriminatory human salivary miRNA biomarkers reflective of periodontal disease in a non-invasive screening assay is crucial for the development of salivary diagnostics. These data provide a first step towards the discovery of key salivary miRNA biomarkers for AP.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766114

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane (dHACM) to repair perforated sinus membranes in rabbits. METHODS: Bilateral surgical windows (7.5-mm diameter) were prepared on the nasal bones of 14 rabbits. Standardized circular perforations (5-mm diameter) were made in the sinus membrane by manipulating implant twist drills. The perforated sinus membranes were repaired using dHACM or a resorbable collagen membrane (CM). The negative control (NC) group did not undergo perforated sinus membrane repair, while the positive control (PC) group underwent sinus augmentation without perforations. The same amount of deproteinized porcine bone mineral was grafted in all 4 groups. After 6 weeks, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histomorphometric evaluations were conducted. RESULTS: The micro-CT analysis revealed that the total augmented volume was not significantly different among the groups. In the dHACM group, newly formed bone filled the augmented area with remaining biomaterials; however, non-ciliated flat epithelium and inflammatory cells were observed on the healed sinus membrane. Histometric analysis showed that the percentage of newly formed bone area in the dHACM group did not differ significantly from that in the CM group. The dHACM group showed a significantly higher percentage of newly formed bone area than the NC group, but there was no significant difference between the dHACM and PC groups. CONCLUSIONS: dHACM could be a feasible solution for repairing sinus membrane perforations that occur during sinus floor augmentation.


Subject(s)
Amnion , Biocompatible Materials , Chorion , Collagen , Epithelium , Humans , Membranes , Miners , Nasal Bone , Rabbits , Sinus Floor Augmentation , Transplants
11.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 329-333, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715794

ABSTRACT

Capsule endoscopy (CE) has revolutionized direct small bowel imaging and is widely used in clinical practice. Remote visualization of bowel images enables painless, well-tolerated endoscopic examinations. Small bowel CE has a high diagnostic yield and the ability to examine the entire small bowel. The diagnostic yield of CE relies on lesion detection and interpretation. In this review, issues related to lesion detection and interpretation of CE have been addressed, and the current status of automated reading software development has been reviewed. Clinical significance of an external real-time image viewer has also been described.


Subject(s)
Capsule Endoscopy
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-208448

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Performance of polyethylene glycol solution (PEG) is often unsatisfactory as bowel preparation agent for colonoscopy. In order to provide equivalent efficacy with better patient tolerance, sodium phosphate tablet (SPT) has been developed. This study was carried out to compare the efficacy and compliance of two bowel preparation methods: PEG with ascorbic acid (PEGA) vs. SPT preparation. METHODS: A multicenter, randomized controlled trial was performed. Primary efficacy variable was overall quality of colon cleansing assessed by Boston bowel preparation scale (BBPS) during colonoscopy. Patient's satisfaction and adverse events were evaluated by means of symptom questionnaire completed by each patient immediately before colonoscopy. RESULTS: A total of 189 patients were randomly assigned to undergo pre-colonoscopic bowel preparation with either SPT (n=96) or PEGA (n=93). Overall BBPS score was 8.3+/-1.12 in the SPT group and 8.4+/-0.96 in the PEGA group (p=0.441). Among the 189 patients, 90 had polyps (47.6%) and 50 had adenomas (26.5%). The polyp/adenoma detection rate was 54.2% (n=52)/27.1% (n=26) for SPT group and 40.9% (n=38)/25.8% (n=24) for PEGA group (p=0.079 and 0.790, respectively). More number of patients were unable to take the prescribed dose of PEGA compared with the SPT regimen (8.6% vs. 2.0%, p=0.045). Overall satisfaction score was 7.9+/-1.63 in the SPT group and 7.4+/-1.53 in the PEGA group (p=0.022). CONCLUSIONS: Degree of colon preparation, polyp/adenoma detection rate and adverse effect were similar between SPT group and PEGA group. Patient compliance and satisfaction were greater in the SPT group.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain/etiology , Adenoma/pathology , Adult , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Cathartics/adverse effects , Colonic Polyps/pathology , Colonoscopy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nausea/etiology , Patient Satisfaction , Phosphates/therapeutic use , Polyethylene Glycols/therapeutic use , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-49422

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to compare the cumulative survival rates (CSRs) and the incidence of postloading complications (PLCs) between a bone-level internal connection system (ICS-BL) and an external connection system (ECS). METHODS: The medical records of patients treated with either a ICS-BL or ECS between 2007 and 2010 at Asan Medical Center were reviewed. PLCs were divided into two categories: biological and technical. Biological complications included >4 mm of probing pocket depth, thread exposure in radiographs, and soft tissue complications, whereas technical complications included chipping of the veneering material, fracture of the implant, fracture of the crown, loosening or fracture of the abutment or screw, loss of retention, and loss of access hole filling material. CSRs were determined by a life-table analysis and compared using the log-rank chi-square test. The incidence of PLC was compared with the Pearson chi-squared test. RESULTS: A total of 2,651 implants in 1,074 patients (1,167 ICS-BLs in 551 patients and 1,484 ECSs in 523 patients) were analyzed. The average observation periods were 3.4 years for the ICS-BLs and 3.1 years for the ECSs. The six-year CSR of all implants was 96.1% (94.9% for the ICS-BLs and 97.1% for the ECSs, P=0.619). Soft tissue complications were more frequent with the ECSs (P=0.005) and loosening or fracture of the abutment or screw occurred more frequently with the ICS-BLs (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of this study, the ICS-BL was more prone to technical complications while the ECS was more vulnerable to biological complications.


Subject(s)
Crowns , Dental Implant-Abutment Design , Dental Implants , Humans , Incidence , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
17.
Intestinal Research ; : 68-73, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-179176

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ghrelin levels are known to increase in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), but serum obestatin levels in UC patients are not well elucidated. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between serum ghrelin and obestatin levels and disease activity in UC patients. METHODS: The serum ghrelin and obestatin levels were measured in 21 UC patients (12 with active disease and 9 in remission) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The relationship between the circulating levels of these 2 hormones and disease activity was analyzed. The colonic mucosal mRNA expression of ghrelin and obestatin was measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The mean serum ghrelin values were significantly higher in patients with active disease than in patients with remission (1370.6+/-404.3 vs. 783.5+/-235.3 pg/mL, P=0.001). Colonic mucosal mRNA expression of ghrelin was also significantly higher in patients with active disease than in patients in remission (0.805+/-0.214 vs. 0.481+/-0.356, P=0.018). However, the mean serum obestatin levels and colonic mucosal mRNA expression of obestatin were not significantly different between both groups. The circulating obestatin/ghrelin ratio was significantly lower in patients with active UC than in patients in remission (0.32+/-0.08 vs. 0.58+/-0.20, P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The serum ghrelin levels and the obestatin/ghrelin ratio were related to the activity of UC, but serum obestatin was not related to activity of UC. The ghrelin levels and the obestatin/ghrelin ratio could serve as activity markers in patients with UC.


Subject(s)
Colitis, Ulcerative , Colon , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Ghrelin , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , RNA, Messenger
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-103769

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Submucosal tumors of the esophagus are rare lesions among all esophageal neoplasms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathologic features of esophageal submucosal tumors treated by surgical approach. METHODS: We analyzed the clinicopathologic and endoscopic ultrasonographic features of 18 esophageal submucosal tumors which were treated by surgical approach at Boramae Medical Center and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital from January 2005 to June 2012. RESULTS: The mean age was 48.9 years old and male to female ratio was 2.6:1. Asymptomatic patients were most common (77.8%). In endoscopic ultrasonographic finding, the majority tumor arouse in the middle (55.6%) and lower (44.4%) esophagus, and appeared as hypoechoic lesion (72.2%) in the 4th layer (83.3%). The most common indication for surgical approach was unclear biological behavior of the tumor. Minimally-invasive technique using thoracoscopy was applied for the enucleation (83.3%). The mean diameter of the tumor was 5.4 cm, and the final diagnosis was leiomyoma (89.9%) and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (11.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Leiomyoma was the most common submucosal tumor in esophagus. However, endoscopic ultrasonography was not able to differentiate between leiomyoma and gastrointesinal stromal tumor. For more accurate diagnosis and treatment, minimally-invasive approaches may be suitable for the surgical enucleation of indicated esophageal submucosal tumor.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophagus/pathology , Female , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors/diagnosis , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Leiomyoma/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Thoracoscopy
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-188644

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was performed to establish an experimental rabbit model for single-stage maxillary sinus augmentation with simultaneous implant placement. METHODS: Twelve mature New Zealand white rabbits were used for the experiments. The rabbit maxillary sinuses were divided into 3 groups according to sinus augmentation materials: blood clot (BC), autogenous bone (AB), and bovine-derived hydroxyapatite (BHA). Small titanium implants were simultaneously placed in the animals during the sinus augmentation procedure. The rabbits were sacrificed 4 and 8 weeks after surgery and were observed histologically. Histomorphometric analyses using image analysis software were also performed to evaluate the parameters related to bone regeneration and implant-bone integration. RESULTS: The BC group showed an evident collapse of the sinus membrane and limited new bone formation around the original sinus floor at 4 and 8 weeks. In the AB group, the sinus membrane was well retained above the implant apex, and new bone formation was significant at both examination periods. The BHA group also showed retention of the elevated sinus membrane above the screw apex and evident new bone formation at both points in time. The total area of the mineral component (TMA) in the area of interest and the bone-to-implant contact did not show any significant differences among all the groups. In the AB group, the TMA had significantly decreased from 4 to 8 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limits of this study, the rabbit sinus model showed satisfactory results in the comparison of different grafting conditions in single-stage sinus floor elevation with simultaneous implant placement. We found that the rabbit model was useful for maxillary sinus augmentation with simultaneous implant placement.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone Regeneration , Bone Substitutes , Butylated Hydroxyanisole , Dental Implants , Durapatite , Floors and Floorcoverings , Guided Tissue Regeneration , Maxillary Sinus , Membranes , Models, Animal , Osteogenesis , Rabbits , Retention, Psychology , Sinus Floor Augmentation , Titanium , Transplants
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-39654

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the immunosuppressants FK506 and cyclosporin A (CsA) on the osteogenic differentiation of rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). METHODS: The effect of FK506 and CsA on rat MSCs was assessed in vitro. The MTT assay was used to determine the deleterious effect of immunosuppressants on stem cell proliferation at 1, 3, and 7 days. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was analyzed on days 3, 7, and 14. Alizarin red S staining was done on day 21 to check mineralization nodule formation. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was also performed to detect the expressions of bone tissue-specific genes on days 1 and 7. RESULTS: Cell proliferation was promoted more in the FK506 groups than the control or CsA groups on days 3 and 7. The FK506 groups showed increased ALP activity compared to the other groups during the experimental period. The ALP activity of the CsA groups did not differ from the control group in any of the assessments. Mineralization nodule formation was most prominent in the FK506 groups at 21 days. RT-PCR results of the FK506 groups showed that several bone-related genes-osteopontin, osteonectin, and type I collagen (Col-I)-were expressed more than the control in the beginning, but the intensity of expression decreased over time. Runx2 and Dlx5 gene expression were up-regulated on day 7. The effects of 50 nM CsA on osteonectin and Col-I were similar to those of the FK506 groups, but in the 500 nM CsA group, most of the genes were less expressed compared to the control. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that FK506 enhances the osteoblastic differentiation of rat MSCs. Therefore, FK506 might have a beneficial effect on bone regeneration when immunosuppressants are needed in xenogenic or allogenic stem cell transplantation to treat bone defects.


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase , Animals , Anthraquinones , Bone Regeneration , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Collagen Type I , Cyclosporine , Durapatite , Gene Expression , Immunosuppressive Agents , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Osteoblasts , Osteonectin , Rats , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Stem Cell Transplantation , Stem Cells , Tacrolimus
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