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1.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 463-473, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914833

ABSTRACT

Immunoreactive dynamics of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) within the tumor microenvironment in breast cancer are not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the spatiotemporal cellular dynamics of TILs in breast cancer models. Breast cancer cells were implanted into the dorsal skinfold chamber of BALB/c nude mice, and T lymphocytes were adoptively transferred. Longitudinal intravital imaging was performed, and the spatiotemporal dynamics of TILs were assessed. In the 4T1 model, TILs progressively exhibited increased motility, and their motility inside the tumor was significantly higher than that outside the tumor. In the MDA-MB-231 model, the motility of TILs progressively decreased after an initial increase. TIL motility in the MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 models differed significantly, suggesting an association between programmed death-ligand 1 expression levels and TIL motility, which warrants further investigation. Furthermore, intravital imaging of TILs can be a useful method for addressing dynamic interactions between TILs and breast cancer cells.

2.
Immune Network ; : e17-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914534

ABSTRACT

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a chronic dilation of the aorta with a tendency to enlarge and eventually rupture, which constitutes a major cause of cardiovascular mortality.Although T-cell infiltrates have been observed in AAA, the cellular, phenotypic, and functional characteristics of these tissue-infiltrating T cells are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the proportional changes of T-cell subsets—including CD4 + T cells, CD8 + T cells, and γδ T cells—and their effector functions in AAAs. We found that Vδ2 + T cells were presented at a higher frequency in aortic aneurysmal tissue compared to normal aortic tissue and PBMCs from patients with AAA. In contrast, no differences were observed in the frequencies of CD4 + , CD8 + , and Vδ1 + T cells. Moreover, we observed that the Vδ2 +T cells from AAA tissue displayed immunophenotypes indicative of CCR5 + non-exhausted effector memory cells, with a decreased proportion of CD16 + cells. Finally, we found that these Vδ2 + T cells were the main source of IL-17A in abdominal aortic aneurysmal tissue. In conclusion, our results suggest that increased Vδ2 + T cells that robustly produce IL-17A in aortic aneurysmal tissue may contribute to AAA pathogenesis and progression.

3.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 139-145, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900280

ABSTRACT

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer, and the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Although recent advances in immune checkpoint inhibitor-based immunotherapy have initiated a new era for advanced HCC treatment, the majority of HCC patients receiving immune checkpoint blockades do not derive clinical benefit. Thus, there remains an urgent need for novel immunotherapeutic strategies with improved therapeutic efficacy. Here we review recent studies of immune checkpoint blockade in HCC, providing the necessary basis for the rational design of immunotherapy.

4.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 139-145, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892576

ABSTRACT

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer, and the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Although recent advances in immune checkpoint inhibitor-based immunotherapy have initiated a new era for advanced HCC treatment, the majority of HCC patients receiving immune checkpoint blockades do not derive clinical benefit. Thus, there remains an urgent need for novel immunotherapeutic strategies with improved therapeutic efficacy. Here we review recent studies of immune checkpoint blockade in HCC, providing the necessary basis for the rational design of immunotherapy.

5.
Immune Network ; : e3-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898563

ABSTRACT

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), including anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 therapeutic agents, are now approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of various types of cancer. However, the therapeutic efficacy of ICIs varies among patients and cancer types. Moreover, most patients do not develop durable antitumor responses after ICI therapy due to an ephemeral reversal of T-cell dysfunction. As co-stimulatory receptors play key roles in regulating the effector functions of T cells, activating co-stimulatory pathways may improve checkpoint inhibition efficacy, and lead to durable antitumor responses. Here, we review recent advances in our understating of co-stimulatory receptors in cancers, providing the necessary groundwork for the rational design of cancer immunotherapy.

6.
Immune Network ; : e3-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890859

ABSTRACT

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), including anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 therapeutic agents, are now approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of various types of cancer. However, the therapeutic efficacy of ICIs varies among patients and cancer types. Moreover, most patients do not develop durable antitumor responses after ICI therapy due to an ephemeral reversal of T-cell dysfunction. As co-stimulatory receptors play key roles in regulating the effector functions of T cells, activating co-stimulatory pathways may improve checkpoint inhibition efficacy, and lead to durable antitumor responses. Here, we review recent advances in our understating of co-stimulatory receptors in cancers, providing the necessary groundwork for the rational design of cancer immunotherapy.

7.
Immune Network ; : 3-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811179

ABSTRACT

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), including anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 therapeutic agents, are now approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of various types of cancer. However, the therapeutic efficacy of ICIs varies among patients and cancer types. Moreover, most patients do not develop durable antitumor responses after ICI therapy due to an ephemeral reversal of T-cell dysfunction. As co-stimulatory receptors play key roles in regulating the effector functions of T cells, activating co-stimulatory pathways may improve checkpoint inhibition efficacy, and lead to durable antitumor responses. Here, we review recent advances in our understating of co-stimulatory receptors in cancers, providing the necessary groundwork for the rational design of cancer immunotherapy.


Subject(s)
Costimulatory and Inhibitory T-Cell Receptors , Humans , Immunotherapy , T-Lymphocytes , United States Food and Drug Administration
8.
Immune Network ; : e45-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719135

ABSTRACT

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), such as anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 Abs, have shown efficacy for the treatment of various cancers. Although research has actively sought to develop new ICIs and immunomodulators, no efficient in vitro assay system is available to evaluate their functional activities. In the present study, we established a two-round MLR with human PBMCs for evaluation of the T cell-activating capacity of anti-PD-1 and other immunomodulators. We initially performed conventional MLR for this purpose. However, anti-PD-1 blocking Abs could not increase the proliferation of allo-reactive T cells in conventional MLR because PD-L1+ and PD-L2+ cells disappeared gradually during MLR. Therefore, we re-applied the same stimulator PBMCs to the allo-stimulated responder cells as a second-round MLR on day 6 when anti-PD-1 or immunomodulators were also added. In this two-round MLR, the proliferation of allo-reactive T cells was enhanced by anti-PD-1 in a dose-dependent manner or by immunomodulators, such as lenalidomide and galunisertib, a TGF-β receptor-1 inhibitor. Proliferation was further increased by the combination of immunomodulators with anti-PD-1. Here, we established a modified two-round MLR method with human PBMCs for evaluation of the functional activities of anti-PD-1 and immunomodulators.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunologic Factors , In Vitro Techniques , Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed , Methods , T-Lymphocytes
9.
Immune Network ; : e38-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717672

ABSTRACT

Herpes zoster (HZ), or shingles, is caused by the reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) from the sensory ganglia when VZV-specific T-cell immunity is decreased because of aging or immunosuppression. In the present study, we developed HZ DNA vaccine candidates encoding VZV proteins and cytokine adjuvants, such as IL-7 and IL-33. We immunized C57BL/6 mice with DNA plasmids encoding VZV glycoprotein E (gE), immediate early (IE) 63, or IE62 proteins and found that robust VZV protein-specific T-cell responses were elicited by HZ DNA vaccination. Co-administration of DNA plasmids encoding IL-7 or IL-33 in HZ DNA vaccination significantly enhanced the magnitude of VZV protein-specific T-cell responses. Protective immunity elicited by HZ DNA vaccination was proven by challenge experiments with a surrogate virus, vaccinia virus expressing gE (VV-gE). A single dose of HZ DNA vaccine strongly boosted gE-specific T-cell responses in mice with a history of previous infection by VV-gE. Thus, HZ DNA vaccines with IL-7 and IL-33 adjuvants strongly elicit protective immunity.


Subject(s)
Aging , Animals , DNA , Ganglia, Sensory , Glycoproteins , Herpes Zoster , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Immunosuppression Therapy , Interleukin-33 , Interleukin-7 , Mice , Plasmids , T-Lymphocytes , Vaccination , Vaccines, DNA , Vaccinia virus
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-127725

ABSTRACT

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) establishes a lifelong chronic latent infection and often reactivates in immunocompromised patients. In addition, HCMV reactivates in patients with sepsis or other critical illnesses, particularly in patients with poor prognoses. However, the immunological characteristics of sepsis patients with HCMV reactivation have not been elucidated. In the present study, we examined T-cell responses in severe sepsis patients with and without HCMV reactivation. First, HCMV pp65-specific T-cell functions were assessed by intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) for IFN-γ, TNF-α, and MIP-1β and by CD107a staining. We analyzed the ICS data for each function individually and found no difference between the patient groups. However, the relative frequency of polyfunctional CD8⁺ T cells was significantly decreased in sepsis patients with HCMV reactivation. Next, we examined programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) expression. It was significantly increased in the CD8⁺ T-cell population in severe sepsis patients with HCMV reactivation, indicating CD8⁺ T-cell exhaustion. Interestingly, the frequency of PD-1⁺ cells in the CD8⁺ T-cell population was inversely correlated with the relative frequency of polyfunctional CD8⁺ T cells. Herein, we demonstrate that HCMV reactivation in severe sepsis patients is associated with PD-1 expression and impaired polyfunctionality of CD8⁺ T cells.


Subject(s)
Cell Death , Critical Illness , Cytomegalovirus , Humans , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Prognosis , Sepsis , T-Lymphocytes
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-81701

ABSTRACT

Duodenal diverticula are common disease entities occurring in up to 25% of the healthy population. Duodenal diverticular perforation is a rare but fatal complication. Although the main treatment for duodenal diverticular perforation is surgery, conservative treatment can be an option for selected patients. We present a case of a 71-year-old woman with a perforated duodenal diverticulum successfully managed with conservative treatment with antibiotics and percutaneous drainage of abscesses.


Subject(s)
Abscess , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Diverticulum , Drainage , Duodenum , Female , Humans
12.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 144-147, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65768

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary placental transmogrification (PT) is a rare lung disease that takes on the histologic appearance of placental chorionic villi. We herein report a case of PT in a 66-year-old woman who presented with a single nodule on chest radiography performed during a routine health examination. She had no complaints of any symptoms. Chest radiography showed a focal ill-defined nodular opacity in the right lower lobe; chest computed tomography revealed a 17-mm lobulated, focal irregular mass with fissural retraction in the right lower lobe, suggestive of lung cancer. Pathology of a percutaneous needle aspiration biopsy revealed papillary structures resembling placental villi. These were lined by cytotrophoblast-like cells and syncytiotrophoblasts. This characteristic pathologic finding led to a diagnosis of PT. PT of the lung is found mainly in bullous or cystic lesions. However, this patient presented with a single nodule on chest radiography.


Subject(s)
Aged , Biopsy, Needle , Chorionic Villi , Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Lung Diseases , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Needles , Pathology , Placenta , Radiography , Thorax , Trophoblasts
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210165

ABSTRACT

By changing the relative abundance of generated antigenic peptides through alterations in the proteolytic activity, interferon (IFN)-γ-induced immunoproteasomes influence the outcome of CD8⁺ cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. In the present study, we investigated the effects of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection on IFN-γ-induced immunoproteasome expression using a HCV infection cell culture system. We found that, although IFN-γ induced the transcriptional expression of mRNAs encoding the β1i/LMP2, β2i/MECL-1 and β5i/LMP7 immunoproteasome subunits, the formation of immunoproteasomes was significantly suppressed in HCV-infected cells. This finding indicated that immunoproteasome induction was impaired at the translational or posttranslational level by HCV infection. Gene silencing studies showed that the suppression of immunoproteasome induction is essentially dependent on protein kinase R (PKR). Indeed, the generation of a strictly immunoproteasome-dependent cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitope was impaired in in vitro processing experiments using isolated 20S proteasomes from HCV-infected cells and was restored by the silencing of PKR expression. In conclusion, our data point to a novel mechanism of immune regulation by HCV that affects the antigen-processing machinery through the PKR-mediated suppression of immunoproteasome induction in infected cells.


Subject(s)
Cell Culture Techniques , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , Gene Silencing , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C , Hepatitis , In Vitro Techniques , Interferons , Lymphocytes , Peptides , Protein Kinases , RNA, Messenger
14.
Immune Network ; : 191-198, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-186451

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is responsible for approximately 350 million chronic infections worldwide and is a leading cause of broad-spectrum liver diseases such as hepatitis, cirrhosis and liver cancer. Although it has been well established that adaptive immunity plays a critical role in viral clearance, the pathogenetic mechanisms that cause liver damage during acute and chronic HBV infection remain largely known. This review describes our current knowledge of the immune-mediated pathogenesis of HBV infection and the role of immune cells in the liver injury during hepatitis B.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Fibrosis , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis , Liver Diseases , Liver Neoplasms , Liver
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-149430

ABSTRACT

Non-traumatic exertional rhabdomyolysis (exRML) occurs in individuals with normal muscles when the energy supplied to the muscle is insufficient. Here, we report 11 cases of spinning-induced rhabdomyolysis and review related literature. Spinning is a kind of indoor bicycle sport. The 11 patients who were diagnosed with exRML and admitted to CHA Bundang Medical Center were female and their ages ranged from 15 to 46 years. Two to three days prior to the presentation, the patients had attended a spinning class for the first time. All the patients had been otherwise healthy without any known medical illnesses. They were successfully treated without any complications, except mild non-symptomatic hypocalcemia. However, in the literature, severe complications such as compartment syndrome or acute kidney injury had been reported in relation to exRML including spinning-induced rhabdomyolysis. This spinning exercise needs prior guidelines and specific warnings to prevent exertional rhabdomyolysis.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Compartment Syndromes , Creatine Kinase , Female , Humans , Hypocalcemia , Muscles , Rhabdomyolysis , Sports
16.
Gut and Liver ; : 506-512, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56814

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Interferon-gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) plays important roles in the pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We investigated the association between serum IP-10 levels and liver pathology in patients with chronic HCV infection. METHODS: The serum IP-10 concentration was assessed in 85 patients with chronic HCV infection using a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and a liver biopsy specimen was obtained. The pathology was scored using the Knodell histologic activity index (HAI). RESULTS: Of the 85 patients, 58 had genotype 1 HCV infection, 21 had genotype non-1, and 6 were undetermined. The serum IP-10 levels did not differ between patients infected with genotype 1 and genotype non-1 (p=0.472). In patients with genotype 1 infection, the total HAI score and the stage of fibrosis were highly correlated with the serum IP-10 level (r=0.555, r=0.578, p<0.001). Furthermore, the serum IP-10 concentrations of patients with severe fibrosis (stages 3, 4) were higher than those of patients with mild fibrosis (stages 0 to 2; 214.4 vs. 72.3 pg/mL, p=0.002) among patients with genotype 1 infection. However, in patients without genotype 1 infection, the histopathology was not associated with the serum IP-10 level. A multivariate analysis showed that serum IP-10 was an independent predictor of fibrosis (stages 3, 4) in patients with genotype 1 infection (odds ratio, 1.034; 95% confidence interval, 1.006 to 1.064; p=0.018). CONCLUSIONS: Serum IP-10 concentration was significantly correlated with the severity of liver histology in genotype 1 HCV infection.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fibrosis , Genotype , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Humans , Liver , Multivariate Analysis
17.
Immune Network ; : 198-205, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-10995

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A crucial limitation of DNA vaccines is its weak immunogenicity, especially in terms of eliciting antibody responses in non-human primates or humans; therefore, it is essential to enhance immune responses to vaccination for the development of successful DNA vaccines for humans. METHODS: Here, we approached this issue by evaluating interleukin-7 (IL-7) as a genetic adjuvant in cynomolgus monkeys immunized with multigenic HCV DNA vaccine. RESULTS: Codelivery of human IL-7 (hIL-7)-encoding DNA appeared to increase DNA vaccine-induced antibody responses specific for HCV E2 protein, which plays a critical role in protecting from HCV infection. HCV-specific T cell responses were also significantly enhanced by codelivery of hIL-7 DNA. Interestingly, the augmentation of T cell responses by codelivery of hIL-7 DNA was shown to be due to the enhancement of both the breadth and magnitude of immune responses against dominant and subdominant epitopes. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these findings suggest that the hIL-7-expressing plasmid serves as a promising vaccine adjuvant capable of eliciting enhanced vaccine-induced antibody and broad T cell responses.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , DNA , Humans , Interleukin-7 , Macaca fascicularis , Plasmids , Primates , Vaccination , Vaccines, DNA
18.
Immune Network ; : 186-196, 2007.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-198232

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although IL-12 has been widely accepted to play a central role in the control of pathogen infection, the use of recombinant IL-12 (rIL-12) as a vaccine adjuvant has been known to be ineffective because of its rapid clearance in the body. METHODS: To investigate the effect of sustained release of IL-12 in vivo in the peptide and protein vaccination models, rIL-12 was encapsulated into poly (DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). RESULTS: We found that codelivery of IL-12-encapsulated microspheres (IL-12EM) could dramatically increase not only antibody responses, but also antigen-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses. Enhanced immune responses were shown to be correlated with protective immunity against influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) virus challenge. Interestingly, the enhancement of CD8(+) T cell response was not detectable when CD4(+) T cell knockout mice were subjected to vaccination, indicating that the enhancement of the CD8(+) T cell response by IL-12EM is dependent on CD4(+) T cell "help". CONCLUSION: Thus, IL-12EM could be applied as an adjuvant of protein and peptide vaccines to enhance protective immunity against virus infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibody Formation , Influenza, Human , Interleukin-12 , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Microspheres , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses , Vaccination , Vaccines, Subunit
19.
Immune Network ; : 1-10, 2005.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-127006

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) affects about 350 million people worldwide, which have a high risk of development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Treatment of chronic HBV infection relies on IFN-alpha or lamivudine. However, interferon-alpha is effective in only about 30% of patients. Also, the occurrence of escape mutations limits the usage of lamivudine. Therefore, the development and evaluation of new compounds or approaches are urgent. METHODS: We comparatively evaluated DNA and adenoviral vaccines expressing HBV antigens, either alone or in combined regimens, for their ability to elicit Th1-type immune responses in Balb/c mice which are believed to be suited to resolve HBV infection. The vaccines were tested with or without a genetically engineered IL-12 (mIL-12 N220L) which was shown to enhance sustained Th1-type immune responses in HCV E2 DNA vaccine. RESULTS: Considering the Th1-type cytokine secretion and the IgG2a titers, the strongest Th1-type immune response was elicited by the DNA prime-adenovirus boost regimen in the presence of mIL-12 N220L. In addition, the codelivery of mIL-12 N220L modulated differentially the immune responses by different vaccination regimens. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the DNA prime-adenovirus boost regimen in the presence of mIL-12 N220L may be the best candidate for HBV vaccine therapy of the regimens tested in this study and will be worthwhile being evaluated in chronic HBV patients.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , DNA , Fibrosis , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunotherapy, Active , Interferon-alpha , Interleukin-12 , Lamivudine , Mice , United Nations , Vaccination , Vaccines
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