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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902654

ABSTRACT

Sepsis, one of the most fatal diseases in the world, is known to culminate in multiple organ failure due to an uncontrolled inflammatory response. Hence, the use of animal models in sepsis research is very important to study complex immune responses. The current study was undertaken to compare commercial stocks with KFDA stocks of DBA/2 mice as an animal model for sepsis study. To compare responses of DBA/2 mice to lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced sepsis, we measured altered characteristics of various factors associated with sepsis, including survival curves, organ failure and inflammatory response, in DBA/2Korl stock and two commercial stocks (DBA/2A and DBA/ 2B). Survival rates after LPS exposure were similar for DBA/2Korl and DBA/2B; however, for times over 20 h, survival rates were reduced and concentration dependent in DBA/2A. In order to evaluate multiple organ failure caused by sepsis, H&E stains were evaluated for liver and spleen tissues obtained in the early (2 h) and later (20 h) stages after exposure to LPS; no significant differences were observed between the three stocks. mRNA and protein levels of proinflammatory cytokines were assessed for evaluating inflammatory reactions, and were found to increase in a dose-dependent manner in most DBA/2 mice after LPS treatment. However, no changes were observed in the mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines at 20 h after LPS exposure in the DBA/2A stock. The induction of inflammation-mediated factors by LPS exposure did not induce alterations in the mRNA levels of COX-2 and iNOS in all three DBA/2 stocks. Our results indicate that response of DBA/2Korl to LPS-induced sepsis is similar to the two commercial DBA/2 stocks, thus representing its potential as a useful biological resource established in Korea.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894950

ABSTRACT

Sepsis, one of the most fatal diseases in the world, is known to culminate in multiple organ failure due to an uncontrolled inflammatory response. Hence, the use of animal models in sepsis research is very important to study complex immune responses. The current study was undertaken to compare commercial stocks with KFDA stocks of DBA/2 mice as an animal model for sepsis study. To compare responses of DBA/2 mice to lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced sepsis, we measured altered characteristics of various factors associated with sepsis, including survival curves, organ failure and inflammatory response, in DBA/2Korl stock and two commercial stocks (DBA/2A and DBA/ 2B). Survival rates after LPS exposure were similar for DBA/2Korl and DBA/2B; however, for times over 20 h, survival rates were reduced and concentration dependent in DBA/2A. In order to evaluate multiple organ failure caused by sepsis, H&E stains were evaluated for liver and spleen tissues obtained in the early (2 h) and later (20 h) stages after exposure to LPS; no significant differences were observed between the three stocks. mRNA and protein levels of proinflammatory cytokines were assessed for evaluating inflammatory reactions, and were found to increase in a dose-dependent manner in most DBA/2 mice after LPS treatment. However, no changes were observed in the mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines at 20 h after LPS exposure in the DBA/2A stock. The induction of inflammation-mediated factors by LPS exposure did not induce alterations in the mRNA levels of COX-2 and iNOS in all three DBA/2 stocks. Our results indicate that response of DBA/2Korl to LPS-induced sepsis is similar to the two commercial DBA/2 stocks, thus representing its potential as a useful biological resource established in Korea.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902640

ABSTRACT

To investigate the role of complement C3 (C3) convertase on the strain difference for C3 protein expression in three inbred mice strains, we compared the levels of C2, C3 and C4 mRNA, as well as C3 protein and C3 convertase activity in the serum and liver tissue of FVB/N, C3H/HeN and C57BL/6N mice. The level of mRNA, inactive form (InACF) and active form (ACF) for C3 showed a regular pattern, which they were higher in the FVB/N and C57BL/6N mice than C3H/HeN mice. However, the level of C3b fragments (C3bα and β) derived from C3 protein were constantly maintained in the liver of FVB/N, C3H/HeN and C57BL/6N mice in spite of the strain difference on the transcriptional and translation level of C3. Especially, a reverse pattern of the level of mRNA, InACF and ACF for C3 was observed on the activity level of C3 convertase activity. The highest level of C3 convertase activity was measured in C3H/HeN mice, followed by C57BL/6N and FVB/N mice. In case of C3 convertase components, the level of C2 mRNA was higher in C3H/HeN mice than FVB/N and C57BL/6 N mice, while levels of C4 mRNA were higher in FVB/N and C57BL/6N mice than C3H/HeN mice. The current study results provide the first scientific evidence that C3 convertase may play complementary role to overcome the strain difference on the C3 protein expression in FVB/N, C3H/HeN and C57BL/6N mice.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894936

ABSTRACT

To investigate the role of complement C3 (C3) convertase on the strain difference for C3 protein expression in three inbred mice strains, we compared the levels of C2, C3 and C4 mRNA, as well as C3 protein and C3 convertase activity in the serum and liver tissue of FVB/N, C3H/HeN and C57BL/6N mice. The level of mRNA, inactive form (InACF) and active form (ACF) for C3 showed a regular pattern, which they were higher in the FVB/N and C57BL/6N mice than C3H/HeN mice. However, the level of C3b fragments (C3bα and β) derived from C3 protein were constantly maintained in the liver of FVB/N, C3H/HeN and C57BL/6N mice in spite of the strain difference on the transcriptional and translation level of C3. Especially, a reverse pattern of the level of mRNA, InACF and ACF for C3 was observed on the activity level of C3 convertase activity. The highest level of C3 convertase activity was measured in C3H/HeN mice, followed by C57BL/6N and FVB/N mice. In case of C3 convertase components, the level of C2 mRNA was higher in C3H/HeN mice than FVB/N and C57BL/6 N mice, while levels of C4 mRNA were higher in FVB/N and C57BL/6N mice than C3H/HeN mice. The current study results provide the first scientific evidence that C3 convertase may play complementary role to overcome the strain difference on the C3 protein expression in FVB/N, C3H/HeN and C57BL/6N mice.

5.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 248-259, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836903

ABSTRACT

Differences in responsiveness of BALB/c substrains have been investigated in various fields, including diabetes induction, corpus callosum deficiency, virus-induced demyelinating disease, aggressive behavior and osteonecrosis. However, induction efficacy of skin tumor remains untried. We therefore investigated the influence of BALB/c substrain backgrounds on the skin tumor induction efficacy in response to DMBA (7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene) and TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate) cotreatment. Alterations in the levels of tumor growth related factors, histopathological structure, and the expression to tumor related proteins were measured in three BALB/c substrains (BALB/cKorl, BALB/cA and BALB/cB) after exposure to DMBA (25 μg/kg) and three different doses of TPA (2, 4 and 8 μg/kg). The average number and induction efficacy of tumors in response to DMBA+TPA treatment were significantly greater in the BALB/cKorl substrain than in BALB/cA and BALB/cB. However, cotreatment with DMBA+TPA induced similar responses for body and organ weights of all three substrains. Few differences were detected in the serum analyzing factors, while similar responsiveness was observed for blood analyzing factors after DMBA+TPA treatment. Furthermore, the three BALB/c substrains exhibited similar patterns in their histopathological structure in DMBA+TPA-induced tumors. The expression levels of apoptotic proteins and tumor related proteins were constantly maintained in all three BALB/c substrains treated with DMBA+TPA. In addition, the responsiveness to cisplatin treatment was overall very similar in the three BALB/c substrains with DMBA+TPA-induced tumors. Taken together, these results indicate that genetic background of the three BALB/c substrains does not have a major effect on the DMBA+TPA-induced skin carcinogenesis and therapeutic responsiveness of cisplatin, except induction efficacy.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918398

ABSTRACT

Red Liriope platyphylla (RLP) is a known herbal medicine used in the treatment of some chronic diseases including constipation, neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes and obesity. To determine and characterize putative biomarkers that predict the laxative effects induced by RLP treatment, alteration of endogenous metabolites was measured in the serum of loperamide (Lop)-induced constipation rats after administration of RLP extract (EtRLP) using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectral data. The urine volume and amounts, and weights and water contents of stools were significantly recovered in the Lop + EtRLP treated group as compared to the No group, whereas body weight and food intake maintained constant levels. Also, significant recoveries in the thickness of mucosa and muscle were detected in the colon of the Lop + EtRLP treated group. Furthermore, pattern recognition showed absolutely different clustering of the serum analysis parameters when comparing the Lop treated group and Lop + EtRLP treated group. Of the 33 endogenous metabolites, 7 amino acids (alanine, arginine, glutamate, glutamine, glycine, threonine and valine) and 8 endogenous metabolites (betaine, creatine, glucose, taurine, ethanol, lactate, glycerol and succinate) were dramatically increased in the Lop + EtRLP treated SD rats. These results provide the first evidence pertaining to metabolic changes in the constipation rats treated with Lop + EtRLP. Additionally, these findings correlate with changes observed in 15 metabolites during the laxative effects of EtRLP.

7.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 238-247, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786398

ABSTRACT

The butanol extract of Asparagus cochinchinensis roots fermented with Weissella cibaria (BAW) effectively prevents inflammation and remodeling of airway in the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. To characterize biomarkers that can predict the anti-asthmatic effects induced by BAW treatment, we measured the alteration of endogenous metabolites in the serum of OVA-induced asthma mice after administration of low concentration BAW (BAWLo, 250 mg/kg) and high concentration BAW (BAWHi, 500 mg/kg) using ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR) spectral data. The number of immune cells and serum concentration of IgE as well as thickness of the respiratory epithelium and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the airway significantly recovered in the OVA+BAW treated group as compared to the OVA+Vehicle treated group. In the metabolic profile analysis, the pattern recognition showed completely separate clustering of serum analysis parameters between the OVA+Vehicle and OVA+BAW treated groups. Of the total endogenous metabolites, 19 metabolites were upregulated or downregulated in the OVA+Vehicle treated group as compared to the Control treated group. However, only 4 amino acids (alanine, glycine, methionine and tryptophan) were significantly recovered after BAWLo and BAWHi treatment. This study provides the first results pertaining to metabolic changes in the asthma model mice treated with OVA+BAW. Additionally, these findings show that 4 metabolites can be used as one of biomarkers to predict the anti-asthmatic effects.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , Animals , Asthma , Biomarkers , Fermentation , Glycine , Immunoglobulin E , Inflammation , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Metabolome , Metabolomics , Methionine , Mice , Ovalbumin , Respiratory Mucosa , Therapeutic Uses , Weissella
8.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 114-123, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786396

ABSTRACT

In our efforts to understand the systemic features of tumors, the importance of animal models is increasing due to the recent growth in the development of immunotherapy and targeted therapies. This has resulted in increased attention towards tumor animal models using C57BL/6N, which are mainly used in immunological studies. In this study, the C57BL/6NKorl stock and two other commercial stocks (C57BL/6NA and C57BL/N6B) are evaluated by comparing the occurrence of tumors using the syngeneic model; furthermore, we compare the response to anti-cancer drugs in the syngeneic model by evaluating survival, growth of tumors, proliferation and molecular biology analysis. In the syngeneic model using LLC (Lewis lung carcinoma) cells, the survival of mice and growth of the tumor showed a better response in the C57BL/6NKorl stock, and was dependent on the cell concentration of the dosing tumor, as compared to the other C57BL/6N stocks. However, the Ki-67 staining showed only little difference in cell proliferation within the tumor tissue each mouse stocks. Comparing the sensitivity to anti-cancer drug by examining changes in growth, volume and weight revealed that cisplatin treatment for tumor-bearing C57BL/6NKorl was more dependent on concentration. The Ki-67 staining, however, showed no difference among the C57BL/6N stocks after cisplatin treatment. The expressions of p27 and p53 tumor suppressor proteins, caspase-3 and Bax showed dose-dependent increase after exposure to cisplatin, whereas the expression of Bcl-2 was reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the expressions of MMP-2 and VEGF involved in metastasis, as well as inflammatory genes IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10, showed dose-dependent decrease in tumor tissue after cisplatin exposure. Differences observed among the C57BL/6N stocks were not significant. Taken together, our studies reveal that C57BL/6NKorl has the potential of being a useful biological resource established in Korea, as it does not differ from the two commercially available C57BL/6N stocks when considering response to tumor generation and sensitivity to anti-cancer drugs using the syngeneic tumor model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Caspase 3 , Cell Proliferation , Cisplatin , Immunotherapy , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6 , Korea , Lung , Mice , Models, Animal , Molecular Biology , Neoplasm Metastasis , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
9.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 223-231, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718845

ABSTRACT

Regulation of gastrointestinal hormones have been reported in animal models for constipation undergoing laxative therapy when administered herbal products. We undertook to investigate whether the laxative activity of gallotannin-enriched extracts isolated from Galla Rhois (GEGR) affects the regulation of gastrointestinal hormones, by examining the concentration of four hormones and the activation of their receptors in the loperamide (Lop)-induced constipation model. Stool parameters, including number, weight and water content, were significantly recovered in the Lop+GEGR treated group, relative to the Lop+vehicle treated group; however, food intake and water consumption were maintained at a constant level. Also, a similar recovery was detected for thickness of mucosa, muscle and flat luminal surface in the Lop+GEGR treated group. Furthermore, concentration of the four gastrointestinal hormones evaluated, namely, cholecystokinin (CCK), gastrin (GAS), somatostatin (SS) and motilin (MTL), were lower in the Lop+vehicle treated group than the No treated group, but were remarkably enhanced in the Lop+GEGR treated group. Moreover, the downstream signaling pathway of MTL and SS receptors were recovered after GEGR administration. Results of the present study therefore indicate that the laxative effects of GEGR treatment may be tightly related with the regulation of gastrointestinal hormones in the Lop-induced constipation model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cholecystokinin , Constipation , Drinking , Eating , Gastrins , Gastrointestinal Hormones , Loperamide , Models, Animal , Motilin , Mucous Membrane , Phenobarbital , Rats , Somatostatin , Water
10.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 288-294, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718838

ABSTRACT

A few clues about correlation between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mulberry (Morus alba) leaves were investigated in only the experimental autoimmune myocarditis and streptozotocin-induced diabetes. To investigate whether a novel extract of mulberry leaves fermented with Cordyceps militaris (EMfC) could suppress ER in fatty liver, alterations in the key parameters for ER stress response were measured in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese C57L/6 mice treated with EMfC for 12 weeks. The area of adipocytes in the liver section were significantly decreased in the HFD+EMfC treated group as compared to the HFD+Vehicle treated group, while their level was higher in HFD+Vehicle treated group than No treated group. The level of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α) and inositol-requiring enzyme 1 beta (IRE1α) phosphorylation and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) expression were remarkably enhanced in the HFD+Vehicle treated group. However, their levels were restored in the HFD+EMfC treated group, although some differences were detected in the decrease rate. Similar recovery was observed on the ER stress-induced apoptosis. The level of Caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax were decreased in the HFD+EMfC and HFD+orlistat (OT) treated group compared to the HFD+Vehicle treated group. The results of the present study therefore provide first evidence that EMfC with the anti-obesity effects can be suppressed ER stress and ER stress-induced apoptosis in the hepatic steatosis of HFD-induced obesity model.


Subject(s)
Adipocytes , Animals , Apoptosis , Caspase 3 , CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins , Cordyceps , Diet, High-Fat , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2 , Fatty Liver , Liver , Mice , Morus , Myocarditis , Obesity , Phosphorylation
11.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 317-328, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718834

ABSTRACT

Cognitive impairment responses are important research topics in the study of degenerative brain diseases as well as in understanding of human mental activities. To compare response to scopolamine (SPL)-induced cognitive impairment, we measured altered parameters for learning and memory ability, inflammatory response, oxidative stress, cholinergic dysfunction and neuronal cell damages, in Korl:ICR stock and two commercial breeder stocks (A:ICR and B:ICR) after relevant SPL exposure. In the water maze test, Korl:ICR showed no significant difference in SPL-induced learning and memory impairment compared to the two different ICRs, although escape latency was increased after SPL exposure. Although behavioral assessment using the manual avoidance test revealed reduced latency in all ICR mice after SPL treatment as compared to Vehicle, no differences were observed between the three ICR stocks. To determine cholinergic dysfunction induction by SPL exposure, activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) assessed in the three ICR stocks revealed no difference of acetylcholinesterase activity. Furthermore, low levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and high levels of inflammatory cytokines in SPL-treated group were maintained in all three ICR stocks, although some variations were observed between the SPLtreated groups. Neuronal cell damages induced by SPL showed similar response in all three ICR stocks, as assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, Nissl staining analysis and expression analyses of apoptosis-related proteins. Thus, the results of this study provide strong evidence that Korl:ICR is similar to the other two ICR. Stocks in response to learning and memory capacity.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase , Animals , Brain Diseases , Cognition Disorders , Cytokines , DNA Nucleotidylexotransferase , Humans , Learning , Memory , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Neurons , Oxidative Stress , Scopolamine , Superoxide Dismutase , United Nations , Water
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