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1.
Gut and Liver ; : 225-231, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874587

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Some cases of gastric low-grade dysplasia (LGD) and high-grade dysplasia (HGD) on forceps biopsy (FB) are diagnosed as gastric cancer (GC) after endoscopic resection (ER). This study aims to evaluate the clinical outcomes of ER for gastric LGD and HGD on pretreatment FB and to identify the factors that predict pathologic upstaging to GC. @*Methods@#Patients who underwent ER for LGD and HGD on pretreatment FB from March 2005 to February 2018 in 14 hospitals in South Korea were enrolled, and the patients’ medical records were reviewed retrospectively. @*Results@#This study included 2,150 cases of LGD and 1,534 cases of HGD diagnosed by pretreatment FB. In total, 589 of 2,150 LGDs (27.4%) were diagnosed as GC after ER. Helicobacter pylori infection, smoking history, tumor location in the lower third of the stomach, tumor size >10 mm, depressed lesion, and ulceration significantly predicted GC. A total of 1,115 out of 1,534 HGDs (72.7%) were diagnosed with GC after ER. Previous history of GC, H. pylori infection, smoking history, tumor location in the lower third of the stomach, tumor size >10 mm, depressed lesion, and ulceration were significantly associated with GC. As the number of risk factors predicting GC increased in both LGD and HGD on pretreatment FB, the rate of upstaging to GC after ER increased. @*Conclusions@#A substantial proportion of LGDs and HGDs on pretreatment FB were diagnosed as GC after ER. Accurate ER procedures such as endoscopic submucosal dissection should be recommended in cases of LGD and HGD with factors predicting pathologic upstaging to GC.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900397

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Belching disorder (BD) is clinically distinct from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) with belching. Supragastric belching (SGB) is closely associated with reflux episodes. This study investigates belch characteristics in association with reflux, compared between patients with BD and those who had GERD with belching. @*Methods@#Impedance pH monitoring data from 10 patients with BD and 10 patients with GERD who exhibited belching were retrospectively analyzed. Belches were considered “isolated“ or “reflux-related” and acidicon-acidic. Belch characteristics were compared between patients with BD and those with GERD. @*Results@#Symptomatic belches were more frequent in patients with BD than in patients with GERD (median, 160.5 vs 56.0, P < 0.05). SGB was the most common type in both groups; common subtypes comprised “isolated“ in patients with BD and “isolated during the reflux period” in patients with GERD. Reflux-related SGB was more common in patients with GERD than in BD (78.3% vs 45.2%, P < 0.005).Both “preceding belching” including the reflux period and acidic SGB were more common in patients with GERD than in BD (31.8% vs 8.6% and 38.1% vs 8.9%, both P < 0.05). Supragastric belch number positively correlated with all reflux episodes in patients with GERD (adjusted R2 = 0.572, P = 0.007). @*Conclusions@#BD is characterized by more belching, compared to GERD. SGB is more frequently associated with reflux in GERD than in BD; acidity may be related to GERD. In BD, SGB is typically non-acidic and unrelated to reflux. Distinct SGB characteristics may reflect different pathogenic mechanisms of reflux and associated symptoms.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900385

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#S-isomer (S) pantoprazole is more bioavailable and less dependent on cytochrome 2C19 than is racemic pantoprazole. We aim to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 10 mg S-pantoprazole for treatment of non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). @*Methods@#In this phase 3, double-blind, randomized placebo controlled, multicenter study, 174 NERD patients were randomized to one of both treatment groups: 10 mg S-pantoprazole, or placebo once daily for 4 weeks. Symptoms and safety were assessed. The efficacy endpoints were complete relief of symptoms, > 50% improvement of all reflux symptoms and recurrence. @*Results@#Eighty-eight patients were assigned to the S-pantoprazole group (25 males, mean 43.7 years old) and 86 to the placebo group (32 males, mean 43.0 years old), and 163 patients were subjected to full Analysis Set. A higher proportion of patients in the S-pantoprazole group had complete symptom relief (42.0 % [34/81] vs 17.1% [14/82], P 50% symptom responses (66.0% vs 50.0%, P = 0.010 for heartburn; 64.2% vs 28.0%, P = 0.010 for acid regurgitation; and 51.9% vs 30.5%, P = 0.03 for epigastric discomfort) compared to the placebo group. The factors associated with poor responsiveness to PPI were older age, female, greater body mass index, and severe baseline symptoms. @*Conclusions@#Low dose of S-pantoprazole (10 mg) for 4 weeks was more efficacious than placebo in providing reflux symptom relief in patients with NERD, especially acid regurgitation. More doses or longer periods of treatment with S-pantoprazole would be needed to completely eliminate symptoms.

4.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 464-476, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897719

ABSTRACT

Advanced esophageal cancer is known to have a poor prognosis. The early detection of esophageal neoplasms, including esophageal dysplasia and early esophageal cancer, is highly important for the accurate treatment of the disease. However, esophageal dysplasia and early esophageal cancer are usually subtle and can be easily missed. In addition to the early detection, proper pretreatment evaluation of the depth of invasion of esophageal cancer is very important for curative treatment. The progression of non-invasive diagnosis via image-enhanced endoscopy techniques has been shown to aid the early detection and estimate the depth of invasion of early esophageal cancer and, as a result, may provide additional opportunities for curative treatment. Here, we review the advancement of image-enhanced endoscopy-related technologies and their role in the early identification of esophageal neoplasms.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892693

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Belching disorder (BD) is clinically distinct from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) with belching. Supragastric belching (SGB) is closely associated with reflux episodes. This study investigates belch characteristics in association with reflux, compared between patients with BD and those who had GERD with belching. @*Methods@#Impedance pH monitoring data from 10 patients with BD and 10 patients with GERD who exhibited belching were retrospectively analyzed. Belches were considered “isolated“ or “reflux-related” and acidicon-acidic. Belch characteristics were compared between patients with BD and those with GERD. @*Results@#Symptomatic belches were more frequent in patients with BD than in patients with GERD (median, 160.5 vs 56.0, P < 0.05). SGB was the most common type in both groups; common subtypes comprised “isolated“ in patients with BD and “isolated during the reflux period” in patients with GERD. Reflux-related SGB was more common in patients with GERD than in BD (78.3% vs 45.2%, P < 0.005).Both “preceding belching” including the reflux period and acidic SGB were more common in patients with GERD than in BD (31.8% vs 8.6% and 38.1% vs 8.9%, both P < 0.05). Supragastric belch number positively correlated with all reflux episodes in patients with GERD (adjusted R2 = 0.572, P = 0.007). @*Conclusions@#BD is characterized by more belching, compared to GERD. SGB is more frequently associated with reflux in GERD than in BD; acidity may be related to GERD. In BD, SGB is typically non-acidic and unrelated to reflux. Distinct SGB characteristics may reflect different pathogenic mechanisms of reflux and associated symptoms.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892681

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#S-isomer (S) pantoprazole is more bioavailable and less dependent on cytochrome 2C19 than is racemic pantoprazole. We aim to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 10 mg S-pantoprazole for treatment of non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). @*Methods@#In this phase 3, double-blind, randomized placebo controlled, multicenter study, 174 NERD patients were randomized to one of both treatment groups: 10 mg S-pantoprazole, or placebo once daily for 4 weeks. Symptoms and safety were assessed. The efficacy endpoints were complete relief of symptoms, > 50% improvement of all reflux symptoms and recurrence. @*Results@#Eighty-eight patients were assigned to the S-pantoprazole group (25 males, mean 43.7 years old) and 86 to the placebo group (32 males, mean 43.0 years old), and 163 patients were subjected to full Analysis Set. A higher proportion of patients in the S-pantoprazole group had complete symptom relief (42.0 % [34/81] vs 17.1% [14/82], P 50% symptom responses (66.0% vs 50.0%, P = 0.010 for heartburn; 64.2% vs 28.0%, P = 0.010 for acid regurgitation; and 51.9% vs 30.5%, P = 0.03 for epigastric discomfort) compared to the placebo group. The factors associated with poor responsiveness to PPI were older age, female, greater body mass index, and severe baseline symptoms. @*Conclusions@#Low dose of S-pantoprazole (10 mg) for 4 weeks was more efficacious than placebo in providing reflux symptom relief in patients with NERD, especially acid regurgitation. More doses or longer periods of treatment with S-pantoprazole would be needed to completely eliminate symptoms.

7.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 464-476, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890015

ABSTRACT

Advanced esophageal cancer is known to have a poor prognosis. The early detection of esophageal neoplasms, including esophageal dysplasia and early esophageal cancer, is highly important for the accurate treatment of the disease. However, esophageal dysplasia and early esophageal cancer are usually subtle and can be easily missed. In addition to the early detection, proper pretreatment evaluation of the depth of invasion of esophageal cancer is very important for curative treatment. The progression of non-invasive diagnosis via image-enhanced endoscopy techniques has been shown to aid the early detection and estimate the depth of invasion of early esophageal cancer and, as a result, may provide additional opportunities for curative treatment. Here, we review the advancement of image-enhanced endoscopy-related technologies and their role in the early identification of esophageal neoplasms.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835534

ABSTRACT

This document is the third part of the guidelines for the interpretation and post-processing of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) studies. These consensus recommendations have been developed by a Consensus Committee of the Korean Society of Cardiovascular Imaging (KOSCI) to standardize the requirements for image interpretation and post-processing of CMR. This third part of the recommendations describes tissue characterization modules, including perfusion, late gadolinium enhancement, and T1- and T2 mapping. Additionally, this document provides guidance for visual and quantitative assessment, consisting of “What-to-See,” “How-To,” and common pitfalls for the analysis of each module. The Consensus Committee hopes that this document will contribute to the standardization of image interpretation and post-processing of CMR studies.

9.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833881

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Our study aims to characterize esophageal motor function; evaluate the relationships among esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), high-resolution manometry (HRM), and 24-hour esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance monitoring combined with pHmetry (MII-pH); and elucidate the determinants of esophageal symptom perception in South Koreans with systemic sclerosis (SSc). @*Methods@#We reviewed prospectively collected HRM (n = 46), EGD (n = 41), and MII-pH (n = 37) data from 46 consecutive patients with SSc (42 females; mean age 50.1 years) who underwent esophageal tests between June 2013 and September 2018. @*Results@#The most common HRM diagnosis was normal (39.1%), followed by ineffective esophageal motility (23.9%) and absent contractility (21.7%). Erosive esophagitis was observed in 12.2% of total SSc patients, with a higher frequency in patients with absent contractility than those with normal motility (44.5% vs 0.0%, P = 0.01). Pathologic acid exposure was observed in 6 patients (20.0%) and positive symptom association in 18 patients (60.0%) in MII-pH tests of symptomatic patients. The proportion of SSc patients with esophageal symptoms not explained by reflux or mucosal or motor esophageal abnormalities was 33.0%. @*Conclusions@#Esophageal involvement among South Koreans with SSc was characterized by heterogeneous motility patterns, with a higher prevalence of normal motility and lower prevalence of erosive esophagitis. Reflux hypersensitivity or functional heartburn might be partly attributed to the perception of esophageal symptoms in SSc patients who have neither gastroesophageal reflux disease nor esophageal dysmotility.

10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833865

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We aimed to evaluate associations between comorbidities, peripheral neuropathy, and spontaneous internal anal sphincter relaxation (SAR) in patients with defecatory disorders. @*Methods@#A patient was considered to exhibit SAR during high-resolution anorectal manometry (HR-ARM) when the nadir pressure is < 15 mmHg and the time from onset to relaxation was ≥ 15 seconds in the resting pressure frame. A case-control study was performed using HR-ARM data collected from 880 patients from January 2010 to May 2015. We identified 23 cases with SAR (median age 75 years; 15 females; 12 fecal incontinence and 11 constipation). We compared HR-ARM values, Charlson index comorbidity scores, neuropathy, and the prevalence of diseases that potentially cause neuropathy between controls and SAR patients. Each SAR case was compared to 3 controls. Controls were selected to match the age, gender, and examination year of each SAR case. @*Results@#Compared to controls (26.1%), SAR patients (52.2%) exhibited a significantly higher frequency of fecal incontinence. SAR patients also had higher Charlson index scores (5 vs 4, P = 0.028). Nine of 23 SAR patients (39.1%) exhibited peripheral neuropathy— this frequency was higher than that for the control group (11.6%; P = 0.003). Diseases that potentially cause neuropathy were observed in 17 of 23 SAR cases and 32 of 69 controls (P = 0.022). @*Conclusions@#SAR develops in patients with constipation and fecal incontinence but is more common in patients with fecal incontinence. Our controlled observational study implies that SAR is associated with peripheral neuropathy and more severe comorbidities.

11.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833835

ABSTRACT

Esophageal achalasia is a primary motility disorder characterized by insufficient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation and loss of esophageal peristalsis. Achalasia is a chronic disease that causes progressive irreversible loss of esophageal motor function. The recent development of high-resolution manometry has facilitated the diagnosis of achalasia, and determining the achalasia subtypes based on high-resolution manometry can be important when deciding on treatment methods. Peroral endoscopic myotomy is less invasive than surgery with comparable efficacy. The present guidelines (the “2019 Seoul Consensus on Esophageal Achalasia Guidelines”) were developed based on evidence-based medicine; the Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association and Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility served as the operating and development committees, respectively. The development of the guidelines began in June 2018, and a draft consensus based on the Delphi process was achieved in April 2019. The guidelines consist of 18 recommendations: 2 pertaining to the definition and epidemiology of achalasia, 6 pertaining to diagnoses, and 10 pertaining to treatments. The endoscopic treatment section is based on the latest evidence from meta-analyses. Clinicians (including gastroenterologists, upper gastrointestinal tract surgeons, general physicians, nurses, and other hospital workers) and patients could use these guidelines to make an informed decision on the management of achalasia.

12.
Gut and Liver ; : 316-322, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833153

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The proper handling of antithrombotics is critical, and this study aimed to assess guideline adherence in the management of antithrombotics before and after endoscopy. @*Methods@#A survey questionnaire was developed. The respondents’ demographic information was included, and the questionnaire was divided into the first section for forceps biopsy, the second for polypectomy, and the third for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) in which aspirin, clopidogrel, combination therapy (aspirin and clopidogrel), warfarin, and direct oral anticoagulants (apixaban) were prescribed to imaginary patients. @*Results@#A total of 415 endoscopists completed this survey (response rate of 6.2%, 415/6,673). The percentage of respondents who chose to proceed with biopsy for patients taking aspirin, those taking clopidogrel, those under combination therapy, those taking warfarin, and those taking apixaban was 89.4%, 74.2%, 61.0%, 38.6%, and 50.4%, respectively. Most respondents answered that they would discontinue aspirin, clopidogrel, and a combination of both drugs for 5 days before polypectomy or ESD (69.4%/76.9%, 83.6%/83.9%, and 53.3%/65.8%, respectively). The answers indicated that warfarin should be discontinued with heparin bridge therapy in high thromboembolic risk patients (polypectomy 70.1%, ESD 73.5%). Regarding apixaban use in polypectomy and ESD, 63.9% and 58.1% of respondents, respectively, chose answers consistent with the guidelines. @*Conclusions@#The gap between the guidelines and clinical practice in the management of antithrombotics before and after endoscopy is considerable and should be addressed via educational strategies.

13.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 196-205, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832162

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors and long-term clinical outcomes of non-curative resection (NCR) in a large-scale patient population. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 3,094 patients who underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of early gastric cancer from March 2005 to March 2018 at 13 institutions in Korea. We analyzed the risk factors for NCR and the survival between patients with curative resection and those with NCR with no additional treatment. @*Results@#The NCR rate was 21.4% (661/3,094). In multivariate regression analysis, the risk factors affecting NCR with ESD were old age, undifferentiated tumor, tumor location in the upper body, tumor size ≥2 cm, and presence of an ulcer. In Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, tumor size ≥2 cm, submucosal invasion, positive horizontal margin, and lymphovascular invasion were risk factors for local recurrence. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, there was no statistically significant difference in the overall survival between the two groups (log-rank p=0.788). However, disease-specific survival was significantly lower in the NCR group (log-rank p=0.038). @*Conclusions@#Clinicians should be aware of the risk factors for NCR and local recurrence after ESD for early gastric cancer, and should consider providing additional treatment after NCR.

14.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 452-457, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832146

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Frequent bleeding after endoscopic resection (ER) has been reported in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We aimed to evaluate the association and clinical significance of bleeding with ER in ESRD patients on dialysis. @*Methods@#Between February 2008 and December 2018, 7,571 patients, including 47 ESRD patients on dialysis who underwent ER for gastric neoplasia, were enrolled. A total of 47 ESRDpatients on dialysis were propensity score-matched 1:10 to 470 non-ESRD patients, to adjust for between-group differences in variables such as age, sex, comorbidities, anticoagulation use, tumor characteristics, and ER method. Matching was performed using an optimal matching algorithm. For the matched data, clustered comparisons were performed using the generalized estimating equation method. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Frequency and outcomes of post-ER bleeding were evaluated. @*Results@#Bleeding was more frequent in the ESRD with dialysis group than in the non-ESRD group. ESRD with dialysis conferred a significant risk of post-ER bleeding (odds ratio, 6.1; 95% confidence interval, 2.7–13.6; p<0.0001). All post-ER bleeding events were controlled using endoscopic hemostasis except in 1 non-ESRD case that needed surgery. @*Conclusions@#ESRD with dialysis confers a bleeding risk after ER. However, all bleeding events could be managed endoscopically without sequelae. Concern about bleeding should not stop endoscopists from performing ER in ESRD patients on dialysis.

15.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 464-471, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763473

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental process, wherein the epithelial cells show reduced intercellular adhesions and acquire migratory fibroblastic properties. EMT is associated with downregulation in epithelial marker expression, abnormal translocation of E-cadherin, and upregulation in mesenchymal marker expression. Here, we investigated the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of EMT markers in early gastric cancer (EGC) between cancer and noncancer tissues. METHODS: Tissue samples were prospectively obtained from 19 patients with EGC that underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). We compared the expression level of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), E-cadherin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and vimentin between cancer and noncancer tissues using IHC. Among the 19 patients, 15 patients had follow-up biopsy at 3 months after ESD for EGC. RESULTS: Cancer tissues presented higher values of EMT mesenchymal markers (α-SMA/vimentin/TGF-β/VEGF) than the noncancerous tissues (p<0.05) that were significantly low after ESD (p<0.05). No significant correlation was reported for tumor location and initial Helicobacter pylori infection. CONCLUSIONS: The mesenchymal expression of EMT markers was higher in the cancerous tissues than in the noncancer tissues.


Subject(s)
Actins , Biopsy , Cadherins , Down-Regulation , Epithelial Cells , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Fibroblasts , Follow-Up Studies , Helicobacter pylori , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Prospective Studies , Stomach Neoplasms , Transforming Growth Factors , Up-Regulation , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Vimentin
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761577

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the etiologies of functional dyspepsia (FD). The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of H. pylori eradication therapy and motilitone monotherapy in patients with FD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively performed a multicenter randomized double-blind study between August 2014 and June 2017. FD patients with H. pylori infection randomly received either the standard triple therapy or motilitone. Global and individual symptom improvements, and changes in quality of life score were assessed. RESULTS: We failed to enroll as many candidates as we had planned. A study to evaluate the efficacy of medications in FD patients according to the Rome III criteria is difficult to perform in Korea because of the early medication therapy at local hospitals and reluctance to discontinue digestive medications. Of the 35 patients enrolled, 30 (18 in the H. pylori eradication group and 12 in the motilitone group) completed the trial. The success rate of H. pylori eradication was 44.4% (8/18). The symptom improvement rate using the 7-point Likert scale at week 12 was 66.7% (12/18) in the H. pylori eradication group and 91.7% (11/12) in the motilitone group (P=0.193). At week 12, the symptom improvement rate was not significantly different between the patients with successful eradication (87.5%, 7/8) and those in the motilitone group (91.7%, 11/12; P=1.000). CONCLUSIONS: Eradication therapy could be an effective treatment for H. pylori-positive FD. However, our results should be cautiously interpreted, as we failed to recruit the intended number of subjects.


Subject(s)
Double-Blind Method , Dyspepsia , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Humans , Korea , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Treatment Outcome
18.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1562-1582, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786373

ABSTRACT

This document is the third part of the guidelines for the protocol, the interpretation and post-processing of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) studies. These consensus recommendations have been developed by the Consensus Committee of the Korean Society of Cardiovascular Imaging to standardize the requirements for image interpretation and post-processing of CMR. This third part of the recommendations describes tissue characterization modules, including perfusion, late gadolinium enhancement, and T1- and T2 mapping. Additionally, this document provides guidance for visual and quantitative assessment consisting of “What-to-See,” “How-To,” and common pitfalls for the analysis of each module. The Consensus Committee hopes that this document will contribute to the standardization of image interpretation and post-processing of CMR studies.


Subject(s)
Consensus , Gadolinium , Hope , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Perfusion
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785884

ABSTRACT

Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is widely used in many areas of cardiovascular disease assessment. This is a practical, standard CMR protocol for beginners that is designed to be easy to follow and implement. This protocol guideline is based on previously reported CMR guidelines and includes sequence terminology used by vendors, essential MR physics, imaging planes, field strength considerations, MRI-conditional devices, drugs for stress tests, various CMR modules, and disease/symptom-based protocols based on a survey of cardiologists and various appropriate-use criteria. It will be of considerable help in planning and implementing tests. In addressing CMR usage and creating this protocol guideline, we particularly tried to include useful tips to overcome various practical issues and improve CMR imaging. We hope that this document will continue to standardize and simplify a patient-based approach to clinical CMR and contribute to the promotion of public health.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Commerce , Exercise Test , Heart , Hope , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Public Health
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785883

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is expected to be increasingly used in Korea due to technology advances and the expanded national insurance coverage of these tests. For improved patient care, it is crucial not only that CMR images are properly acquired but that they are accurately interpreted by well-trained personnel. In response to the increased demand for CMR, the Korean Society of Cardiovascular Imaging (KOSCI) has issued interpretation guidelines in conjunction with the Korean Society of Radiology (KSR). KOSCI has also created a formal Committee on CMR Guidelines to write updated practices. The members of this Committee review previously published interpretation guidelines and discuss the patterns of CMR use in Korea.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Heart , Insurance Coverage , Korea , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Patient Care
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