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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 746-757, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999788

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to assess the humoral response to and reactogenicity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination according to the vaccine type and to analyze factors associated with immunogenicity in actively treated solid cancer patients (CPs). @*Materials and Methods@#Prospective cohorts of CPs, undergoing anticancer treatment, and healthcare workers (HCWs) were established. The participants had no history of previous COVID-19 and received either mRNA-based or adenovirus vector–based (AdV) vaccines as the primary series. Blood samples were collected before the first vaccination and after 2 weeks for each dose vaccination. Spike-specific binding antibodies (bAbs) in all participants and neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) wild-type, Delta, and Omicron variants in CPs were analyzed and presented as the geometric mean titer. @*Results@#Age-matched 20 HCWs and 118 CPs were included in the analysis. The bAb seroconversion rate and antibody concentrations after the first vaccination were significantly lower in CPs than in HCWs. After the third vaccination, antibody levels in CPs with a primary series of AdV were comparable to those in HCWs, but nAb titers against the Omicron variant did not quantitatively increase in CPs with AdV vaccine as the primary series. The incidence and severity of adverse reactions post-vaccination were similar between CPs and HCWs. @*Conclusion@#CPs displayed delayed humoral immune response after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. The booster dose elicited comparable bAb concentrations between CPs and HCWs, regardless of the primary vaccine type. Neutralization against the Omicron variant was not robustly elicited following the booster dose in some CPs, implying the need for additional interventions to protect them from COVID-19.

2.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 637-673, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968903

ABSTRACT

Currently, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major threat to global public health. The antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) has been proposed as an important approach to overcome this crisis. ASP supports the optimal use of antimicrobials, including appropriate dosing decisions, administration duration, and administration routes. In Korea, efforts are being made to overcome AMR using ASPs as a national policy. The current study aimed to develop core elements of ASP that could be introduced in domestic medical facilities. A Delphi survey was conducted twice to select the core elements through expert consensus.The core elements for implementing the ASP included (1) leadership commitment, (2) operating system, (3) action, (4) tracking, (5) reporting, and (6) education. To ensure these core elements are present at medical facilities, multiple departments must collaborate as teams for ASP operations. Establishing a reimbursement system and a workforce for ASPs are prerequisites for implementing ASPs. To ensure that ASP core elements are actively implemented in medical facilities, it is necessary to provide financial support for ASPs in medical facilities, nurture the healthcare workforce in performing ASPs, apply the core elements to healthcare accreditation, and provide incentives to medical facilities by quality evaluation criteria.

3.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e191-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938070

ABSTRACT

Background@#The Korea National Antimicrobial Use Analysis System (KONAS), a benchmarking system for antimicrobial use in hospitals, provides Korean Standardized Antimicrobial Administration Ratio (K-SAAR) for benchmarking. This article describes K-SAAR predictive models to enhance the understanding of K-SAAR, an important benchmarking strategy for antimicrobial usage in KONAS. @*Methods@#We obtained medical insurance claims data for all hospitalized patients aged ≥ 28 days in all secondary and tertiary care hospitals in South Korea (n = 347) from January 2019 to December 2019 from the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service. Modeling was performed to derive a prediction value for antimicrobial use in each institution, which corresponded to the denominator value for calculating K-SAAR. The prediction values of antimicrobial use were modeled separately for each category, for all inpatients and adult patients (aged ≥ 15 years), using stepwise negative binomial regression. @*Results@#The final models for each antimicrobial category were adjusted for different significant risk factors. In the K-SAAR models of all aged patients as well as adult patients, most antimicrobial categories included the number of hospital beds and the number of operations as significant factors, while some antimicrobial categories included mean age for inpatients, hospital type, and the number of patients transferred from other hospitals as significant factors. @*Conclusion@#We developed a model to predict antimicrobial use rates in Korean hospitals, and the model was used as the denominator of the K-SAAR.

4.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 353-359, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937676

ABSTRACT

Despite the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination roll-out, variant-related outbreaks have occurred repeatedly in Korea. Although public hospitals played a major role in COVID-19 patients’ care, difficulty incorporating evolving COVID-19 treatment guidelines called for a clinical pathway (CP). Eighteen public hospitals volunteered, and a professional review board was created. CPs were formulated containing inclusion/exclusion criteria, application flow charts, and standardized order sets. After CP roll-out, key parameters improved, such as increased patient/staff five-point satisfaction scores (0.41/0.57) and decreased hospital stays (1.78 days)/medical expenses (17.5%). The CPs were updated consistently after roll-out as new therapeutics drugs were introduced and quarantine policies changed.

5.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 292-295, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927151

ABSTRACT

Residential treatment centers (RTCs) are successful in isolating and closely monitoring adults confirmed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but there are concerns for children who need care. This study was conducted as a retrospective analysis of the surveillance of guardians who entered an RTC with infected pediatric patients to identify the secondary attack rate of COVID-19 to close contacts in a single RTC and to provide directions for developing guidelines for caregivers who co-isolate with infected children. When caregivers were admitted to this RTC, aside from negative confirmation before discharge, tests were additionally performed one or two times. There were 57 index children and adolescent patients who entered the RTC with their parents as caregivers. The secondary attack rate by pediatric patients to close contacts outside their households was 25% (95% confidence interval, 10.0 to 40.0) (8 out of 32 contacts). The transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 in children was close to zero at 6 days after the confirmation tests. It is reasonable to test the close contacts of pediatric patients after 7 days of isolation to identify infections among caregivers.

6.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 483-492, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-946171

ABSTRACT

Background@#It is necessary to develop a roadmap for antimicrobial usage monitoring in order to perform monitoring of antimicrobial use at the national level properly. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a roadmap for establishing surveillance and monitoring of antimicrobial use in medical institutions at the national level. @*Materials and Methods@#A modified Delphi study was conducted, including 3 rounds of an online survey and a virtual meeting with 16 expert panels. The survey items were developed based on a literature review of the surveillance systems for antimicrobial use in 12 countries and interviews with experts. The questionnaire was designed to include both the surveillance and benchmarking systems. @*Results@#Regarding the scope of target institutions to be included in the surveillance system, medical institutions for sentinel surveillance had the highest proportion of agreement among the panels (75.0%, 9/12). For the benchmarking system, “tertiary- and secondarycare hospitals” were accepted as the scope of target institutions at the current moment.Furthermore, the National Health Insurance claims and prescription data of individual hospitals were considered appropriate data sources for the surveillance system. As for the measures to promote the participation of hospitals in the benchmarking system, “compensation through the establishment of antimicrobial management fees” and “set the participation in the program as a quality evaluation or accreditation index for hospital evaluation” were accepted. @*Conclusion@#This study provides a roadmap for establishing an antimicrobial use monitoring and benchmarking system for medical institutions at a national level in Korea.

7.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e177-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925910

ABSTRACT

Background@#In lung transplantation, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) compatibility is not included in the lung allocation score system or considered when placing donor allografts.However, HLA matching may affect the outcomes of lung transplantation. This study evaluated the current assessment status, prevalence, and effects of HLA crossmatching in lung transplantation in Korean patients using nationwide multicenter registry data. @*Methods@#Two hundred and twenty patients who received lung transplantation at six tertiary hospitals in South Korea between March 2015 and December 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical data, including general demographic characteristics, primary diagnosis, and pretransplant status of the recipients and donors registered by the Korean Organ Transplant Registry, were retrospectively analyzed. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank tests. @*Results@#Complement-dependent cytotoxic crossmatch (CDC-XM) was performed in 208 patients (94.5%) and flow cytometric crossmatch (flow-XM) was performed in 125 patients (56.8%). Among them, nine patients (4.1%) showed T cell- and/or B cell-positive crossmatches. The incidences of postoperative complications, including primary graft dysfunction, acute rejection, and chronic allograft dysfunction in positively crossmatched patients, were not significant compared with those in patients without mismatches.Moreover, Kaplan-Meier analyses showed poorer 1-year survival in patients with positive crossmatch according to CDC-XM (P < 0.001) and T lymphocyte XM (P = 0.002) than in patients without mismatches. @*Conclusion@#Positive CDC and T lymphocyte crossmatching results should be considered in the allocation of donor lungs. If unavailable, the result should be considered for postoperative management in lung transplantation.

8.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 202-207, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925834

ABSTRACT

African tick-bite fever (ATBF), caused by Rickettsia africae, is the second most frequent cause of fever after malaria in travelers returning from Southern Africa. As the Korean outbound travelers are increasing every year, tick-borne rickettsial diseases as a cause of febrile illness are likely to increase. We describe a febrile Korean returning traveler who showed two eschars after visiting the rural field in Manzini, Swaziland. We performed nested polymerase chain reaction using the eschar and diagnosed the patient with ATBF. He was treated with oral doxycycline for 7 days, and recovered without any complications. We believe that the present case is the first ATBF case diagnosed in a Korean traveler.

9.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 617-659, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898642

ABSTRACT

These guidelines were developed as a part of the 2021 Academic R&D Service Project of the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency in response to requests from healthcare professionals in clinical practice for guidance on developing antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs). These guidelines were developed by means of a systematic literature review and a summary of recent literature, in which evidence-based intervention methods were used to address key questions about the appropriate use of antimicrobial agents and ASP expansion. These guidelines also provide evidence of the effectiveness of ASPs and describe intervention methods applicable in Korea.

10.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 166-219, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898621

ABSTRACT

Despite the global effort to mitigate the spread, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a pandemic that took more than 2 million lives. There are numerous ongoing clinical studies aiming to find treatment options and many are being published daily. Some effective treatment options, albeit of variable efficacy, have been discovered. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an evidence-based methodology, to continuously check for new evidence, and to update recommendations accordingly. Here we provide guidelines on pharmaceutical treatment for COVID-19 based on the latest evidence.

11.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 395-403, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898603

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibodies targeted at the receptor-binding domain of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein have been developed and now under evaluation in clinical trials. The US Food and Drug Administration currently issued emergency use authorizations for neutralizing monoclonal antibodies in non-hospitalized patients with mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who are at high risk for progressing to severe disease and/or hospitalization. In terms of this situation, there is an urgent need to investigate the clinical aspects and to develop strategies to deploy them effectively in clinical practice. Here we provide guidance for the use of anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of COVID-19 based on the latest evidence.

12.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 179-189, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895851

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Steatohepatitis related to metabolic syndrome is a chronic liver disease prevalent in patients not only with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis but also with alcoholic liver disease and chronic viral hepatitis. On the other hand, there is limited data on the effects of hepatotonic agents in these patients. Therefore, this study evaluated the efficacy of a combined hepatotonic agent in this population. @*Methods@#Thirty-three adults with chronic hepatitis and one or more components of metabolic syndrome were assigned randomly to receive biphenyl dimethyl dicarboxylate/ursodeoxycholic acid or a placebo for 24 weeks. The primary outcome was the normalization of ALT (≤40 U/L). The secondary outcomes were the change in controlled attenuation parameter, transient elastography, and Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire score. @*Results@#The 33 patients were assigned randomly to two groups. Eight (50%) of 16 patients who received the intervention drug showed the normalization of ALT, whereas only one (6%) of 17 patients in the placebo group did so. In contrast, the change in controlled attenuation, transient elastography, and Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire were similar in the two groups. ALT was changed significantly during the four assessment periods, and this change was affected by the group. The interaction between the group and time was also significant. AST was changed significantly during the same period. This change was not affected by the group. @*Conclusions@#Biphenyl dimethyl dicarboxylate/ursodeoxycholic acid combination reduced ALT in chronic liver disease related to metabolic syndrome. On the other hand, there is no evidence that this leads to improved hepatic steatosis and fibrosis within 6 months.

13.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 164-171, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875589

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) use has improved lung transplantation outcomes. However, significant perioperative complications in patients receiving CNI can deteriorate the early course of lung transplantation. To date, there is no consensus regarding the optimal agent for the induction regimen after lung transplantation. We aimed to determine the efficacy of basiliximab induction with delayed CNI initiation in the prevention of acute complications without compromising immunosuppression in high-risk patients. @*Materials and Methods@#Between January 2013 and December 2019, 236 patients at a single lung transplant center were retrospectively reviewed. Forty-one patients (17.4%) received basiliximab induction, and 195 patients (82.6%) received a routine triple-drug regimen without induction. The primary endpoint was postoperative acute kidney injury with several other postoperative outcomes as secondary end-points. @*Results@#Preoperatively, the induction group had a higher proportion of patients who were admitted before transplantation (95.1% vs. 47.7%, p<0.001) and received intensive unit care (90.2% vs. 33.8%, p<0.001) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) (87.8% vs. 20.0%, p<0.001) compared to the non-induction group. No significant differences were observed in the incidence of acute rejection between groups (p=0.657), although lower incidence of postoperative complications, including acute kidney injuries or culture-proven infections, were observed in the induction group. However, the differences were not statistically significant. A subgroup analysis of high-risk and preoperative ECMO support groups showed similar results. @*Conclusion@#Basiliximab induction with delayed CNI initiation for high-risk patients might decrease the incidence of perioperative complications, including acute renal failure, without increasing the risk of acute rejection.

14.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 84-87, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875406

ABSTRACT

Colorectal perineuriomas are benign mucosal-based mesenchymal tumors composed of perineurial cells and show serrated or hyperplastic crypts in epithelium on histopathological evaluation. Most perineuriomas are usually presented as sessile polyps and often as subepithelial tumors. In this case, colonoscopy revealed a rectal subepithelial tumor (measuring approximately 7 mm) with yellowish-colored normal mucosa. A rectal neuroendocrine tumor was suspected, and cap-assisted endoscopic mucosal resection was performed. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed bland spindle cells showing immunopositivity for CD34.The patient was finally diagnosed with rectal perineurioma

15.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 1-10, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874521

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to investigate the recent prevalence, management, and comorbidities of diabetes among Korean adults aged ≥30 years by analyzing nationally representative data. @*Methods@#This study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2016 to 2018, and the percentage and total number of people ≥30 years of age with diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) were estimated. @*Results@#In 2018, 13.8% of Korean adults aged ≥30 years had diabetes, and adults aged ≥65 years showed a prevalence rate of 28%. The prevalence of IFG was 26.9% in adults aged ≥30 years. From 2016 to 2018, 35% of the subjects with diabetes were not aware of their condition. Regarding comorbidities, 53.2% and 61.3% were obese and hypertensive, respectively, and 72% had hypercholesterolemia as defined by low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥100 mg/dL in people with diabetes. Of the subjects with diabetes, 43.7% had both hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. With regard to glycemic control, only 28.3% reached the target level of <6.5%. Moreover, only 11.5% of subjects with diabetes met all three targets of glycosylated hemoglobin, blood pressure, and LDL-C. The percentage of energy intake from carbohydrates was higher in diabetes patients than in those without diabetes, while that from protein and fat was lower in subjects with diabetes. @*Conclusion@#The high prevalence and low control rate of diabetes and its comorbidities in Korean adults were confirmed. More stringent efforts are needed to improve the comprehensive management of diabetes to reduce diabetes-related morbidity and mortality.

16.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 617-659, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890938

ABSTRACT

These guidelines were developed as a part of the 2021 Academic R&D Service Project of the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency in response to requests from healthcare professionals in clinical practice for guidance on developing antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs). These guidelines were developed by means of a systematic literature review and a summary of recent literature, in which evidence-based intervention methods were used to address key questions about the appropriate use of antimicrobial agents and ASP expansion. These guidelines also provide evidence of the effectiveness of ASPs and describe intervention methods applicable in Korea.

17.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 166-219, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890917

ABSTRACT

Despite the global effort to mitigate the spread, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a pandemic that took more than 2 million lives. There are numerous ongoing clinical studies aiming to find treatment options and many are being published daily. Some effective treatment options, albeit of variable efficacy, have been discovered. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an evidence-based methodology, to continuously check for new evidence, and to update recommendations accordingly. Here we provide guidelines on pharmaceutical treatment for COVID-19 based on the latest evidence.

18.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 395-403, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890899

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibodies targeted at the receptor-binding domain of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein have been developed and now under evaluation in clinical trials. The US Food and Drug Administration currently issued emergency use authorizations for neutralizing monoclonal antibodies in non-hospitalized patients with mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who are at high risk for progressing to severe disease and/or hospitalization. In terms of this situation, there is an urgent need to investigate the clinical aspects and to develop strategies to deploy them effectively in clinical practice. Here we provide guidance for the use of anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of COVID-19 based on the latest evidence.

19.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 349-352, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918941

ABSTRACT

Natural killer (NK) cell enteropathy is not well understood. Although NK-cell enteropathy is typically benign, aggressive NK-cell lymphoma is an important differential diagnosis. This paper reports a rare case of NK-cell enteropathy of the stomach presenting with dyspepsia and weight loss. In this case, upper endoscopy revealed an ulcer-like lesion (approximately 7 mm) surrounded by erythema, edema, and mucosal hemorrhage. The biopsy revealed atypical lymphocyte cells expressing CD56 without an Epstein-Barr virus infection, which is consistent with NK-cell enteropathy. Follow-up endoscopy 2 months later revealed lesion regression with mild erythema. The patient was observed closely for 6 months, with no evidence of lymphoma.

20.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 179-189, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903555

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Steatohepatitis related to metabolic syndrome is a chronic liver disease prevalent in patients not only with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis but also with alcoholic liver disease and chronic viral hepatitis. On the other hand, there is limited data on the effects of hepatotonic agents in these patients. Therefore, this study evaluated the efficacy of a combined hepatotonic agent in this population. @*Methods@#Thirty-three adults with chronic hepatitis and one or more components of metabolic syndrome were assigned randomly to receive biphenyl dimethyl dicarboxylate/ursodeoxycholic acid or a placebo for 24 weeks. The primary outcome was the normalization of ALT (≤40 U/L). The secondary outcomes were the change in controlled attenuation parameter, transient elastography, and Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire score. @*Results@#The 33 patients were assigned randomly to two groups. Eight (50%) of 16 patients who received the intervention drug showed the normalization of ALT, whereas only one (6%) of 17 patients in the placebo group did so. In contrast, the change in controlled attenuation, transient elastography, and Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire were similar in the two groups. ALT was changed significantly during the four assessment periods, and this change was affected by the group. The interaction between the group and time was also significant. AST was changed significantly during the same period. This change was not affected by the group. @*Conclusions@#Biphenyl dimethyl dicarboxylate/ursodeoxycholic acid combination reduced ALT in chronic liver disease related to metabolic syndrome. On the other hand, there is no evidence that this leads to improved hepatic steatosis and fibrosis within 6 months.

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