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1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 446-451, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927168

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to evaluate the cumulative recurrence rate and risk factors for recurrent abdominal wall endometriosis (AWE) after surgical treatment. @*Materials and Methods@#A retrospective cohort study was conducted at a single gynecological surgery center between January 2004 and December 2020. Patients who were surgically treated and followed up for at least 6 months after surgery were selected. @*Results@#Eighteen patients with pathologically diagnosed AWE were included in this study. The median follow-up duration was 22.5 months (range, 6–106). The median age was 37 years (range, 22–48), and 33.3% of the patients were nulliparous. Among the patients included in our study, 55.6% complained of a mass with cyclic pain, and 27.8% had a palpable mass. In addition, 22.2% of patients experienced recurrence with 17.5±9.7 months of mean time to recurrence. The cumulative recurrence rates at 24 and 60 months after surgical treatment of AWE were 23.8% and 39.1%, respectively. There were no statistically significant risk factors for the recurrence of AWE, including postoperative medical treatment. @*Conclusion@#The recurrence rate of AWE appears to be correlated with the follow-up duration. There was no statistically significant risk factor for the recurrence of AWE. Unlike ovarian endometriosis, postoperative hormonal treatment does not seem to lower the recurrence of AWE. The findings of the current study may help healthcare providers in counselling and managing patients with AWE.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926978

ABSTRACT

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated esophageal disease characterized by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and eosinophil-predominant inflammation. The diagnostic criteria for EoE have changed with our growing knowledge over the past two decades. Esophageal eosinophilia, which responds histologically to a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) is not a distinct disease but a subset of EoE. An endoscopic scoring system that relies on the assessment of exudates, rings, edema, furrows, and strictures is a useful tool for assessing endoscopic severity. PPIs are regarded as safe and effective first-line treatments for EoE. Oral topical corticosteroids or dietary therapy are also options for first-line treatment. Endoscopic dilation is effective for relieving the dysphagia symptoms of a patient with an esophageal stricture.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926974

ABSTRACT

Olmesartan, a recently introduced angiotensin II receptor blocker for hypertension, has been reported to cause drug-induced small bowel enteropathy. The diagnosis of olmesartan-associated enteropathy (OAE) needs clinical suspicion and the exclusion of coeliac disease, as it mimics coeliac sprue. Once diagnosed, it can be completely cured with the discontinuation of olmesartan. However, due to the extremely low incidence of OAE in Korea, clinical suspicion and diagnosis may be a challenge. The authors report the first case of OAE presenting with chronic diarrhea and acute kidney injury in Korea.

4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926386

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The length of stay in the emergency department (ED) is a major contributor to ED overcrowding, which in turn negatively affects the quality of emergency care. Several efforts have been made to reduce the ED length of stay (ED-LOS), including a mandatory target to limit ED-LOS within certain parameters. However, the association between ED-LOS and treatment results is yet to be clarified. The authors investigated the influence of ED-LOS on patient survival by comparing severity-adjusted survival. @*Methods@#This study was a retrospective analysis of data registered in 2018 in the National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS). Cases registered by the regional and local emergency centers were included for analysis. The standardized W scores (Ws) based on the Emergency Department Initial Evaluation Score were used to assess treatment outcomes represented by severity-standardized survival, and the correlation between the Ws and the ED-LOS was analyzed. @*Results@#A total of 2,281,526 cases were included for analysis. The overall mortality comprised 52,284 cases (2.3%) and the median ED-LOS was 165 minutes (interquartile range, 96-301). Although a longer ED-LOS was associated with poorer outcomes overall, the association was not apparent when an analysis of cases eligible for ED-LOS evaluation in the national evaluation program was carried out. Moreover, in the analysis of severe cases with a predicted survival probability of less than 0.9, an ED-LOS shorter than 6 hours was associated with significantly poorer severity-adjusted survival. @*Conclusion@#The study revealed that the current ED-LOS criteria used in the national evaluation program were not associated with better survival.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925508

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Postoperative adhesions after thyroidectomy adversely affect patients’ quality of life. This study assessed the anti-adhesive effect and safety of thermosensitive sol-gel agents for patients undergoing thyroidectomy. @*Methods@#A double-blind parallel-group randomized clinical trial involving patients aged 20–70 years undergoing thyroidectomy for thyroid nodules was conducted. From August 2017 to April 2020, 90 patients were randomly assigned to the experimental (n = 45, thermosensitive sol-gel agent applied to the surgical site) and control (n = 45, no treatment) groups in a 1:1 ratio. All patients were assessed using a questionnaire for swallowing difficulty, wrinkle problems, and inflammation at 2 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after thyroid surgery. For reoperated patients, the degree of adhesion was evaluated according to the adhesion-evaluation score system (range, 0–4). @*Results@#During the follow-up period of 6.50 ± 1.38 months, the swallowing difficulty, wrinkle problem, and inflammation were improved in both groups. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the control and experimental groups related to swallowing difficulty, wrinkle problems, and inflammation. Two patients in the control group and 1 in the experimental group who underwent reoperation had an adhesion-evaluation score of 3 points. There were no adverse effects or allergic reactions. @*Conclusion@#A thermosensitive sol-gel agent can be safely used as an anti-adhesive barrier. However, this study did not reveal its efficacy for postoperative adhesions. A more objective and systematic study is required in the future.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925102

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Overactive bladder (OAB) is observed in women with functional bladder outlet obstruction (FBOO), as are lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Therefore, we evaluated the urodynamic characteristics of women with storage LUTS and FBOO diagnosed by urodynamic studies (UDS). @*Methods@#Women (n=108) with storage LUTS and FBOO diagnosed by UDS were included in this study. The urodynamic characteristics of women with FBOO were compared with those of women with OAB (n=34) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI, n=78). FBOO was defined as a maximum flow rate (Qmax) 20 cm H2O in a pressure-flow study. The UDS included uroflowmetry, postvoid residual volume determination, a cystometrogram, and a pressure-flow study. @*Results@#Women with FBOO who had storage symptoms showed a higher PdetQmax and maximum urethral closing pressure (MUCP) than women with OAB and SUI. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) was observed in 17.6% of women with FBOO. MUCP was significantly higher in women with BOO than in women with BOO and IC/BPS (115.6±27.4 and 96.6±14.1 cm H2O, P=0.00). The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the cutoff values of MUCP in women with FBOO compared to women with OAB and SUI were 87 cm H2O (sensitivity=81.5%, specificity=73.5%) and 36 cm H2O (sensitivity=92.6%, specificity=84.4%), respectively. The cutoff value of MUCP in women with FBOO compared to women with FBOO and IC/BPS was 92 cm H2O (sensitivity=85.4%, specificity=78.9%). @*Conclusions@#MUCP could have predictive value for identifying FBOO in women with complex LUTS.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924938

ABSTRACT

Background@#Optimal management of primary aldosteronism (PA) is crucial due to the increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is the gold standard method for determining subtype but is technically challenging and invasive. Some PA patients do not benefit clinically from surgery. We sought to develop an algorithm to improve decision- making before engaging in AVS and surgery in clinical practice. @*Methods@#We conducted the ongoing Korean Primary Aldosteronism Study at two tertiary centers. Study A involved PA patients with successful catheterization and a unilateral nodule on computed tomography and aimed to predict unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma (n=367). Study B involved similar patients who underwent adrenalectomy and aimed to predict postoperative outcome (n=330). In study A, we implemented important feature selection using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression. @*Results@#We developed a unilateral PA prediction model using logistic regression analysis: lowest serum potassium level ≤3.4 mEq/L, aldosterone-to-renin ratio ≥150, plasma aldosterone concentration ≥30 ng/mL, and body mass index <25 kg/m2 (area under the curve, 0.819; 95% confidence interval, 0.774 to 0.865; sensitivity, 97.6%; specificity, 25.5%). In study B, we identified female, hypertension duration <5 years, anti-hypertension medication <2.5 daily defined dose, and the absence of coronary artery disease as predictors of clinical success, using stepwise logistic regression models (sensitivity, 94.2%; specificity, 49.3%). We validated our algorithm in the independent validation dataset (n=53). @*Conclusion@#We propose this new outcome-driven diagnostic algorithm, simultaneously considering unilateral aldosterone excess and clinical surgical benefits in PA patients.

8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875094

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of emergency department length of stay (ED LOS) on the prognosis of patients classified in 28 severe illness diagnosis code groups. @*Methods@#We used data from the National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS) from 2016 to 2017. Patients with severe illness diagnosis codes as per the discharge diagnosis reports of the emergency department were included and classified into 28 diagnosis code groups. We used multiple logistic regression analysis on the various diagnosis groups to determine whether 6 hours of ED LOS was a factor influencing mortality. @*Results@#Of the 18,217,034 patients in the NEDIS data, 553,918 patients were hospitalized with a severe illness code at regional or local emergency medical centers. The average ED LOS was 389 minutes in the non-survivor group and 420 minutes in the survivor group. After adjusting for confounders, ED LOS >6 hours was associated with lower mortality (odds ratio, 0.737; 95% confidence interval, 0.715-0.759). The association of ED LOS >6 hours with lower mortality was found in the diagnosis groups for acute myocardial infarction, intracranial hemorrhage, major trauma, aortic dissection, gastrointestinal bleeding/foreign bodies, intoxication, acute kidney injury, and post-resuscitation status. @*Conclusion@#In the analysis for the 28 severe disease illness code groups, ED LOS of more than 6 hours was not a factor that adversely affects the in-hospital mortality.

9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875093

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study investigates the characteristics of patients who were re-transferred from other hospitals to regional or local emergency medical centers. @*Methods@#Data from 2016 to 2017 was obtained from the National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS). The study population was classified as ‘transferred group’ and ‘direct visit group.’ The transferred group was further subdivided into the ‘re-transfer group’ (patients transferred out to another hospital) and ‘single transfer group’ (patients not transferred out). Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with re-transfer. @*Results@#The re-transfer rate (3.7%) of the ‘transferred group’ was higher than the transfer rate (1.3%) of the ‘direct visit group’. Multiple regression analysis revealed that older age, male (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.082; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.606-1.105), medical aid (aOR, 1.231; 95% CI, 1.191-1.105), injury origin (aOR, 1.063; 95% CI, 1.006-1.122), and Korean Triage and Acuity Scale level 1 or 2 (aOR, 1.214; 95% CI, 1.182-1.247), are associated with re-transfer. The Korean Standard Classification of Diseases group having the highest re-transfer rate was determined to be the neoplasm disease group. @*Conclusion@#Data from the current study reveals that factors associated with an increased likelihood of re-transfer were high severity, old age, medical aid, and neoplasm diagnosis. Considering these characteristics of re-transferred patients, it is necessary to improve the transfer system to reduce re-transfers. However, further research is required, including the reasons for the transfer.

10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875065

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We report a case of a patient with compressive optic neuropathy caused by an internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm and treated with coil embolization.Case summary: A 54-year-old female patient complained of blurred vision of the left eye 1 week prior to her initial visit. Her best-corrected visual acuity was 8/20 in the left eye. Pupillary size was 3 and 4 mm in her right and left eyes, respectively. Relative afferent pupillary defect was detected in her left eye. Slit-lamp and fundus examination were normal. Visual field tests revealed an inferior visual field defect in her left eye. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a 9.5-mm-sized aneurysm compressing the optic chiasm of the distal ICA. She was diagnosed with compressive optic neuropathy due to an ICA aneurysm. Coil embolization was performed. Visual acuity and visual field defects had improved at the 2-month follow-up examination. @*Conclusions@#An ICA aneurysm can compress the optic nerve and cause loss of vision. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment may prevent irreversible vision loss.

11.
Journal of Rhinology ; : 57-60, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874937

ABSTRACT

Central skull base osteomyelitis (CSBO) is a rare, fatal condition seen mostly in elderly diabetic or immunocompromised patients; it mainly involves the sphenoid or occipital bones and diagnosis is often delayed. A 72-year-old male with diabetes was referred to our department with severe pain in the maxillary gingiva. Endoscopic biopsy of the pterygoid bone confirmed the presence of mucormycosis combined with Klebsiella pneumoniae infection. Sinus surgery was performed with bilateral alveolar bone sequestrectomy. Long-term intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy using meropenem and ampicillin/sulbactam and antifungal therapy using amphotericin B (100 mg/day) was administered; an oral antifungal agent, posaconazole (800 mg/day), was also prescribed for 11 weeks. At the 6-month follow-up visit, there were no complications and no progression of the CSBO lesion was observed. Timely diagnosis and multidisciplinary treatment including endoscopic surgery, alveolar bone sequestrectomy, and combined antifungal and antibiotic therapy can reduce mortality and minimize complications associated with CSBO.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874872

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The prevalence of eosinophilic esophagitis is increasing in Korea and there are few single-center studies regarding eosinophilic esophagitis in Korea. In particular, data about management for eosinophilic esophagitis are lacking. We aim to evaluate the practice patterns, including initial treatment and response, in the Busan city and Gyeongnam province area. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed medical records to gain data on patient characteristics, medication, endoscopic images, and esophageal biopsy results. From January 2009 to December 2019, a total of 42 patients were diagnosed with eosinophilic esophagitis. @*Results@#The mean age was 50.7 (from 22 to 81) years and the cohort was predominantly male (78.6%, 33/42). The proton pump inhibitor was the preferred treatment as an initial trial for 64.3% (27/42) of patients, followed by swallowed topical steroids (16.7%, 7/42).Clinical improvement after proton pump inhibitor therapy was achieved in 88.9% (24/27) of patients. Two patients who did not achieve improvement showed a clinical and endoscopic response after swallowed topical steroids treatment. No patient received diet elimination or balloon dilatation therapy. @*Conclusions@#The treatment response of eosinophilic esophagitis was good in Busan city and Gyeongnam province area in Korea. Proton pump inhibitor therapy was the preferred and most effective treatment for eosinophilic esophagitis as the initial therapy.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874837

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Internal hernia after gastrectomy is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition without surgical intervention. Clinical risk factors of internal hernia should, hence, be reviewed after gastrectomy.From 2008 to 2018, patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric cancer were investigated. @*Methods@#Abdominal computed tomography (CT) was used to screen for internal hernia, and surgical exploration was performed to confirm the diagnosis. Using retrospective statistical analysis, the incidence, characteristics, and risk factors were identified, and the characteristics of the internal hernia group were reviewed. @*Results@#The overall incidence of internal hernia was 0.9%. From statistical analysis, it was found that laparoscopic surgery was almost five times riskier than open gastrectomy (odds ratio [OR], 4.947; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.308–18.710; p = 0.019). Body mass index < 25 kg/m2 (OR, 4.596; 95% CI, 1.056– 20.004; p = 0.042) and proximal gastrectomy (OR, 4.238; 95% CI, 1.072–16.751; p = 0.039) were also associated with internal hernia. Among 20 patients with internal hernia, 12 underwent laparotomy, and five had their bowels removed due to ischemia. All patients with bowel resected had suffered from short bowel syndrome. @*Conclusion@#Suspecting an internal hernia should be an important step when a patient with a history of laparoscopic gastrectomy visits for medical care. When suspected, emergent screening through CT scan and surgical intervention should be considered as soon as possible to prevent lifetime complications accordingly.

14.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 1287-1297, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914245

ABSTRACT

Background@#An activating mutation (c.617A>C/p.Lys206Arg, L206R) in protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha (PRKACA) has been reported in 35% to 65% of cases of cortisol-producing adenomas (CPAs). We aimed to compare the clinical characteristics and transcriptome analysis between PRKACA L206R mutants and wild-type CPAs in Korea. @*Methods@#We included 57 subjects with CPAs who underwent adrenalectomy at Seoul National University Hospital. Sanger sequencing for PRKACA was conducted in 57 CPA tumor tissues. RNA sequencing was performed in 13 fresh-frozen tumor tissues. @*Results@#The prevalence of the PRKACA L206R mutation was 51% (29/57). The mean age of the study subjects was 42±12 years, and 87.7% (50/57) of the patients were female. Subjects with PRKACA L206R mutant CPAs showed smaller adenoma size (3.3±0.7 cm vs. 3.8±1.2 cm, P=0.059) and lower dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels (218±180 ng/mL vs. 1,511±3,307 ng/mL, P=0.001) than those with PRKACA wild-type CPAs. Transcriptome profiling identified 244 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between PRKACA L206R mutant (n=8) and wild-type CPAs (n=5), including five upregulated and 239 downregulated genes in PRKACA L206R mutant CPAs (|fold change| ≥2, P<0.05). Among the upstream regulators of DEGs, CTNNB1 was the most significant transcription regulator. In several pathway analyses, the Wnt signaling pathway was downregulated and the steroid biosynthesis pathway was upregulated in PRKACA mutants. Protein-protein interaction analysis also showed that PRKACA downregulates Wnt signaling and upregulates steroid biosynthesis. @*Conclusion@#The PRKACA L206R mutation in CPAs causes high hormonal activity with a limited proliferative capacity, as supported by transcriptome profiling.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913476

ABSTRACT

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare complex genetic disorder that results from a lack of expression of the paternally inherited chromosome 15q11-q13. PWS is characterized by hypotonia and feeding difficulty in early infancy and development of morbid obesity aggravated by uncontrolled hyperphagia after childhood and adolescent. Dysmorphic facial features, delayed motor and language development, various degrees of cognitive impairment, and behavioral problems are common in PWS. Without early, intensive nutritional therapy along with behavioral modification, PWS patients develop severe obesity associated with type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, right-side heart failure, and other obesity-related metabolic complications. Hypothalamic dysfunction in PWS can lead to several endocrine disorders, including short stature with growth hormone deficiency, hypothyroidism, central adrenal insufficiency, and hypogonadism. In this review, we discuss the natural history of PWS and the mechanisms of hyperphagia and obesity. We also provide an update on obesity treatments and recommendations for screening and monitoring of various endocrine problems that can occur in PWS.

16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901039

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We report ocular manifestations in two patients with 7q microdeletion. Case summary: (Case 1) A 62-day-old male infant was admitted to the ophthalmology outpatient department for ocular examination after being diagnosed with microdeletion of chromosome seven (7q36.2q36.3 deletion) in DNA microarray comparative genomic hybridization (DNA microarray CGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) tests. Fundus examination showed optic disc hypoplasia in both eyes and retinopathy of prematurity, accompanied by retinal hemorrhage in his right eye. Around the age of 24 months, the patient was diagnosed with intermittent exotropia with anisometropia and was prescribed spectacles. (Case 2) A 3-year-old male infant was referred to the ophthalmology clinic to evaluate poor fixation, which was found during rehabilitation therapy for cerebral palsy and developmental delay. Fundus examination showed an increased cup/disc ratio bilaterally. A flash visual evoked potential test indicated a decrease in amplitude in his right eye. Intermittent exotropia of forty prism diopters was observed. DNA microarray CGH and FISH tests performed at another hospital revealed microdeletion of chromosome seven (7q35 microdeletion) and CNTNAP2 gene loss. @*Conclusions@#When genetic anomalies associated with ocular development are identified, it is necessary to detect the ophthalmic abnormalities early and provide the appropriate treatment to allow for the development of normal visual function.

17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900853

ABSTRACT

Surgeries performed for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) place the medical staff at very high risk of infection. We suggest recommendations for appropriate operation preparation, anesthetic management, and infection control for COVID-19 patients in operating rooms.Current Concepts: Surgeries must be performed in an airborne infection isolation room, such as a negative-pressure operating room. It is recommended that scheduled surgeries for COVID-19 patients be postponed to an acceptable extent, with the exception of emergency cases. Moreover, the number of medical staff participating in the surgery should be minimized. Medical staffs should practice proper hand hygiene and wear an appropriate level of personal protective equipment depending on the infection risk. While performing surgery and inducing anesthesia in COVID-19 patients, endotracheal intubation should be performed by trained anesthesiologists with a video laryngoscope, preferably using high-efficiency viral filters, which can prevent contamination in the anesthesia machine. Use of disposable equipment or COVID-19 patient-specific devices is recommended to prevent the spread of infection, but instruments that require sharing among multiple patients must be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected before their use for the next patient.Discussion and Conclusion: Medical staff performing surgeries for COVID-19 patients are at very high risk of infection. Therefore, the use of appropriate personal protective equipment, high-efficiency viral filters in breathing circuits during anesthesia, and disinfection of contaminated equipment after the operation are mandatory.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899954

ABSTRACT

Background@#Survival and post-cardiac arrest care vary considerably by hospital, region, and country. In the current study, we aimed to analyze mortality in patients who underwent cardiac arrest by hospital level, and to reveal differences in patient characteristics and hospital factors, including post-cardiac arrest care, hospital costs, and adherence to changes in resuscitation guidelines. @*Methods@#We enrolled adult patients (≥ 20 years) who suffered non-traumatic cardiac arrest from 2006 to 2015. Patient demographics, insurance type, admission route, comorbidities, treatments, and hospital costs were extracted from the National Health Insurance Service database. We categorized patients into tertiary hospital, general hospital, and hospital groups according to the level of the hospital where they were treated. We analyzed the patients' characteristics, hospital factors, and mortalities among the three groups. We also analyzed post-cardiac arrest care before and after the 2010 guideline changes. The primary end-point was 30 days and 1 year mortality rates. @*Results@#The tertiary hospital, general hospital, and hospital groups represented 32.6%, 49.6%, and 17.8% of 337,042 patients, respectively. The tertiary and general hospital groups were younger, had a lower proportion of medical aid coverage, and fewer comorbidities, compared to the hospital group. Post-cardiac arrest care, such as percutaneous coronary intervention, targeted temperature management, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, were provided more frequently in the tertiary and general hospital groups. After adjusting for age, sex, insurance type, urbanization level, admission route, comorbidities, defibrillation, resuscitation medications, angiography, and guideline changes, the tertiary and general hospital groups showed lower 1-year mortality (tertiary hospital vs. general hospital vs. hospital, adjusted odds ratios, 0.538 vs. 0.604 vs. 1; P < 0.001). After 2010 guideline changes, a marked decline in atropine use and an increase in post-cardiac arrest care were observed in the tertiary and general hospital groups. @*Conclusion@#The tertiary and general hospital groups showed lower 30 days and 1 year mortality rates than the hospital group, after adjusting for patient characteristics and hospital factors. Higher-level hospitals provided more post-cardiac arrest care, which led to high hospital costs, and showed good adherence to the guideline change after 2010.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898799

ABSTRACT

Beta-3 adrenoceptor (B3AR) agonist which mediate detrusor relaxation has been tried as a new treatment modality for men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). However, it remains unclear whether the B3AR agonist has more clinical benefits and fewer adverse effects in men with BPH than in women. We performed a comprehensive search using multiple databases, trials registries, other sources of grey literature, and conference proceedings regardless of language or publication status and included randomized controlled trials. Two review authors independently screened the literature, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We performed statistical analyses using a random-effects model and interpreted them according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Primary outcomes were urologic symptom scores, quality of life (QoL), and overall adverse events. We found 4 randomized controlled trials with 1,105 participants in 3 comparisons. All studies reported short-term outcomes (ranged from 8 weeks to 12 weeks). Mirabegron, tamsulosin, silodosin, fesoterodine, and tadalafil were administrated as intervention. While B3AR agonist can improve the patient-important outcomes within group (before and after treatment), B3AR agonist combination therapy with current standard BPH treatment such as alpha blocker or anticholinergic may not have additional effects on urological symptom scores and QoL compared to alpha blocker or anticholinergic monotherapy. B3AR agonist therapy with phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor (PDE5I) showed statistical improvement on urological symptom scores or QoL compared to PDE5I monotherapy. For safety profile, B3AR agonist in all 3 comparisons may not increase adverse event rate. While B3AR agonists may be used for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms in men with BPH if storage symptoms with standard BPH treatment are insufficient, B3AR agonists appear to have trivial or similar effects compared to current standard BPH treatment.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898793

ABSTRACT

Underactive bladder and impaired bladder compliance are irreversible problems associated with bladder fibrosis. Remodeling of the extracellular matrix is regarded as an important mechanism associated with bladder fibrosis. However, various risk factors and conditions contribute to the functional impairment of the bladder associated with fibrosis, and there is limited knowledge about bladder fibrosis-associated problems in the field of neurourology. Further studies are thus necessary to elucidate the underlying mechanism of bladder fibrosis and to identify effective treatment.

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