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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828437

ABSTRACT

Guided by the theory of "component structure", we analyzed the structural characteristics of pharmacodynamical components in genuine Moutan Cortex. The compositions of organic small molecules were determined by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) for 20 batches of genuine Moutan Cortex and 12 batches of non-genuine Moutan Cortex. By means of similarity analysis, clustering analysis(CA), principal component analysis(PCA) and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA), the elements in structural characteristics of the pharmacodynamical components were extracted as follows: terpene glycosides components(oxidized paeoniflorin, paeoniflorin,galloyl paeoniflorin, benzoyloxy paeoniflorinand benzoyl paeoniflorin), tannin components(1,3,6-tri-O-galloside acyl glucose, pentagalloyl glucose), and phenolic acid components(methyl gallate, paeonol). The contents and quantity ratios of terpene glycoside component, tannin component and phenolic acid components in genuine Moutan Cortex were determined as 14.1, 12.5, 21.7 mg·g~(-1), 1.00∶0.89∶1.54. The contents and quantity ratios of the oxidized paeoniflorin, paeoniflorin and benzoylpaeoniflorin in the terpene glycoside components were characteristic and determined as 2.05, 7.05, 3.30 mg·g~(-1), 1.00∶3.44∶1.61. The unique structural characteristics of genuine Moutan Cortex provide scientific basis for the formulation of quality standards.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Paeonia , Principal Component Analysis
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828435

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we aim to control and evaluate the quality of Liuwei Dihuang Concentrated Pill by using the model of fingerprint technique and "component structure" theory. Agilent 5 TC-C_(18) column(4.6 mm×250 mm,5 μm) was used, with 0.1% formic acid solution-acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL·min~(-1). The column temperature was 30 ℃, with detection wavelength of 242 nm and the sample volume of 10 μL. The characteristic fingerprint of Liuwei Dihuang Concentrated Pill was established by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) for its quality control. Seventeen common peaks were identified, and the similarity was 0.550-0.997 in 29 batches of samples, indicating that the quality difference among batches of Liuwei Dihuang Concentrated Pills was significant. The structural characteristics of the Moutan Cortex components in Liuwei Dihuang Concentrated Pills were characterized. On this basis, combined with the structural characteristics of genuine components of Moutan Cortex, the structural characteristics of components in Liuwei Dihuang Concentrated Pills were further analyzed. The results showed that there were significant differences in the contents and quantity ratios of 9 representative components(components) of Moutan Cortex in Liuwei Dihuang Concentrated Pills from different manufacturers, indicating internal quality differences among different batches of products. The fingerprint technique and the "component structure" theory established by the above research provide an analytical method and a research foundation for the quality evaluation of Liuwei Dihuang Concentrated Pills.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Quality Control
3.
Chinese Journal of Cancer ; (12): 350-357, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-349600

ABSTRACT

<p><b>INTRODUCTION</b>In the past several decades, declining incidences of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) have been observed in Chinese populations in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Los Angeles, and Singapore. A previous study indicated that the incidence of NPC in Sihui County, South China remained stable until 2002, but whether age, diagnosis period, and birth cohort affect the incidence of NPC remains unknown.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Age-standardized rates (ASRs) of NPC incidence based on the world standard population were examined in both males and females in Sihui County from 1987 to 2011. Joinpoint regression analysis was conducted to quantify the changes in incidence trends. A Poisson regression age-period-cohort model was used to assess the effects of age, diagnosis period, and birth cohort on the risk of NPC.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The ASRs of NPC incidence during the study period were 30.29/100,000 for males and 13.09/100,000 for females. The incidence of NPC remained stable at a non-significant average annual percent change of 0.2% for males and -1.6% for females throughout the entire period. A significantly increased estimated annual percent change of 6.8% (95% confidence interval, 0.1%-14.0%) was observed from 2003 to 2009 for males. The relative risk of NPC increased with advancing age up to 50-59 and decreased at ages >60 years. The period effect curves on NPC were nearly flat for males and females. The birth cohort effect curve for males showed an increase from the 1922 cohort to the 1957 cohort and a decrease thereafter. In females, there was an undulating increase in the relative risk from the 1922 cohort to the 1972 cohort.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The incidence trends for NPC remained generally stable in Sihui from 1987 to 2011, with an increase from 2003 to 2009. The relative risks of NPC increased in younger females.</p>


Subject(s)
Age Factors , Animals , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Carcinoma , China , Cohort Studies , Female , Hong Kong , Humans , Incidence , Male , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Sex Factors , Singapore , Taiwan
4.
Chinese Journal of Cancer ; (12): 365-372, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-349585

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>With industrial and econom ic development in recent decades in South China, cancer incidence may have changed due to the changing lifestyle and environment. However, the trends of lung cancer and the roles of smoking and other environmental risk factors in the development of lung cancer in rural areas of South China remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore the lung cancer incidence trends and the possible causes of these trends.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Joinpoint regression analysis and the age-period-cohort (APC) model were used to analyze the lung cancer incidence trends in Sihui, Guangdong province, China between 1987 and 2011, and explore the possible causes of these trends.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 2,397 lung cancer patients were involved in this study. A 3-fold increase in the incidence of lung cancer in both sexes was observed over the 25-year period. Joinpoint regression analysis showed that while the incidence continued to increase steadily in females during the entire period, a sharp acceleration was observed in males starting in 2005. The full APC model was selected to describe age, period, and birth cohort effects on lung cancer incidence trends in Sihui. The age cohorts in both sexes showed a continuously significant increase in the relative risk (RR) of lung cancer, with a peak in the eldest age group (80-84 years). The RR of lung cancer showed a fluctuating curve in both sexes. The birth cohorts identified an increased trend in both males and females; however, males had a plateau in the youngest cohorts who were born during 1955-1969.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Increasing trends of the incidence of lung cancer in Sihui were dominated by the effects of age and birth cohorts. Social aging, smoking, and environmental changes may play important roles in such trends.</p>


Subject(s)
Aging , China , Female , Humans , Incidence , Lung Neoplasms , Male , Risk Factors , Smoking
5.
Chinese Journal of Cancer ; (12): 594-601, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-349560

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Surveying regional cancer incidence and mortality provides significant data that can assist in making health policy for local areas; however, the province- and region-based cancer burden in China is seldom reported. In this study, we estimated cancer incidence and mortality in Guangdong Province, China and presented basic information for making policies related to health resource allocation and disease control.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A log-linear model was used to calculate the sex-, age-, and registry-specific ratios of incidence to mortality (I/M) based on cancer registry data from Guangzhou, Zhongshan, and Sihui between 2004 and 2008. The cancer incidences in 2009 were then estimated according to representative I/M ratios and the mortality records from eight death surveillance sites in Guangdong Province. The cancer incidences in each city were estimated by the corresponding sex- and age-specific incidences from cancer registries or death surveillance sites in each area. Finally, the total and region-based cancer incidences and mortalities for the entire population of Guangdong Province were summarized.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The estimated I/M ratios in Guangzhou (3.658), Zhongshan (2.153), and Sihui (1.527) were significantly different (P < 0.001), with an average I/M ratio of 2.446. Significant differences in the estimated I/M ratios were observed between distinct age groups and the three cancer registries. The estimated I/M ratio in females was significantly higher than that in males (2.864 vs. 2.027, P < 0.001). It was estimated that there were 163,376 new cancer cases (99,689 males and 63,687 females) in 2009; it was further estimated that 115,049 people (75,054 males and 39,995 females) died from cancer in Guangdong Province in 2009. The estimated crude and age-standardized rate of incidences (ASRI) in Guangdong Province were 231.34 and 246.87 per 100,000 males, respectively, and 156.98 and 163.57 per 100,000 females, respectively. The estimated crude and age-standardized rate of mortalities (ASRM) in Guangdong Province were 174.17 and 187.46 per 100,000 males, respectively, and 98.59 and 102.00 per 100,000 females, respectively. In comparison with the western area and the northern mountain area, higher ASRI and ASRM were recorded in the Pearl River Delta area and the eastern area in both males and females.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Cancer imposes a heavy disease burden, and cancer patterns are unevenly distributed throughout Guangdong Province. More health resources should be allocated to cancer control, especially in the western and northern mountain areas.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms , Epidemiology , Mortality , Population Surveillance , Registries , Sex Distribution
6.
Chinese Journal of Cancer ; (12): 563-572, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-349557

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) commonly infects the general population and has been associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), which has a high incidence in certain regions. This study aimed to address how EBV variations contribute to the risk of NPC.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Using logistic regression analysis and based on the sequence variations at EBV-encoded RPMS1, a multi-stage association study was conducted to identify EBV variations associated with NPC risk. A protein degradation assay was performed to characterize the functional relevance of the RPMS1 variations.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Based on EBV-encoded RPMS1 variations, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the EBV genome (locus 155391: G>A, named G155391A) was associated with NPC in 157 cases and 319 healthy controls from an NPC endemic region in South China [P < 0.001, odds ratio (OR) = 4.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.71-7.37]. The results were further validated in three independent cohorts from the NPC endemic region (P < 0.001, OR = 5.20, 95% CI 3.18-8.50 in 168 cases vs. 241 controls, and P < 0.001, OR = 5.27, 95% CI 4.06-6.85 in 726 cases vs. 880 controls) and a non-endemic region (P < 0.001, OR = 7.52, 95% CI 3.69-15.32 in 58 cases vs. 612 controls). The combined analysis in 1109 cases and 2052 controls revealed that the SNP G155391A was strongly associated with NPC (P(combined) < 0.001, OR = 5.27, 95% CI 4.31-6.44). Moreover, the frequency of the SNP G155391A was associated with NPC incidence but was not associated with the incidences of other EBV-related malignancies. Furthermore, the protein degradation assay showed that this SNP decreased the degradation of the oncogenic RPMS1 protein.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Our study identified an EBV variation specifically and significantly associated with a high risk of NPC. These findings provide insights into the pathogenesis of NPC and strategies for prevention.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Carcinoma , Case-Control Studies , China , Epidemiology , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Epidemiology , Virology , Female , Genetic Association Studies , Genome, Viral , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Genetics , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Epidemiology , Virology , Neoplasm Proteins , Genetics , Pilot Projects , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Risk Assessment , Methods , Tumor Cells, Cultured , Viral Proteins , Genetics
7.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 549-553, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-307344

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of different screening strategies for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and recommend a preferable NPC screening strategy.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A Markov simulation model was constructed based on the natural history of NPC. Seven strategies (A. Annual screening; B. Annual screening for (Epstein-Barr virus, EBV) EBV-seropositive subjects, triennial screening for seronegative subjects; C. Biennial screening; D. Triennial screening; E. 4-year screening; F. 5-year screening; G. 6-year screening) were evaluated. The NPC-pickup rate, cost, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) were calculated.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The ICERs of the 7 strategies were 83 111.6, 47 768.9, 50 164.7, 40 016.2, 34 272.8, 32 215.6, and 32 248.0 Yuan/QALY, respectively. The discounted QALYs of the strategies were 23 079.9, 22 955.6, 22 810.4, 22 636.5, 22 522.7, 22 445.0, and 22 361.9 years, respectively. The ICERs of the strategies were less than three times of the average per capita gross domestic product (89 976 Yuan) in China in 2010. The strategy A achieved a highest NPC pick-up rate (81.7%), a highest discounted QALY and a smallest number of NPC death (681), but a highest discounted cost and a greatest ICER. Compared with the strategy A, the strategy B achieved a little smaller NPC pick-up rate (73.1%), a little smaller number of NPC death (707), however, the ICER of the strategy B decreased by 38.2%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The strategy B (annual screening for EB virus seropositive subjects and triennial screening for seronegative subjects) is a preferable option for NPC screening.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Carcinoma , China , Epidemiology , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Early Detection of Cancer , Economics , Methods , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Diagnosis , Female , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , Male , Markov Chains , Mass Screening , Economics , Methods , Middle Aged , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Diagnosis , Mortality , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Survival Rate
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-292509

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the incidence regularity in populations with different fluctuation modes of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibody levels.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Based on the data of a NPC mass screening for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in Jianggu town and Didou town of Sihui city, Guangdong province from 1992 to 1998, 586 subjects who were positive and retested for twice or above were divided into ascending group (114 subjects), stable or fluctuating group (313 subjects), and descending group (159 subjects) according to the fluctuation of immunoglobulin A antibody against EBV capsid antigen (VCA-IgA) level; 9889 subjects who were negative in the first test of VCA-IgA were set as control group. All the participants were followed-up till December 31, 2007. The incidence, onset time and clinical characteristics of NPC were compared among groups.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The 5-year cumulative detection rates of ascending, stable or fluctuating, and descending group were 3.51% (4/114), 0.64% (2/313) and 0.00% (0/159), respectively; the 5-year cumulative detection proportions were 4/4, 2/6 and 0/2, respectively. Comparing to the control group, the hazard ratio (HR) for the incidence of NPC in ascending group was highest (HR = 10.96, 95%CI: 3.91 - 30.74), followed by stable or fluctuating group (HR = 5.79, 95%CI: 2.45 - 13.69), and descending group (HR = 3.84, 95%CI: 0.92 - 16.01) which had the lowest HR.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Individuals with stable, fluctuating or ascending VCA-IgA level showed higher risk and earlier onset of NPC was found in ascending group.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Blood , Antigens, Viral , Allergy and Immunology , Capsid Proteins , Allergy and Immunology , Carcinoma , China , Epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Blood , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Blood , Diagnosis , Epidemiology
9.
Chinese Journal of Cancer ; (12): 114-119, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-296307

ABSTRACT

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has remarkable epidemiological features, including regional, racial, and familial aggregations. The aim of this review is to describe the epidemiological characteristics of NPC and to propose possible causes for the high incidence patterns in southern China. Since the etiology of NPC is not completely understood, approaches to primary prevention of NPC remain under consideration. This situation highlights the need to conduct secondary prevention, including improving rates of early detection, early diagnosis, and early treatment in NPC patients. Since the 1970's, high-risk populations in southern China have been screened extensively for early detection of NPC using anti-Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) serum biomarkers. This review summarizes several large screening studies that have been conducted in the high-incidence areas of China. Screening markers, high-risk age range for screening, time intervals for blood re-examination, and the effectiveness of these screening studies will be discussed. Conduction of prospective randomized controlled screening trials in southern China can be expected to maximize the cost-effectiveness of early NPC detection screening.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , Antibodies, Viral , Antigens, Viral , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Genetics , Capsid Proteins , Carcinoma , China , Epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer , Methods , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Allergy and Immunology , Humans , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Epidemiology , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Prevalence
10.
Chinese Journal of Cancer ; (12): 721-728, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-296363

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE</b>Early diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is difficult due to the insufficient specificity of the conventional examination method. This study was to investigate potential and consistent biomarkers for NPC, particularly for early detection of NPC.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A proteomic pattern was identified in a training set (134 NPC patients and 73 control individuals) using the surface-enhanced laser desorption and ionization-mass spectrometry (SELDI-MS), and used to screen the test set (44 NPC patients and 25 control individuals) to determine the screening accuracy. To confirm the accuracy, it was used to test another group of 52 NPC patients and 32 healthy individuals at 6 months later.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Eight proteomic biomarkers with top-scored peak mass/charge ratios (m/z) of 8605 Da, 5320 Da, 5355 Da, 5380 Da, 5336 Da, 2791 Da, 7154 Da, and 9366 Da were selected as the potential biomarkers of NPC with a sensitivity of 90.9% (40/44) and a specificity of 92.0% (23/25). The performance was better than the current diagnostic method by using the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) capsid antigen IgA antibodies (VCA/IgA). Similar sensitivity (88.5%) and specificity (90.6%) were achieved in another group of 84 samples.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>SELDI-MS profiling might be a potential tool to identify patients with NPC, particularly at early clinical stages.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Algorithms , Antibodies, Viral , Blood , Antigens, Viral , Blood , Biomarkers, Tumor , Blood , Capsid Proteins , Blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Blood , Diagnosis , Neoplasm Proteins , Blood , Proteomics , Methods , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Methods
11.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 534-538, 2003.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-242144

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the genomic variation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and its significance in nasopharyngeal carcinogenesis.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Forty nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) biopsy tissues were used for detection of EBV BamHI f variant and LMP1 XhoI-loss by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, and RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism). Forty-eight samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) taken from apparently healthy adult individuals were used for detection of LMP1 XhoI-loss. Three samples of amplified LMP1 exon 1 DNA from B95-8 cell line and 2 NPC tissues (one having XhoI-loss and the other having Wt-XhoI/XhoI-loss) were sequenced.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Thirty out of the 40 NPC cases (30/40, 75%) harbored EBV BamHI f variant and the remaining 10 (10/40, 25%) harbored BamHI F prototype. Thirty out of the 39 NPCs (30/39, 76.9%) showed single EBV LMP1 XhoI-loss, 7 (7/39, 18.0%) showed single LMP1 Wt-XhoI (presence of a XhoI site in exon 1 of LMP1 gene, as in B95-8 cell line), and 2 (2/39, 5.1%) showed both LMP1 Wt-XhoI and XhoI-loss. Thirty-eight of the 39 NPCs (97.4%) showed EBV LMP1 XhoI-loss or/and BamHI F variant. In the NPC tissue (1 case only) showing the prototype of Wt-XhoI/BamHI "f", there were several base substitutions, including 5 missense mutations and 2 silent mutations present in LMP1 exon 3, on DNA sequencing. On the other hand, 10 out of the 48 samples of PBMC taken from apparently healthy individuals could be amplified successfully by nested PCR for detection of LMP1 XhoI site. All of these 10 samples carried the prototype of EBV LMP1 Wt-XhoI.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The majority of EBV present in neoplastic cells of NPC is of BamHI "f" variant and/or possesses LMP1 XhoI-loss, as compared with that in healthy individuals. This genomic variation of EBV may bear some roles in the development and progression of NPC.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Binding Sites , Genetics , DNA, Viral , Genetics , Metabolism , Deoxyribonuclease BamHI , Metabolism , Deoxyribonucleases, Type II Site-Specific , Metabolism , Female , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Genetics , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Virology , Sequence Deletion , Viral Matrix Proteins , Genetics
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