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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875539

ABSTRACT

Background@#Radiotherapy is a common treatment option for lung or esophageal cancer, particularly when surgery is not feasible for patients with poor lung function. However, radiotherapy can affect pulmonary function and thereby induce pneumonitis or pneumonia, which can be fatal in patients with respiratory impairment. The purpose of this study is to evaluate if reductions in pulmonary function after radiotherapy can be minimized through simultaneous pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). @*Methods@#In this matched case control study, we retrospectively analyzed patients who had undergone radiotherapy for thoracic malignant disease between January 2018 and June 2019. We analyzed results from pulmonary function tests and 6-minute walking tests (6MWT) conducted within the six months before and after radiotherapy treatment. @*Results@#In total, results from 144 patients were analyzed, with 11 of the patients receiving PR and radiotherapy simultaneously. Of the 133 patients in the control group, 33 were matched with 11 patients in the PR group. Changes in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity were significantly different between the PR group and the matched control group (240 mL vs. –10 mL, p=0.017 and 5.5% vs. 1.0%, p=0.038, respectively). The median distance of 6MWT in the PR group also increased significantly, from 407.5 m to 493.0 m after radiotherapy (p=0.017). @*Conclusion@#Simultaneous PR improved pulmonary function, particularly in measures of FEV1, and exercise capacity for patients with lung or esophageal cancer even after radiotherapy treatment. These findings may provide an important base of knowledge for further large population studies with long-term follow-up analysis in the identification of the PR’s effects during thoracic radiotherapy.

2.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 194-204, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835602

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to analyze the treatment outcomes of ipsilateral cervical lymph node (CLN)-positive breast cancer without other distant metastasis and compare the outcomes with those of supraclavicular lymph node (SCL)-positive breast cancer. @*Methods@#Seventy-eight patients with breast cancer and ipsilateral CLN metastasis above the supraclavicular fossa (CLN[+] group) were treated at 7 institutions (2000–2014). Seventy-four patients received systemic chemotherapy and breast surgery followed by locoregional radiotherapy. Outcomes of the CLN(+) group were compared with those of the SCL(+) group, which included 183 patients with SCL involvement. @*Results@#The median follow-up duration was 55.9 months. Twenty-two regional failures were found in 15 patients—axillary lymph node (LN) in 8, SCL in 6, internal mammary LN in 3, previously involved CLN in 4, and previously uninvolved ipsilateral CLN in one patient. The 5-year overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), locoregional relapse-free survival (LRRFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rates were 68.6%, 46.7%, 68.4%, and 57.0%, respectively. Neck dissection did not improve LRRFS and DFS (p = 0.86 and p = 0.26, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that hormone receptor negativity and the presence of extracapsular extension were prognostic factors for poor DFS. On comparison with stage IIIC using propensity score matching, survival outcomes of the CLN(+) and SCL(+) groups were not different (5-year OS, p = 0.75; DFS, p = 0.88; LRRFS, p = 0.86; and DMFS, p = 0.45). @*Conclusion@#The comparable clinical outcomes indicate that patients with breast cancer who have ipsilateral CLN metastasis without other distant metastasis may benefit from locoregional treatment of the ipsilateral breast and systemic therapies, as do those with N3c disease.

3.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 285-296, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764262

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The benefit of post-mastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) in patients with breast cancer who achieve ypN0 following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) has not yet been established. This study aimed to identify the role of PMRT in patients who achieve ypN0 according to molecular subtype. METHODS: We identified patients initially suspected with axillary disease who achieved ypN0 following NAC. From 13 institutions of the Korean Radiation Oncology Group between 2005 and 2011, a total of 189 patients were included in the analysis. Effects of PMRT on loco-regional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) were evaluated for different molecular subtypes. RESULTS: In all patients, the prognostic effect of PMRT on LRC, DFS, or OS was not significant. Subgroups analysis showed that the effect of PMRT on LRC was different according to molecular subtype (p for interaction = 0.019). PMRT was associated with greater LRC in the luminal subtype (p = 0.046), but not in other subtypes. CONCLUSION: In patients who achieve ypN0 following NAC and mastectomy, PMRT shows no additional survival benefits for any molecular subtype.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Humans , Mastectomy , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Phenobarbital , Radiation Oncology , Radiotherapy
4.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 156-165, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761014

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is a standard treatment for limited-stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC) showing a response to initial treatment, but many patients do not receive PCI due to comorbidities or refusal. This study aims to define the patient group for whom PCI can be omitted with minimal risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with LS-SCLC who underwent radiotherapy with curative aim at our institution between January 2004 and December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who did not receive PCI were evaluated for brain metastasis-free survival (BMFS), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and prognostic factors for survival, and treatment outcomes were compared with a patient cohort who received PCI. RESULTS: A total of 350 patients achieved a response following thoracic radiotherapy, and 190 of these patients did not receive PCI. Stage I–II and a complete response (CR) to initial therapy were good prognostic factors for BMFS and OS on univariate analysis. Patients with both stage I–II and a CR who declined PCI showed comparable 2-year BMFS to those who received PCI (92% vs. 89%). In patients who achieved CR, PCI did not significantly improve OS or PFS. CONCLUSION: There should be less concern about omitting PCI in patients with comorbidities if they have stage I–II or a CR, with brain metastasis control being comparable to those patients who receive PCI.


Subject(s)
Brain , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Cranial Irradiation , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma
5.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 224-231, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761006

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the patterns of recurrence in patients with neuroblastoma treated with radiation therapy to the primary tumor site. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patients with high-risk neuroblastoma managed with definitive treatment with radiation therapy to the primary tumor site between January 2003 and June 2017. These patients underwent three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy or intensity-modulated radiation therapy. A total of 14–36 Gy was delivered to the planning target volume, which included the primary tumor bed and the selected metastatic site. The disease stage was determined according to the International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS). We evaluated the recurrence pattern (i.e., local or systemic), progression-free survival, and overall survival. RESULTS: A total of 40 patients with high-risk neuroblastoma were included in this study. The median patient age was 4 years (range, 1 to 11 years). Thirty patients (75%) had INSS stage 4 neuroblastoma. At the median follow-up of 58 months, there were 6 cases of local recurrence and 10 cases of systemic recurrence. Among the 6 local failure cases, 4 relapsed adjacent to the radiation field. The other 2 relapsed in the radiation field (i.e., para-aortic and retroperitoneal areas). The main sites of distant metastasis were the bone, lymph nodes, and bone marrow. The 5-year progression-free survival was 70.9% and the 5-year overall survival was 74.3%. CONCLUSION: Radiation therapy directed at the primary tumor site provides good local control. It seems to be adequate for disease control in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma after chemotherapy and surgical resection.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neuroblastoma , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
6.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1500-1508, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763211

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the treatment outcomes of radiotherapy (RT) for breast cancer with ipsilateral supraclavicular (SCL) and/or internal mammary (IMN) lymph node involvement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 353 patients from 11 institutions were included. One hundred and thirty-six patients had SCL involvement, 148 had IMN involvement, and 69 had both. All patients received neoadjuvant systemic therapy followed by breast-conserving surgery or mastectomy, and postoperative RT to whole breast/chest wall. As for regional lymph node irradiation, SCL RT was given to 344 patients, and IMN RT to 236 patients. The median RT dose was 50.4 Gy. RESULTS: The median follow-up duration was 61 months (range, 7 to 173 months). In-field progression was present in SCL (n=20) and/or IMN (n=7). The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival rates were 57.8% and 75.1%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, both SCL/IMN involvement, number of axillary lymph node ≥ 4, triple-negative subtype, and mastectomy were significant adverse prognosticators for DFS (p=0.022, p=0.001, p=0.001, and p=0.004, respectively). Regarding the impact of regional nodal irradiation, SCL RT dose ≥ 54 Gy was not associated with DFS (5-year rate, 52.9% vs. 50.9%; p=0.696) in SCL-involved patients, and the receipt of IMN RT was not associated with DFS (5-year rate, 56.1% vs. 78.1%; p=0.099) in IMN-involved patients. CONCLUSION: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery and postoperative RT achieved an acceptable in-field regional control rate in patients with SCL and/or IMN involvement. However, a higher RT dose to SCL or IMN RT was not associated with the improved DFS in these patients.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Mastectomy , Mastectomy, Segmental , Multivariate Analysis , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
7.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1011-1021, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763178

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) may be avoidable for breast cancer patients with 1-2 positive lymph nodes (LN) after breast-conserving therapy. However, the effects of ALND after mastectomy remain unclear because radiation is not routinely used. Herein, we compared the benefits of post-mastectomy ALND versus sentinel node biopsy (SNB) alone for breast cancer patients with 1-3 metastatic LNs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1,697 patients with pN1 disease who underwent mastectomy during 2000-2015 were identified from an institutional database. Outcomes were compared using the inverse probability of treatment weighted method. RESULTS: Patients who underwent SNB tended to have smaller tumors, a lower histology grade, a lower number of positive LNs, and better immunohistochemical findings. After correcting all confounding factors regarding patient, tumor, and adjuvant treatment, the SNB and ALND groups did not differ in terms of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS), distant metastasis and locoregional recurrence. The 10-year DFS and OS rates were 83% and 84%, respectively, during a median follow-up period of 93 months. CONCLUSION: ALND did not improve post-mastectomy survival outcomes among patients with N1 breast cancer, even after adjusting for all histopathologic and treatment-related factors.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes , Mastectomy , Methods , Neoplasm Metastasis , Recurrence , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739609

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We evaluated the effect of positive superficial and/or deep margin status on local recurrence (LR) in invasive breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery (BCS) followed by radiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 3,403 stage 1 and 2 invasive breast cancer patients treated with BCS followed by radiotherapy from January 2000 to December 2008 were included in this study. These patients were divided into three groups according to margin status: clear resection margin status for all sections (group 1, n=3,195); positive margin status in superficial and/or deep sections (group 2, n=121); and positive peripheral parenchymal margin regardless of superficial and/or deep margin involvement (group 3, n=87). The LR-free survival between these three groups was compared and the prognostic role of margin status was analyzed. RESULTS: Across all groups, age, tumor size, nodal status, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status did not significantly differ. High grade, positive extensive intraductal component, hormone receptor positivity, hormone therapy received, and chemotherapy not received were more prevalent in groups 2 and 3 than in group 1. Five-year LR rates in groups 1, 2, and 3 were 1.9%, 1.7%, and 7.7%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that group 3 was a significant predictor for LR (hazard ratio [HR], 4.78; p < 0.001), but that positive superficial and/or deep margin was not (HR, 0.66; p=0.57). CONCLUSION: Superficial and/or deep margin involvement following BCS is not an important predictor for LR.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Drug Therapy , Humans , Mastectomy, Segmental , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Radiotherapy , ErbB Receptors , Recurrence
9.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1316-1323, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717737

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to compare the treatment outcomes of breast conserving surgery (BCS) plus radiotherapy (RT) versus mastectomy for patients with pT1-2N1 triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using two multicenter retrospective studies on breast cancer, a pooled analysis was performed among 320 patients with pT1-2N1 TNBC. All patients who underwent BCS (n=212) receivedwhole breast RTwith orwithoutregional nodal RT,while nonewho underwent mastectomy (n=108)received it. All patients received taxane-based adjuvant chemotherapy. The median follow-up periods were 65 months in the BCS+RT group, and 74 months in the mastectomy group. RESULTS: The median age of all patients was 48 years (range, 24 to 70 years). Mastectomy group had more patients with multiple tumors (p < 0.001), no lymphovascular invasion (p=0.001), higher number of involved lymph node (p=0.028), and higher nodal ratio ≥ 0.2 (p=0.037). Other characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups. The 5-year locoregionalrecurrence-free, disease-free, and overall survivalrates of BCS+RT group versus mastectomy group were 94.6% versus 87.7%, 89.5% versus 80.4%, and 95.0% versus 87.8%, respectively, and the differences were statistically significant after adjusting for covariates (p=0.010, p=0.006, and p=0.005, respectively). CONCLUSION: In pT1-2N1 TNBC, breast conservation therapy achieved better locoregional recurrencefree, disease-free, and overall survival rates compared with mastectomy.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Mastectomy , Mastectomy, Segmental , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
10.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 244-250, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716698

ABSTRACT

Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) is a well-established treatment for breast cancer. However, there is a large degree of variation and controversy in practice patterns. A nationwide survey on the patterns of practice in breast RT was designed by the Division for Breast Cancer of the Korean Radiation Oncology Group. All board-certified members of the Korean Society for Radiation Oncology were sent a questionnaire comprising 39 questions on six domains: hypofractionated whole breast RT, accelerated partial breast RT, postmastectomy RT (PMRT), regional nodal RT, RT for ductal carcinoma in situ, and RT toxicity. Sixty-four radiation oncologists from 54 of 86 (62.8%) hospitals responded. Twenty-three respondents (35.9%) used hypofractionated whole breast RT, and the most common schedule was 43.2 Gy in 16 fractions. Only three (4.7%) used accelerated partial breast RT. Five (7.8%) used hypofractionated PMRT, and 40 (62.5%) had never used boost RT after chest wall irradiation. Indications for regional nodal RT varied; ≥pN2 (n=7) versus ≥pN1 (n=17) versus ≥pN1 with pathologic risk factors (n=40). Selection criteria for internal mammary lymph node (IMN) irradiation also varied; only four (6.3%) always treated IMN when regional nodal RT was administered and 30 (46.9%) treated IMN only if IMN involvement was identified through imaging. Thirty-one (48.4%) considered omission of whole breast RT after breast-conserving surgery for ductal carcinoma in situ based on clinical and pathologic risk factors. Fifty-two (81.3%) used heart-sparing techniques. Overall, there were wide variations in the patterns of practice in breast RT in Korea. Standard guidelines are needed, especially for regional nodal RT and omission of RT for ductal carcinoma in situ.


Subject(s)
Appointments and Schedules , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating , Korea , Lymph Nodes , Mastectomy, Segmental , Patient Selection , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Radiation Oncology , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Thoracic Wall
11.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 233-240, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-144722

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To validate the 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union for International Cancer Control (AJCC/UICC) TNM staging system for human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) and investigate whether a modified classification better reflects the prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of patients diagnosed with non-metastatic HPV-related OPSCC between 2010 and 2016 at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. HPV status was determined by immunohistochemical analysis of p16 and/or HPV DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We reclassified TNM stage T0-1 and N0-1 as group A, T2-3 or N2 as B, and T4 or N3 as C. Survival analysis according to 8th AJCC/UICC TNM staging and the modified classification was performed. RESULTS: Of 383 OPSCC patients, 211 were positive for HPV DNA PCR or p16. After exclusion, 184 patients were included in this analysis. Median age was 56 years (range, 31 to 81 years). Most primary tumors were in the palatine tonsil (148 tumors, 80%). The eighth AJCC/UICC TNM classification could not differentiate between stage I and II (p = 0.470) or II and III (p = 0.209). Applying modified grouping, the 3-year overall survival rate of group A was significantly higher than that of group B and C (98% vs. 91%, p = 0.039 and 98% vs. 78%, p < 0.001, respectively). Differentiation between group B and C was marginally significant (p = 0.053). CONCLUSION: The 8th AJCC/UICC TNM staging system did not clearly distinguish the prognosis of stage II from that of other stages. Including the T2N0-1 group in stage II may improve prognostic stratification.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Classification , DNA , Epithelial Cells , Humans , Joints , Medical Records , Neoplasm Staging , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms , Palatine Tonsil , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
12.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 233-240, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-144710

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To validate the 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union for International Cancer Control (AJCC/UICC) TNM staging system for human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) and investigate whether a modified classification better reflects the prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of patients diagnosed with non-metastatic HPV-related OPSCC between 2010 and 2016 at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. HPV status was determined by immunohistochemical analysis of p16 and/or HPV DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We reclassified TNM stage T0-1 and N0-1 as group A, T2-3 or N2 as B, and T4 or N3 as C. Survival analysis according to 8th AJCC/UICC TNM staging and the modified classification was performed. RESULTS: Of 383 OPSCC patients, 211 were positive for HPV DNA PCR or p16. After exclusion, 184 patients were included in this analysis. Median age was 56 years (range, 31 to 81 years). Most primary tumors were in the palatine tonsil (148 tumors, 80%). The eighth AJCC/UICC TNM classification could not differentiate between stage I and II (p = 0.470) or II and III (p = 0.209). Applying modified grouping, the 3-year overall survival rate of group A was significantly higher than that of group B and C (98% vs. 91%, p = 0.039 and 98% vs. 78%, p < 0.001, respectively). Differentiation between group B and C was marginally significant (p = 0.053). CONCLUSION: The 8th AJCC/UICC TNM staging system did not clearly distinguish the prognosis of stage II from that of other stages. Including the T2N0-1 group in stage II may improve prognostic stratification.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Classification , DNA , Epithelial Cells , Humans , Joints , Medical Records , Neoplasm Staging , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms , Palatine Tonsil , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
13.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 327-332, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194962

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The optimal indications for omitting adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) after breast-conserving surgery are still controversial in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast. The purpose of this study was to validate the role of postoperative RT in DCIS patients aged ≤50 years and with tumor margin widths of <1 cm, both of which have been proven to be high-risk features for recurrence in cohorts not receiving RT. METHODS: Using two multicenter retrospective studies on DCIS, a pooled analysis was performed among patients aged ≤50 years and with margin widths < 1 cm. All patients underwent breast-conserving surgery. Two hundred thirty-two patients received postoperative RT, while 54 did not. The median follow-up period was 77 months (range, 2–190 months) and 70 months (range, 5–166 months) in the patients who received RT and those who did not, respectively. RESULTS: The patients who received RT had larger tumors (p < 0.001), higher nuclear grade (p < 0.001), closer margin width (p < 0.001), and negative estrogen receptor expression (p=0.010) compared with those who did not receive RT. During the follow-up period, there were 17 ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences (IBTRs) as follows: invasive carcinoma in 10 patients and DCIS in seven. In the univariate analysis, the treatment with RT and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status were significant risk factors for IBTR. The 7-year IBTR rates with and without postoperative RT were 3.6% and 13.1%, respectively (p=0.008). HER2-positive tumors had a higher IBTR rate than the HER2-negative tumors (7-year rate, 13.6% vs. 3.9%; p=0.003). CONCLUSION: Postoperative RT following breast-conserving surgery significantly reduced the 7-year IBTR rate in the DCIS patients aged ≤50 years and with margin widths < 1 cm. HER2 positivity was associated with increased IBTR in these patients.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Ductal , Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating , Cohort Studies , Estrogens , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Mastectomy, Segmental , Radiation Oncology , Radiotherapy , ErbB Receptors , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
14.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 275-282, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126242

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to present the incidence of radiation pneumonitis (RP) reported within 6 months after treatment for breast cancer with or without internal mammary node irradiation (IMNI). METHODS: In the Korean Radiation Oncology Group (KROG) 08-06 phase III randomized trial, patients who were node-positive after surgery were randomly assigned to receive radiotherapy either with or without IMNI. A total of 747 patients were enrolled, and three-dimensional treatment planning with computed tomography simulation was performed for all patients. Of the 747 patients, 722 underwent chest X-rays before and within 6 months after radiotherapy. These 722 patients underwent evaluation, and RP was diagnosed on the basis of chest radiography findings and clinical symptoms. The relationship between the incidence of RP and clinical/dosimetric parameters was analyzed. RESULTS: RP developed in 35 patients (4.8%), including grade 1 RP in 26 patients (3.6%), grade 2 RP in nine patients (1.2%); there was no incidence of grade 3 or higher RP. Grade 2 RP cases were observed in only the IMNI group. The risk of developing RP was influenced by IMNI treatment; pneumonitis occurred in 6.5% of patients (n=23/356) who underwent IMNI and in 3.3% of patients (n=12/366) who did not (p=0.047). The differences in lung dosimetric parameters (mean lung dose, V10–40) were statistically significant between the two groups. CONCLUSION: IMNI treatment resulted in increased radiation exposure to the lung and a higher rate of RP, but the incidence and severity of RP was minimal and acceptable. This minor impact on morbidity should be balanced with the impact on survival outcome in future analyses.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Humans , Incidence , Lung , Lymphatic Irradiation , Pneumonia , Radiation Exposure , Radiation Oncology , Radiation Pneumonitis , Radiography , Radiotherapy , Thorax
15.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 167-172, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-119565

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the prognosis, patterns of failure, and prognostic factors for breast cancer patients with pathologically proven synchronous ipsilateral supraclavicular lymph node (ISCLN) metastases. METHODS: We reviewed the records of breast cancer patients with pathologically proven ISCLN metastases. Local aggressive treatment was defined as treatment including surgery, axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), ISCLN excision, radiotherapy (RT), and chemotherapy. RESULTS: A total of 111 patients were included. The 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 64.2% and 56.2%, respectively. On univariate analysis, RT, ALND, trastuzumab treatment, hormone receptor (HR) status, and local aggressive treatment were identified as significant factors for OS. The 5-year OS for 73 patients who received local aggressive treatment was superior to that of 38 patients who received nonaggressive treatment (70.9% vs. 49.3%, p=0.036). Multivariate analysis showed that RT, HR status, and trastuzumab were significant variables for the 5-year OS and DFS. CONCLUSION: Multimodality treatment with surgery, taxane-based chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and RT is strongly recommended for breast cancer patients with synchronous ISCLN metastases.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Humans , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , Treatment Outcome , Trastuzumab
16.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 279-284, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-112048

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify patients with high risk of distant metastasis (DM) after salvage treatment for postmastectomy locoregional recurrence (LRR). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 142 patients who received salvage radiotherapy with or without wide excision for isolated LRR after mastectomy between January 1999 and December 2012. Distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) was estimated from the date of diagnosis of isolated LRR to the date of DM or last follow-up using the Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox regression analysis was performed to identify prognostic factors for DM. RESULTS: The median follow-up period was 54 months. The major failure pattern was DM (56%) and the 5-year DMFS was 43%. In multivariate analysis, initial N (iN) stage, recurrent N (rN) stage, and hormone receptor (HR) status were significant prognostic factors for DM (5-year DMFS: iN0 vs. iN1-3, 73% vs. 25%, p<0.001; rN0 vs. rN1-3, 61% vs. 29%, p<0.001; HR+ vs. HR-, 49% vs. 21%, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Patients with lymph node involvement and/or HR- specimens seem to experience more DM than patients with chest wall-only recurrence and HR+ specimens. Further studies are needed to investigate the role of chemotherapy in these patients.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Mastectomy , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Thorax
17.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 284-293, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-70165

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine failure patterns and survival outcomes of T4N0-1 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with definitive radiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-five patients with T4N0-1 NSCLC who received definitive radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy from May 2003 to October 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The standard radiotherapy scheme was 66 Gy in 30 fractions. The main concurrent chemotherapy regimen was 50 mg/m2 weekly paclitaxel combined with 20 mg/m2 cisplatin or AUC 2 carboplatin. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS). Secondary outcomes were failure patterns and toxicities. RESULTS: The median age was 64 years (range, 34 to 90 years). Eighty-eight percent of patients (n = 84) had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-1, and 42% (n = 40) experienced pretreatment weight loss. Sixty percent of patients (n = 57) had no metastatic regional lymph nodes. The median radiation dose was EQD2 67.1 Gy (range, 56.9 to 83.3 Gy). Seventy-one patients (75%) were treated with concurrent chemotherapy; of these, 13 were also administered neoadjuvant chemotherapy. At a median follow-up of 21 months (range, 1 to 102 months), 3-year OS was 44%. The 3-year cumulative incidences of local recurrence and distant recurrence were 48.8% and 36.3%, respectively. Pretreatment weight loss and combined chemotherapy were significant factors for OS. Acute esophagitis over grade 3 occurred in three patients and grade 3 chronic esophagitis occurred in one patient. There was no grade 3-4 radiation pneumonitis. CONCLUSION: Definitive radiotherapy for T4N0-1 NSCLC results in favorable survival with acceptable toxicity rates. Local recurrence is the major recurrence pattern. Intensity modulated radiotherapy and radio-sensitizing agents would be needed to improve local tumor control.


Subject(s)
Area Under Curve , Carboplatin , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Cisplatin , Drug Therapy , Esophagitis , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Lymph Nodes , Paclitaxel , Radiation Pneumonitis , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Weight Loss
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129488

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the treatment results in early stage non-small cell lung cancer patients who have undergone fiducial-less CyberKnife radiosurgery (CKRS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: From June 2011 to November 2013, 58 patients underwent CKRS at Asan Medical Center for stage I lung cancer. After excluding 14 patients, we retrospectively reviewed the records of the remaining 44 patients. All analyses were performed using SPSS ver. 21. RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 75 years. Most patients had inoperable primary lung cancer with a poor pulmonary function test with comorbidity or old age. The clinical stage was IA in 30 patients (68.2%), IB in 14 (31.8%). The mean tumor size was 2.6 cm (range, 1.2 to 4.8 cm), and the tumor was smaller than 2 cm in 12 patients (27.3%). The radiation dose given was 48-60 Gy in 3-4 fractions. In a median follow-up of 23.1 months, local recurrence occurred in three patients (2-year local recurrence-free survival rate, 90.4%) and distant metastasis occurred in 13 patients. All patients tolerated the radiosurgery well, only two patients developing grade 3 dyspnea. The most common complications were radiation-induced fibrosis and pneumonitis. Eight patients died due to cancer progression. CONCLUSION: The results showed that fiducial-less CKRS shows comparable local tumor control and survival rates to those of LINAC-based SABR or CKRS with a fiducial marker. Thus, fiducial-less CKRS using Xsight lung tracking system can be effectively and safely performed for patients with medically inoperable stage I non-small cell lung cancer without any risk of procedure-related complication.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Comorbidity , Diagnosis , Dyspnea , Fibrosis , Fiducial Markers , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pneumonia , Radiosurgery , Recurrence , Respiratory Function Tests , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129473

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the treatment results in early stage non-small cell lung cancer patients who have undergone fiducial-less CyberKnife radiosurgery (CKRS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: From June 2011 to November 2013, 58 patients underwent CKRS at Asan Medical Center for stage I lung cancer. After excluding 14 patients, we retrospectively reviewed the records of the remaining 44 patients. All analyses were performed using SPSS ver. 21. RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 75 years. Most patients had inoperable primary lung cancer with a poor pulmonary function test with comorbidity or old age. The clinical stage was IA in 30 patients (68.2%), IB in 14 (31.8%). The mean tumor size was 2.6 cm (range, 1.2 to 4.8 cm), and the tumor was smaller than 2 cm in 12 patients (27.3%). The radiation dose given was 48-60 Gy in 3-4 fractions. In a median follow-up of 23.1 months, local recurrence occurred in three patients (2-year local recurrence-free survival rate, 90.4%) and distant metastasis occurred in 13 patients. All patients tolerated the radiosurgery well, only two patients developing grade 3 dyspnea. The most common complications were radiation-induced fibrosis and pneumonitis. Eight patients died due to cancer progression. CONCLUSION: The results showed that fiducial-less CKRS shows comparable local tumor control and survival rates to those of LINAC-based SABR or CKRS with a fiducial marker. Thus, fiducial-less CKRS using Xsight lung tracking system can be effectively and safely performed for patients with medically inoperable stage I non-small cell lung cancer without any risk of procedure-related complication.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Comorbidity , Diagnosis , Dyspnea , Fibrosis , Fiducial Markers , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pneumonia , Radiosurgery , Recurrence , Respiratory Function Tests , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
20.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 198-207, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-112698

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of total body irradiation (TBI), as a conditioning regimen prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT), in pediatric acute leukemia patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2001 to December 2011, 28 patients, aged less than 18 years, were treated with TBI-based conditioning for allo-SCT in our institution. Of the 28 patients, 21 patients were diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, 75%) and 7 were diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML, 25%). TBI was completed 4 days or 1 day before stem cell infusion. Patients underwent radiation therapy with bilateral parallel opposing fields and 6-MV X-rays. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival outcomes. RESULTS: The 2-year event-free survival and overall survival rates were 66% and 56%, respectively (71.4% and 60.0% in AML patients vs. 64.3% and 52.4% in ALL patients, respectively). Treatment related mortality rate were 25%. Acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease was a major complication; other complications included endocrine dysfunction and pulmonary complications. Common complications from TBI were nausea (89%) and cataracts (7.1%). CONCLUSION: The efficacy and toxicity data in this study of TBI-based conditioning to pediatric acute leukemia patients were comparable with previous studies. However, clinicians need to focus on the acute and chronic complications related to allo-SCT.


Subject(s)
Cataract , Child , Disease-Free Survival , Graft vs Host Disease , Humans , Leukemia , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Mortality , Nausea , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Stem Cell Transplantation , Stem Cells , Survival Rate , Whole-Body Irradiation
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