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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977370

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Tegoprazan, a novel potassium-competitive acid blocker, has shown rapid action and gastric acid inhibition. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of a tegoprazan-based, nonbismuth-containing quadruple (concomitant) therapy for the primary eradication of Helicobacter pylori. @*Methods@#We conducted a prospective, single-arm, single-center, primitive study to verify the efficacy of a 10-day tegoprazan- based (50-mg dose) concomitant therapy, including amoxicillin (1,000-mg dose), clarithromycin (CLA; 500-mg dose), and metronidazole (MET; 500-mg dose) twice daily as a first-line treatment for H. pylori eradication. @*Results@#We tested consecutive cultures for antibiotic susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentrations. We enrolled 84 participants; 79 (94.0%) completed first-line therapy. The overall intention-to-treat and per-protocol eradication rates were 90.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 82.1−95.8) and 96.2% (95% CI, 83.4–97.6), respectively. Of the 73 participants evaluated for antibiotic resistance, 19 (26.0%), 32 (42.5%), and 8 (11.0%) exhibited CLA, MET, and CLA and MET dual resistance, respectively. Of these, 39 participants (66.1%) exhibited successful eradication after the therapeutic regimen despite antibiotic resistance. @*Conclusions@#The 10-day tegoprazan-based concomitant therapy may be an effective first-line treatment for eradicating H. pylori.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968755

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Little is known about the effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on the recurrence of gastric hyperplastic polyps after endoscopic resection. Thus, we evaluated the recurrence rate of gastric hyperplastic polyps based on H. pylori eradication following endoscopic resection. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 201 patients with H. pylori infection who underwent endoscopic resection for gastric hyperplastic polyps at six medical centers. H. pylori status was assessed by histological analysis and a rapid urease test. A total of 149 patients underwent successful H. pylori eradication (eradication group), whereas 52 patients had persistent H. pylori infections (non-eradication group). The recurrence rate of gastric hyperplastic polyps and the risk factors according to H. pylori status were analyzed. @*Results@#During the mean follow-up period of 18.3 months, recurrent gastric polyps developed after endoscopic resection in 10 patients (19.2% [10/52]) in the non-eradication group and 12 patients (8.1% [12/149]) in the eradication group. The cumulative incidence of recurrent gastric hyperplastic polyps was significantly higher in the non-eradication group than in the eradication group (p = 0.041, log‐rank test). In the adjusted analysis, H. pylori eradication reduced the recurrence of gastric hyperplastic polyps (hazard ratio [HR], 0.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18 to 0.99), whereas anticoagulation therapy increased the risk of recurrence of gastric hyperplastic polyps (HR, 4.91; 95% CI, 1.39 to 17.28). @*Conclusions@#Successful eradication of H. pylori may reduce the recurrence of gastric hyperplastic polyps in patients after endoscopic mucosal resection.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967390

ABSTRACT

Gastritis is a disease characterized by inflammation of the gastric mucosa. It is very common and has various classification systems such as the updated Sydney system. As there is a lot of evidence that Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with the development of gastric cancer and that gastric cancer can be prevented by eradication, H. pylori gastritis has been emphasized recently. The incidence rate of gastric cancer in Korea is the highest in the world, and due to the spread of screening endoscopy, atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia are commonly diagnosed in the general population. However, there have been no clinical guidelines developed in Korea for these lesions. Therefore, this clinical guideline has been developed by the Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research for important topics that are frequently encountered in clinical situations related to gastritis. Evidence-based guidelines were developed through systematic review and de novo processes, and eight recommendations were made for eight key questions. This guideline needs to be periodically revised according to the needs of clinical practice or as important evidence about this issue is published in the future.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967162

ABSTRACT

Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in Korea and the world. Since 2004, this is the 4th gastric cancer guideline published in Korea which is the revised version of previous evidence-based approach in 2018. Current guideline is a collaborative work of the interdisciplinary working group including experts in the field of gastric surgery, gastroenterology, endoscopy, medical oncology, abdominal radiology, pathology, nuclear medicine, radiation oncology and guideline development methodology. Total of 33 key questions were updated or proposed after a collaborative review by the working group and 40 statements were developed according to the systematic review using the MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library and KoreaMed database. The level of evidence and the grading of recommendations were categorized according to the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation proposition. Evidence level, benefit, harm, and clinical applicability was considered as the significant factors for recommendation. The working group reviewed recommendations and discussed for consensus. In the earlier part, general consideration discusses screening, diagnosis and staging of endoscopy, pathology, radiology, and nuclear medicine. Flowchart is depicted with statements which is supported by meta-analysis and references. Since clinical trial and systematic review was not suitable for postoperative oncologic and nutritional follow-up, working group agreed to conduct a nationwide survey investigating the clinical practice of all tertiary or general hospitals in Korea. The purpose of this survey was to provide baseline information on follow up. Herein we present a multidisciplinary-evidence based gastric cancer guideline.

5.
Gut and Liver ; : 37-43, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914378

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#After esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with biopsy, some patients experience gastrointestinal symptoms. This study investigated the effect of sodium alginate on biopsy-related gastrointestinal symptoms. @*Methods@#In this open-label, randomized, controlled trial, patients undergoing EGD with biopsy were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group. In the treatment group, sodium alginate was orally administered for 3 days after EGD. Patients completed questionnaires about their gastrointestinal symptoms at baseline (past week), the day after returning home, and after another 3 days. Gastrointestinal symptoms, including abdominal pain, epigastric pain/soreness, heartburn, acid reflux, nausea/vomiting, borborygmus, abdominal distension, and belching, were rated using an upper gastrointestinal symptom rating scale (GSRS). @*Results@#A total of 210 persons (138 men) who underwent EGD with biopsy were enrolled and allocated to the treatment (n=104) or control (n=106) group. At baseline, the demographic factors and GSRS scores were not different between the control and treatment groups. The epigastric pain/soreness score increased in the control group after endoscopic biopsy (+0.056), whereas the score was decreased in the treatment group (–0.067) (p=0.042). In the treatment group, the scores for acid regurgitation and epigastric soreness decreased during follow-up from those at baseline (p<0.05), whereas there were no significant reductions in the control group. The scores for belching and borborygmus decreased during follow-up only in the treatment group. Abdominal bloating decreased in both the control and treatment groups. @*Conclusions@#Sodium alginate reduced epigastric pain/soreness after EGD with biopsy. Therefore, the prescription of sodium alginate should be considered after endoscopic biopsy.

6.
Gut and Liver ; : 723-731, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890770

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study examined the long-term outcomes of undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer (UD EGC) with positive horizontal margins (HMs) after endoscopic resection (ER) and compared them between additional surgery and nonsurgical management. @*Methods@#From 2005 to 2015, a total of 1,124 patients with UD EGC underwent ER at 18 tertiary hospitals in Korea. Of them, 92 patients with positive HMs as the only noncurative factor (n=25) or with both positive HMs and tumor size >2 cm (n=67) were included. These patients underwent additional surgery (n=40), underwent additional endoscopic treatment (n=6), or were followed up without further treatment (n=46). @*Results@#No lymph node (LN) metastasis was found in patients who underwent additional surgery. During a median follow-up of 57.7 months (interquartile range, 27.6 to 68.8 months), no LN or distant metastases or gastric cancer-related deaths occurred in the overall cohort. At baseline, the residual cancer rate was 57.8% (26/45) after additional surgery or ER. The 5-year local recurrence rate was 33.6% among patients who were followed up without additional treatment. The 5-year overall survival rates were 95.0% and 87.8% after additional surgery and nonsurgical management (endoscopic treatment or close follow-up), respectively (log-rank p=0.224). In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, nonsurgical management was not associated with an increased risk of mortality. @*Conclusions@#UD EGC with positive HMs after ER may have favorable long-term outcomes and a very low risk of LN metastasis. Nonsurgical management may be suggested as an alternative, particularly for patients with old age or chronic illness.

7.
Gut and Liver ; : 168-195, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874584

ABSTRACT

Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. Although the prevalence of H. pylori is gradually decreasing, approximately half of the world's population still becomes infected with this disease. H. pylori is responsible for substantial gastrointestinal morbidity worldwide, with a high disease burden. It is the most common cause of gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer. Since the revision of the H. pylori clinical practice guidelines in 2013 in Korea, the eradication rate of H. pylori has gradually decreased with the use of a clarithromycin-based triple therapy for 7 days. According to a nationwide randomized controlled study conducted by the Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research released in 2018, the intention-to-treat eradication rate was only 63.9%, which was mostly due to increased antimicrobial resistance, especially from clarithromycin. The clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of H. pylori were updated according to evidence-based medicine from a meta-analysis conducted on a target group receiving the latest level of eradication therapy. The draft recommendations developed based on the meta-analysis were finalized after an expert consensus on three recommendations regarding the indication for treatment and eight recommendations for the treatment itself. These guidelines were designed to provide clinical evidence for the treatment (including primary care treatment) of H. pylori infection to patients, nurses, medical school students, policymakers, and clinicians. These may differ from current medical insurance standards and will be revised if more evidence emerges in the future.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903672

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Because gastrointestinal tract is not sterile, primary culture has contamination risk despite of massive washing with antimicrobial media. Microbial contamination can play a key role in initial failure during biopsy-derived primary tumor culture. @*Methods@#Tumor tissue was acquired from esophageal and gastric tumors using endoscopic biopsy. Three-dimensional cultures were performed, and separated spheroids were cultured in media for 7 to 10 days and then transferred to Matrigel (Corning Inc.). We investigated risk factors and patterns of initial fungal contamination. @*Results@#Initial tumor contamination was observed in 23% (7/30) of esophageal cancer and 20% (3/15) of gastric cancer samples. Two cases of bacterial contamination occurred during the establishment of culture protocol. Moderate to thick whitish plaques (p < 0.001) and food retention in lumen (p < 0.001) were risk factors for initial fungal contamination. After exclusion of high risk patients for contamination, no fungal contamination occurred in primary organoid cultures. Fungal contamination was usually detected within 3 days after tumor preparation. However, unusual fungal contamination (GC11 and EC29) was recognized after several passages. Growing spherical shapes resembled cancer organoids. Although they rapidly proliferated and multiple daughter spheroids appeared, the media were translucent. After several passages, yeasts and pseudohyphae were detected on the edges of the solid spherical structures and media. @*Conclusions@#Moderate to thick whitish plaques and food retention are clinical risk factors for initial fungal contamination during biopsy-derived cancer organoid culture. Most initial fungal contamination was detected within 3 days, but it could be unusually recognized after several passages.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903666

ABSTRACT

Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. H. pylori is responsible for substantial gastrointestinal morbidity with a high disease burden. Since the revision of the H. pylori Clinical Practice Guidelines in 2013 in Korea, the eradication rate of H. pylori has gradually decreased with the use of a clarithromycin based triple therapy. According to a nationwide randomized controlled study by the Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research released in 2018, the intention-to-treat eradication rate was only 63.9%, which was mostly due to increased antimicrobial resistance to clarithromycin. The clinical practice guidelines for treatment of H. pylori were updated based on evidence-based medicine from a meta-analysis conducted on a target group receiving the latest level of eradication therapy. The draft recommendations developed based on the meta-analysis were finalized after expert consensus on three recommendations regarding the indication for treatment and eight recommendations on the treatment itself. These guidelines were designed to provide clinical evidence for the treatment of H. pylori to patients, nurses, medical school students, policymakers, and clinicians. These may differ from current medical insurance standards, and will be revised if more evidence emerges in the future.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903640

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#As antibiotic resistance increases and new first-line therapies emerge, salvage therapies for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication failures are becoming more common and complicated. This study aimed to systematically review overall salvage regimens after previous failure of H. pylori eradication. @*Materials and Methods@#A systematic review of randomized clinical trials evaluating salvage therapies after previous H. pylori eradication failure was performed. A meta-analysis was conducted when an adequate number of studies suitable for grouping was found. @*Results@#Overall, 36 studies with 77 treatment arms were identified, and they were highly heterogeneous regarding previously failed regimens and salvage regimens under comparison. Bismuth quadruple therapy after failure of standard triple therapy showed a pooled intention-to-treat (ITT) eradication rate of 75.5% (95% CI, 71.6~79.1%), and the rates were significantly higher with 14-day therapy than 7-day therapy by 9% (95% CI, 2~15%). Levofloxacin triple therapy after failure of standard triple therapy demonstrated a pooled ITT eradication rate of 73.3% (95% CI, 68.4~77.3%). In direct comparison, the two regimens were not significantly different in eradication rates. No study evaluated salvage regimens after the failure of bismuth or non-bismuth quadruple therapy. @*Conclusions@#The current studies regarding salvage regimens are highly heterogeneous. Bismuth quadruple therapy and levofloxacin triple therapy may be a reliable option after failure of standard triple therapy, but the regional profile of antibiotic resistance should be considered. Further studies are needed for salvage regimens after failure of non-bismuth or bismuth quadruple therapy.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903638

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The eradication rate of the first-line standard triple therapy (STT) for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has decreased since 2000; therefore, other first-line therapies are required. This study was aimed at investigating the efficacy of bismuth-containing quadruple therapy (PBMT) for first-line H. pylori eradication compared to STT, sequential therapy (SQT), and concomitant therapy (CT). @*Materials and Methods@#The Ovid-MEDLINE, Koreamed, EMBASE, KMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched from January 2008 to July 2018. All identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing PBMT and non-PBMT for first-line H. pylori eradication therapy were included in the final analysis. @*Results@#A total of 3,653 patients from seven RCTs were enrolled. The pooled eradication rates of PBMT by intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analyses were 82.1% (95% CI, 68.2~90.8%) and 88.8% (95% CI, 77.1~94.9%), respectively. However, no statistically significant difference was observed in eradication rates of the 10- or 14-day PBMT as compared to 14-day STT, 10-day SQT, and 10-day CT in ITT and PP analyses. PBMT was significantly higher in adverse events than in the other eradication regimens (RR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.11~2.44). Considerable heterogeneity in adverse events was observed among studies (χ2=88.7; P<0.001, I2=93%). @*Conclusions@#PBMT can be the first-line treatment for H. pylori eradication in Korea when other first-line options, including STT, SQT, or CT, are unavailable due to their high adverse event rates.

12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903635

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Standard triple therapy, including a proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin, has been recommended as the first-line for Helicobacter pylori infection. However, the eradication rate of standard triple therapy has declined over the past years because of the increasing resistance to clarithromycin in Korea. We analyzed the eradication rates and the 10-year change in the eradication rates in Korea. @*Methods@#PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed were searched for studies published between January 2007 and June 2018. The pooled eradication rates and their 95% CIs were estimated using a random-effect logistic regression model. @*Results@#Twenty-six randomized controlled studies on standard triple therapy conducted in Korea were selected. The intention-to-treat (ITT) and per protocol analyses showed pooled eradication rates of standard triple therapy of 71.6% (95% CI, 69.9~73.3%) and 79.6% (95% CI, 76.6~82.2%), respectively. The eradication rate decreased with time. The ITT analysis showed that the 14-day therapy (78.1% [95% CI, 75.2~80.7%]) had significantly higher eradication rates than the 7-day therapy (70.0% [95% CI, 68.5~71.4%]) (P<0.01). @*Conclusions@#These results suggest that the eradication rate of standard triple therapy, as the first-line therapy, has shown an unacceptable decrease. The eradication rate increased when the duration of therapy was increased to 14 days, but it was not satisfactory. Therefore, other treatment regimens or therapies based on susceptibility tests should be considered for the first-line therapy.

13.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 160-189, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902272

ABSTRACT

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. Although its incidence is gradually decreasing, about half of the world's population still get infected. H. pylori infection is responsible for substantial gastrointestinal morbidity worldwide. It is the most common cause of gastric and duodenal ulcers as well as gastric cancer. Since the revision of the H. pylori Clinical Practice Guidelines in 2013, the eradication rate of H. pylori has gradually decreased with the use of classical triple therapy, wherein amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and proton pump inhibitors are administered, for 7 days. According to a nationwide randomized controlled study conducted by the Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research released in 2018, the intention-to-treat eradication rate was only 63.9%, which was due to increased antimicrobial resistance induced by the use of antibiotics, especially clarithromycin. The update of clinical practice guideline for treatment of H. pylori was developed based on evidence-based medicine by conducting a meta-analysis. The draft recommendations were finalized after expert consensus on three recommendations regarding the indication for treatment and eight recommendations on the treatment itself. These guidelines are designed to provide patients, nurses, medical school students, policymakers, and clinicians with clinical evidence to guide primary care and treatment of H. pylori infection. These may differ from current medical insurance standards and will be revised further, if necessary, based on research-based evidence.

14.
Gut and Liver ; : 723-731, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898474

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study examined the long-term outcomes of undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer (UD EGC) with positive horizontal margins (HMs) after endoscopic resection (ER) and compared them between additional surgery and nonsurgical management. @*Methods@#From 2005 to 2015, a total of 1,124 patients with UD EGC underwent ER at 18 tertiary hospitals in Korea. Of them, 92 patients with positive HMs as the only noncurative factor (n=25) or with both positive HMs and tumor size >2 cm (n=67) were included. These patients underwent additional surgery (n=40), underwent additional endoscopic treatment (n=6), or were followed up without further treatment (n=46). @*Results@#No lymph node (LN) metastasis was found in patients who underwent additional surgery. During a median follow-up of 57.7 months (interquartile range, 27.6 to 68.8 months), no LN or distant metastases or gastric cancer-related deaths occurred in the overall cohort. At baseline, the residual cancer rate was 57.8% (26/45) after additional surgery or ER. The 5-year local recurrence rate was 33.6% among patients who were followed up without additional treatment. The 5-year overall survival rates were 95.0% and 87.8% after additional surgery and nonsurgical management (endoscopic treatment or close follow-up), respectively (log-rank p=0.224). In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, nonsurgical management was not associated with an increased risk of mortality. @*Conclusions@#UD EGC with positive HMs after ER may have favorable long-term outcomes and a very low risk of LN metastasis. Nonsurgical management may be suggested as an alternative, particularly for patients with old age or chronic illness.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895968

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Because gastrointestinal tract is not sterile, primary culture has contamination risk despite of massive washing with antimicrobial media. Microbial contamination can play a key role in initial failure during biopsy-derived primary tumor culture. @*Methods@#Tumor tissue was acquired from esophageal and gastric tumors using endoscopic biopsy. Three-dimensional cultures were performed, and separated spheroids were cultured in media for 7 to 10 days and then transferred to Matrigel (Corning Inc.). We investigated risk factors and patterns of initial fungal contamination. @*Results@#Initial tumor contamination was observed in 23% (7/30) of esophageal cancer and 20% (3/15) of gastric cancer samples. Two cases of bacterial contamination occurred during the establishment of culture protocol. Moderate to thick whitish plaques (p < 0.001) and food retention in lumen (p < 0.001) were risk factors for initial fungal contamination. After exclusion of high risk patients for contamination, no fungal contamination occurred in primary organoid cultures. Fungal contamination was usually detected within 3 days after tumor preparation. However, unusual fungal contamination (GC11 and EC29) was recognized after several passages. Growing spherical shapes resembled cancer organoids. Although they rapidly proliferated and multiple daughter spheroids appeared, the media were translucent. After several passages, yeasts and pseudohyphae were detected on the edges of the solid spherical structures and media. @*Conclusions@#Moderate to thick whitish plaques and food retention are clinical risk factors for initial fungal contamination during biopsy-derived cancer organoid culture. Most initial fungal contamination was detected within 3 days, but it could be unusually recognized after several passages.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895962

ABSTRACT

Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. H. pylori is responsible for substantial gastrointestinal morbidity with a high disease burden. Since the revision of the H. pylori Clinical Practice Guidelines in 2013 in Korea, the eradication rate of H. pylori has gradually decreased with the use of a clarithromycin based triple therapy. According to a nationwide randomized controlled study by the Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research released in 2018, the intention-to-treat eradication rate was only 63.9%, which was mostly due to increased antimicrobial resistance to clarithromycin. The clinical practice guidelines for treatment of H. pylori were updated based on evidence-based medicine from a meta-analysis conducted on a target group receiving the latest level of eradication therapy. The draft recommendations developed based on the meta-analysis were finalized after expert consensus on three recommendations regarding the indication for treatment and eight recommendations on the treatment itself. These guidelines were designed to provide clinical evidence for the treatment of H. pylori to patients, nurses, medical school students, policymakers, and clinicians. These may differ from current medical insurance standards, and will be revised if more evidence emerges in the future.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895936

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#As antibiotic resistance increases and new first-line therapies emerge, salvage therapies for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication failures are becoming more common and complicated. This study aimed to systematically review overall salvage regimens after previous failure of H. pylori eradication. @*Materials and Methods@#A systematic review of randomized clinical trials evaluating salvage therapies after previous H. pylori eradication failure was performed. A meta-analysis was conducted when an adequate number of studies suitable for grouping was found. @*Results@#Overall, 36 studies with 77 treatment arms were identified, and they were highly heterogeneous regarding previously failed regimens and salvage regimens under comparison. Bismuth quadruple therapy after failure of standard triple therapy showed a pooled intention-to-treat (ITT) eradication rate of 75.5% (95% CI, 71.6~79.1%), and the rates were significantly higher with 14-day therapy than 7-day therapy by 9% (95% CI, 2~15%). Levofloxacin triple therapy after failure of standard triple therapy demonstrated a pooled ITT eradication rate of 73.3% (95% CI, 68.4~77.3%). In direct comparison, the two regimens were not significantly different in eradication rates. No study evaluated salvage regimens after the failure of bismuth or non-bismuth quadruple therapy. @*Conclusions@#The current studies regarding salvage regimens are highly heterogeneous. Bismuth quadruple therapy and levofloxacin triple therapy may be a reliable option after failure of standard triple therapy, but the regional profile of antibiotic resistance should be considered. Further studies are needed for salvage regimens after failure of non-bismuth or bismuth quadruple therapy.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895934

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The eradication rate of the first-line standard triple therapy (STT) for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has decreased since 2000; therefore, other first-line therapies are required. This study was aimed at investigating the efficacy of bismuth-containing quadruple therapy (PBMT) for first-line H. pylori eradication compared to STT, sequential therapy (SQT), and concomitant therapy (CT). @*Materials and Methods@#The Ovid-MEDLINE, Koreamed, EMBASE, KMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched from January 2008 to July 2018. All identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing PBMT and non-PBMT for first-line H. pylori eradication therapy were included in the final analysis. @*Results@#A total of 3,653 patients from seven RCTs were enrolled. The pooled eradication rates of PBMT by intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analyses were 82.1% (95% CI, 68.2~90.8%) and 88.8% (95% CI, 77.1~94.9%), respectively. However, no statistically significant difference was observed in eradication rates of the 10- or 14-day PBMT as compared to 14-day STT, 10-day SQT, and 10-day CT in ITT and PP analyses. PBMT was significantly higher in adverse events than in the other eradication regimens (RR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.11~2.44). Considerable heterogeneity in adverse events was observed among studies (χ2=88.7; P<0.001, I2=93%). @*Conclusions@#PBMT can be the first-line treatment for H. pylori eradication in Korea when other first-line options, including STT, SQT, or CT, are unavailable due to their high adverse event rates.

19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895931

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Standard triple therapy, including a proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin, has been recommended as the first-line for Helicobacter pylori infection. However, the eradication rate of standard triple therapy has declined over the past years because of the increasing resistance to clarithromycin in Korea. We analyzed the eradication rates and the 10-year change in the eradication rates in Korea. @*Methods@#PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed were searched for studies published between January 2007 and June 2018. The pooled eradication rates and their 95% CIs were estimated using a random-effect logistic regression model. @*Results@#Twenty-six randomized controlled studies on standard triple therapy conducted in Korea were selected. The intention-to-treat (ITT) and per protocol analyses showed pooled eradication rates of standard triple therapy of 71.6% (95% CI, 69.9~73.3%) and 79.6% (95% CI, 76.6~82.2%), respectively. The eradication rate decreased with time. The ITT analysis showed that the 14-day therapy (78.1% [95% CI, 75.2~80.7%]) had significantly higher eradication rates than the 7-day therapy (70.0% [95% CI, 68.5~71.4%]) (P<0.01). @*Conclusions@#These results suggest that the eradication rate of standard triple therapy, as the first-line therapy, has shown an unacceptable decrease. The eradication rate increased when the duration of therapy was increased to 14 days, but it was not satisfactory. Therefore, other treatment regimens or therapies based on susceptibility tests should be considered for the first-line therapy.

20.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 160-189, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894568

ABSTRACT

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. Although its incidence is gradually decreasing, about half of the world's population still get infected. H. pylori infection is responsible for substantial gastrointestinal morbidity worldwide. It is the most common cause of gastric and duodenal ulcers as well as gastric cancer. Since the revision of the H. pylori Clinical Practice Guidelines in 2013, the eradication rate of H. pylori has gradually decreased with the use of classical triple therapy, wherein amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and proton pump inhibitors are administered, for 7 days. According to a nationwide randomized controlled study conducted by the Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research released in 2018, the intention-to-treat eradication rate was only 63.9%, which was due to increased antimicrobial resistance induced by the use of antibiotics, especially clarithromycin. The update of clinical practice guideline for treatment of H. pylori was developed based on evidence-based medicine by conducting a meta-analysis. The draft recommendations were finalized after expert consensus on three recommendations regarding the indication for treatment and eight recommendations on the treatment itself. These guidelines are designed to provide patients, nurses, medical school students, policymakers, and clinicians with clinical evidence to guide primary care and treatment of H. pylori infection. These may differ from current medical insurance standards and will be revised further, if necessary, based on research-based evidence.

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