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1.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-212141

ABSTRACT

The background of this study is FGFR1 belongs to a family of four, high-affinity receptor tyrosine kinase and is a legitimate oncogene associated with uterine, cervical, prostate, bladder, colorectal and lung cancers. It is rarely concomitant in myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms but has an aggressive clinical course with a high mortality rate when present. Cytogenetic abnormalities involving the FGFR1 gene is most frequently observed in AML, MPN with eosinophilia, T-ALL and T-LBL with ZMYM2 gene being the most common fusion partner. Methods of this study was to authors report a series of 4 cases with FGFR1 rearrangements. Results is three patients presented as T-cell Lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) and one as mixed phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL). The T-LBL cases harboured the FGFR1/ ZMYM2 fusion and the MPAL case harbored the CNTRL/FGFR1 fusion as identified by conventional cytogenetics and confirmed by molecular studies. Conclusion is authors herewith describe the clinical, biochemical, molecular and cytogenetic features observed in these cases.

2.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2016 July-Sept 59(3): 410-412
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-179609

ABSTRACT

Surface light chain expression is a feature of mature B‑cell neoplasms. Light chain restriction in precursor B acute lymphoblastic leukemia is infrequently seen. We report a case of a 28‑year‑old female with non‑FAB L3 morphology blasts and immunophenotypic features showing overlap between a precursor and mature B‑cell neoplasm.

3.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2016 July-Sept 59(3): 407-409
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-179608

ABSTRACT

Systemic mastocytosis (SM) with associated clonal nonmast cell lineage disease is seen in up to 20% cases of SM. SM is uncommon in the pediatric population. T (8; 21) (q22; q22) is a good prognostic factor in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the presence of SM confers poor prognosis in t (8; 21) (q22; q22) associated AML. We report the case of a child with t (8; 21) (q22; q22) associated AML with SM and her minimal residual disease status over the course of her treatment. In our case, the abnormal mast cells, showing co‑expression of CD25 and CD2, persisted even after the marrow showed no evidence of residual AML.

4.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-156189

ABSTRACT

Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare subtype of acute leukemia that typically follows a highly aggressive clinical course in adults, whereas experience in children with this disease is very limited. We report cases of two children in whom bone marrow showed infi ltration by large atypical monocytoid ‘blast-like’ cells which on immunophenotyping expressed CD4, CD56, HLA-DR and CD33 while were negative for CD34 other T-cell, B-cell and myeloid markers. The differential diagnoses considered were AML, T/NKcell leukemia and acute undifferentiated leukemia. Additional markers CD303/ BDCA-2 and CD123 which are recently validated plasmacytoid dendritic cell markers were done which helped us clinch the diagnosis of this rare neoplasm. An accurate diagnosis of BPDCN is essential in order to provide prompt treatment. Due to its rarity and only recent recognition as a distinct clinicopathological entity, no standardized therapeutic approach has been established for BPDCN.

5.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-137365
6.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2012 Jan-Mar 55(1): 66-71
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-142179

ABSTRACT

Background: Leukemic involvement in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is common, and can be secondary to nodal or extranodal disease or can be de-novo. There is paucity of literature that describes the morphological spectrum. Aim: This study was aimed at studying the morphological spectrum of leukemic MCL and to correlate the morphology with other features. Materials and Methods: Twenty six such cases diagnosed over a period of four years were studied. Peripheral blood and bone marrow aspiration smears stained with Wrights stain were examined by three hematopathologists. Immunophenotyping was done using multicolor flow cytometry. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) done in 12 cases showed t(11;14)(q13:q32). Results: Six cases had de-novo leukemic involvement; while 20 cases had secondary involvement. Morphologically, the cells were small (less than twice the size of red blood cell) or large. Small cell morphology in turn showed irregular nuclear border (n=13) or round nuclear contour (n=6). Large cells had blastic morphology (n=5) or had central prominent nucleoli resembling prolymhphocytes (n=2). Twenty cases showed characteristic immunophenotype of CD5+/CD19+/CD20+/FMC7+/CD10-/CD23- and light chain restrictions. Three cases expressed CD23 and two cases were negative for FMC7. Five out of 12 cases, where FISH was done, showed cytogenetic abnormalities in addition to t(11;14)(q13;q32). Conclusion: Morphological spectrum of leukemic MCL ranges from small cells resembling chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or follicular lymphoma (FL) to large cell mimicking prolymphocytic leukemia (PLL) or acute leukemia. Large cell morphology was associated with more frequent additional cytogenetic abnormality as well as a poorer outcome.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Cells/cytology , Bone Marrow/pathology , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Immunophenotyping , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell/pathology , Male , Microscopy , Middle Aged
7.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2012 Jan-Mar 55(1): 61-65
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-142178

ABSTRACT

Context: Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a rare, low grade, B-cell neoplasm with a characteristic morphologic and immunophenotypic profile. It has to be distinguished from chronic lymphoproliferative disorders because of different treatment protocol and clinical course. Aims: To evaluate clinicopathological features including immunophenotypic analysis of cases diagnosed as HCL. Materials and Methods: The present study included 28 cases diagnosed over a period of nine years (2002-2010). Clinical presentation, complete blood count, bone marrow aspirate, and flow cytometric analysis of cases were reviewed. Treatment and follow-up details (ranging from 3-90 months) were noted. Results: This study revealed 28 cases (referrals-7, indoor-21), aged 26-69 years with a median age of 47 years, with a male predominance (M:F=6:1). The presenting complaints were weakness (80%) followed by fever (56%) and abdominal pain. Physical examination revealed splenomegaly in most patients (92%) and hepatomegaly in a minority (28%). The common laboratory features were anemia in 23 cases, pancytopenia in 14 cases, while two patients had leukocytosis and three patients had normal WBC count. Dry tap was observed in 84% of the cases where hairy cells constituted 16-97% of non-erythroid nucleated cells. Tartarte resistant acid phosphate staining was positive in all the eight cases where it was done. CD5 was negative in all the cases, while CD10 was expressed in three cases (13%) and CD23 in five cases (19%). Conclusions: Though pancytopenia is common, occasional patient can present with normal blood counts or leukocytosis. Few unusual findings include presence of lymphadenopathy, absence of palpable splenomegaly, and expression of CD23 and CD10 by the leukemic cells.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anemia , Blood Cell Count , Bone Marrow/pathology , Cancer Care Facilities , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Leukemia, Hairy Cell/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
8.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2011 Jul-Sept 54(3): 603-605
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-142056

ABSTRACT

Manifestations of parvovirus B19 vary even in the normal host from asymptomatic or subclinical infection to a spectrum of illness with symptoms during viremic and immune complex mediated stage of disease. We report the morphological findings of parvovirus B19 infection (confirmed on serology) in a patient of T-acute lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-ALL) who underwent induction phase of chemotherapy (MCP 842 protocol). Persistent pancytopenia in the bone marrow aspirate with mild increase in blasts was thought to be due to failure to achieve marrow remission. However, giant pronormoblasts with prominent intranuclear inclusions confirmed on trephine biopsy led to the suspicion of parvovirus B19 infection which was later confirmed on serology. This case is presented to report the rarely seen classical morphological feature of parvovirus infection on bone marrow examination which was incidentally the first investigation to diagnose the viremic phase of the infection, indicating that a high index of suspicion needs to be kept in mind while examining bone marrows of susceptible patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Bone Marrow/pathology , Bone Marrow Examination , Histocytochemistry , Humans , Induction Chemotherapy/methods , Male , Microscopy , Pancytopenia/diagnosis , Pancytopenia/etiology , Parvoviridae Infections/complications , Parvoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Parvoviridae Infections/pathology , Parvovirus B19, Human/isolation & purification , Parvovirus B19, Human/pathogenicity , Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/complications , Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy
9.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2011 Jul-Sept 54(3): 599-602
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-142055

ABSTRACT

Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a distinct type of CD30+ T/null-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that frequently involves nodal and extranodal sites. The presence of leukemic phase in ALCL is extremely rare and occurs exclusively with ALK1-positive ALCL. We describe two patients with ALK1-positive ALCL who developed a leukemic phase with rapid progression of the disease. Immunophenotypic pattern assessed on peripheral blood by flow cytometry revealed CD45, CD30, and CD25 positivity in both cases but NPM-ALK1 was expressed in only one case. Both patients developed leukemic phase as a terminal event of the disease and we share the immunophenotypic features of both cases.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Ki-1 Antigen/analysis , Leukocyte Common Antigens/analysis , Child , Disease Progression , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit/analysis , Leukemia, Lymphoid/pathology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/chemistry , Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic/complications , Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic/diagnosis , Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic/pathology , Male , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/metabolism
10.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2011 Jul-Sept 54(3): 487-496
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-142030

ABSTRACT

Background: There are few studies in the literature studying the yield of the diagnostic splenectomy in a suspicious lymphoma case. Moreover, their relevance is limited owing to low number of cases, the use of selection criteria, and the lack of modern ancillary studies. We present a histopathological review of splenectomy specimens referred as a case of lymphoma to our center. Materials and Methods: The medical charts and laboratory data on all patients of all splenectomy specimens between the years 2003 and 2008 were reviewed. Morphological and immunohistochemical features were analyzed and the lymphomas were sub-typed in accordance to 2008 WHO Classification of Hematolymphoid Neoplasms. Flow cytometry immunophenotyping available in few cases was correlated. Results: A total of 46 cases studied included splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) (19 cases), splenic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (14 cases), splenic diffuse red pulp B-cell lymphoma (DRP) (five cases), follicular lymphoma (three cases), hairy cell leukemia (HCL) (two cases), HCL variant (HCLv) (1 case), 1 case of hepatosplenic gamma delta T-cell lymphoma (TCL), and 1 cases of TCL (not otherwise specified). Conclusions: Predominantly splenic lymphoma is a biologically heterogeneous entity, ranging from low-grade SMZL to high-grade DLBCLs. TCLs constituted only 4% of all our cases. DRP, HCL, and HCLv have similar diffuse red pulp patterns of splenic involvement and are differentiated based on flow cytometric immunophenotyping. We had a large number of splenic DLBCL and none of these involved bone marrow (BM), while all other lymphoma subtypes had BM involvement (stage IV disease). Morphological and immunophenotypic (immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry) features of BM and splenectomy specimen need to be correlated to differentiate these rare though similar-looking entities with overlapping features.

11.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2011 Apr-Jun 54(2): 294-298
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-142021

ABSTRACT

Background: Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a rare but aggressive subtype of plasma cell dyscrasia. It is known to present with highly variable morphological features and may mimic with other lymphoid neoplasms. Multicolor flow cytometry (MFC) with availability of newer markers is highly useful in the diagnosis of the plasma cell leukemia. We present an immunophenotypic profile in ten cases of PCL along with their clinical and laboratory findings. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively studied immunophenotypic profile of 10 cases of plasma cell leukemia (out of 4615 cases of hematolymphoid neoplasms) using five parameter, three color flow cytometric analysis. We also studied their clinical presentation and other laboratory findings. Results: Common clinical features at presentation were weakness, bone pain, anemia, thrombocytopenia and osteolytic lesions. Plasma cell population was identified on strong expression of CD38 and co-expression of CD38 and CD138. CD56 was expressed in 44% cases. CD19 and CD20 were negative in all cases. Surface light chain restriction was seen in 50% cases and in remaining 50% cases revealed cytoplasmic light chain restriction. CD117 was expressed in one out of two cases studied. Conclusions: MFC immunophenotyping is highly useful to differentiate Plasma cell leukemia from other chronic lymphoproliferative disorders with plasmacytoid morphology as well as from non-neoplastic reactive PC and co-expression of CD38 and CD138 is a best combination to identify the plasma cells by MFC.


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD/analysis , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Immunophenotyping , India , Leukemia, Plasma Cell/pathology , Plasma Cells/chemistry , Retrospective Studies
12.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-141982

ABSTRACT

Background: Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a rare but aggressive subtype of plasma cell dyscrasia. It is known to present with highly variable morphological features and may mimic with other lymphoid neoplasms. Multicolor flow cytometry (MFC) with availability of newer markers is highly useful in the diagnosis of the plasma cell leukemia. We present an immunophenotypic profile in ten cases of PCL along with their clinical and laboratory findings. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively studied immunophenotypic profile of 10 cases of plasma cell leukemia (out of 4615 cases of hematolymphoid neoplasms) using five parameter, three color flow cytometric analysis. We also studied their clinical presentation and other laboratory findings. Results: Common clinical features at presentation were weakness, bone pain, anemia, thrombocytopenia and osteolytic lesions. Plasma cell population was identified on strong expression of CD38 and co-expression of CD38 and CD138. CD56 was expressed in 44% cases. CD19 and CD20 were negative in all cases. Surface light chain restriction was seen in 50% cases and in remaining 50% cases revealed cytoplasmic light chain restriction. CD117 was expressed in one out of two cases studied. Conclusions: MFC immunophenotyping is highly useful to differentiate Plasma cell leukemia from other chronic lymphoproliferative disorders with plasmacytoid morphology as well as from non-neoplastic reactive PC and co-expression of CD38 and CD138 is a best combination to identify the plasma cells by MFC.


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD/analysis , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Immunophenotyping , India , Leukemia, Plasma Cell/pathology , Plasma Cells/chemistry , Retrospective Studies
13.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2010 Oct-Dec; 53(4): 723-728
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-141795

ABSTRACT

Aims: Study of the morphological patterns of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related lymphadenopathy. Settings and Design: We retrospectively selected cases of AIDS-related benign lymphadenopathy. Cases with lymphomas, frank granulomas and necrosis were excluded. We analyzed different morphological patterns and correlated these with immunophenotypic markers along with viral markers human herpesvirus 8-latency-associated nuclear antigen (HHV8-LANA), and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded ribonucleic acid (EBER) studies via in situ hybridization (EBER-ISH). Materials and Methods: We present the morphological patterns of 13 cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-reactive lymph nodes and their clinical, hematological, biochemical and radiological parameters with special emphasis on the presence or absence of viral markers, including HHV8 and EBV. Results: Common patterns included follicular hyperplasia only (five cases), mixed pattern of follicular hyperplasia with burnt-out germinal centres (four cases), completely atretic follicle (two cases), folliculolysis (11 cases), dumbbell-shaped follicles (three each), progressive transformation of germinal centers (four cases), T-zone expansion (two cases), Reed Sternberg (RS) cells like immunoblasts (two cases), Castleman's-like features with lollipop-like follicles (three cases) and a spindle cell prominence (one case). CD8+ T-cells were predominant in 12 cases. CD8+ T-cells were prominent in germinal centers (eight cases). Plasmablasts were seen in four cases within the perigerminal center area. Immunohistochemistry for HHV8, i.e. HHV8-LANA were negative in all cases while EBER was detected in 11 cases in the centrocyte-like B cells. Two cases of multicentric Castleman's disease expressed EBER; however, they did not express HHV8. Conclusion: The wide spectrum of histological changes in HIV-associated lymphadenopathy requires recognition. The histological changes can mimic those of other infective lymphadenitis, follicular lymphoma, Castleman's disease, progressive transformation of germinal center, Hodgkin's disease and spindle cell neoplasms. Presence of EBV is common while HHV8 was not seen.

14.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2010 Oct-Dec; 53(4): 640-645
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-141778

ABSTRACT

Background: Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL), a subtype of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL), is characterized by unique clinical and biological features. Its diagnosis remains a challenge as clinical presentation as well as pathologic findings are frequently misleading. Material and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical, morphological and immunophenotypic spectrum of 17 cases of histologically proven AITL. Result: The mean age was 54 years and male to female ratio was 2.4. Common clinical features included generalized lymphadenopathy (60%), hepatomegaly (70%), splenomegaly (50%), anemia (80%) and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia (100%). Microscopically, three architectural patterns; pattern I (6%), pattern II (41%) and pattern III (53%) were observed. Bone marrow infiltration was seen in 60% cases and 30% cases revealed plasmacytosis. Absence of follicles, polymorphous infiltrate, extra-follicular follicular dendritic cell (FDC) proliferation, high endothelial venules (HEV) prominence and neoplastic T-cells were the diagnostic features of AITL. CD10 positivity (47%), clear cells in the background (59%) admixture with large size CD20+ B-immunoblasts (35%) and bone marrow plasmacytosis (50%) were common observations. Conclusion: Awareness of various morphological and immunophenotypic complexities of AITL and distinction from reactive adenopathies and other types of lymphomas that mimic AITL is underscored in this study.

15.
Indian J Cancer ; 2010 Apr-June; 47(2): 189-193
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-144328

ABSTRACT

Introduction : Mature T/NK cell lymphomas (MTNKL) presenting as leukemia are rare and show considerable overlapping of clinical, morphological and immunophenotypic features. AIM: Critical analysis of the morphology and immunophenotypic profile of MTNKL. Materials and Methods : We reviewed 380 consecutive cases of mature lymphoid neoplasm that presented as leukemia and were diagnosed on morphology and immunophenotyping of bone marrow and/or peripheral blood samples. Results : Peripheral blood and bone marrow involvement was seen in all cases. MTNKL constituted 4% (nine cases) of all mature lymphoid neoplasms presenting as leukemia. It included four cases of T-large granular leukemia (T-LGL), two of T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia small cell variant (T-PLL), two of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) and one of primary cutaneous gamma delta T-cell lymphoma (PCGDTCL). T-LGL revealed CD4-/CD8+ phenotype in three, and CD4+/CD8+ phenotype in one case. CD56 was absent in all the cases of T-LGL. One case of T- PLL small cell variant showed CD4+/CD8- phenotype, while the other revealed CD4-/CD8+ phenotype. Both cases of ATLL showed CD4+/CD8+/CD25+ phenotype. The single case of PCGDTCL showed CD4-/CD8- phenotype pattern. CD3 and CD5 were expressed in all MTNKL. CD7 was absent in three cases of T-LGL. TCRα/β was performed in three cases of T-LGL and was positive in all. TCRα/β was also seen in both the cases of T-PLL small variant. However, TCRα/β was seen in the single case of PCGDTCL. Conclusion : Mature nodal T/NK cell neoplasms are rare and MTNKL presenting as leukemia are even rarer. There is an overlap between the immunophenotypic profiles of different MTNKL subtypes and elaborate T/NK cell panels are required for their evaluation.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Bone Marrow/immunology , Bone Marrow/pathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, T-Cell/diagnosis , Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, T-Cell/diagnosis , Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, T-Cell/immunology , Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell/diagnosis , Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell/immunology , Lymphoma, T-Cell/diagnosis , Lymphoma, T-Cell/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis
16.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2010 Jan-Mar; 53(1): 68-74
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-141593

ABSTRACT

Background: Cost analysis in laboratories represents a necessary phase in their scientific progression. Aim: To calculate indirect cost and thus total cost per sample of various tests at Hematopathology laboratory (HPL) Settings and Design: Activity-based costing (ABC) method is used to calculate per cost test of the hematopathology laboratory. Material and Methods: Information is collected from registers, purchase orders, annual maintenance contracts (AMCs), payrolls, account books, hospital bills and registers along with informal interviews with hospital staff. Results: Cost per test decreases as total number of samples increases. Maximum annual expense at the HPL is on reagents and consumables followed by manpower. Cost per test is higher for specialized tests which interpret morphological or flow data and are done by a pathologist. Conclusions: Despite several limitations and assumptions, this was an attempt to understand how the resources are consumed in a large size government-run laboratory. The rate structure needs to be revised for most of the tests, mainly for complete blood counts (CBC), bone marrow examination, coagulation tests and Immunophenotyping. This costing exercise is laboratory specific and each laboratory needs to do its own costing. Such an exercise may help a laboratory redesign its costing structure or at least understand the economics involved in the laboratory management.

18.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2009 Jul-Sept; 52(3): 421-423
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-141501

ABSTRACT

Presence of cytoplasmic granules in the blasts is a well known feature of myeloid leukemia. ALL presenting with the numerous cytoplasmic granules in blasts is a rarity and may be misdiagnosed as acute myeloid leukemia. We describe a rare case of hypergranular precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in an adolescent male expressing CD10, CD19, CytoCD22, CD34, as well as CD13 and CD117. The blasts were cytochemically negative for myeloperoxidase (MPO), and acid phosphatase (ACP) but were positive for non-specific esterase (NSE). In centers where immunophenotypic panel is usually decided on the basis of morphology with limited antibodies may result in an erroneous typing of such rare diseases. Hence it is important to be aware of this rare entity and to confirm the lineage of acute leukemia by using a comprehensive panel of antibodies for immunophenotypic analysis.

19.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2009 Apr-Jun; 52(2): 252-4
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-74617

ABSTRACT

Peripheral blood smear examination is the most specific as well as the most common test performed for the diagnosis of malaria. Schizonts, ring forms (trophozoites) and gametocytes are the stages of malarial parasite that are commonly seen in the peripheral blood smear of a patient. Here, we report an extremely rare case of a 40-year-old male patient who presented with Plasmodium vivax infection with multiple exflagellated microgametes in the peripheral blood smear with review of the literature. Exflagellation of microgametes in malarial parasites is only seen in the definitive host, mosquito, and is very unusual to see during the developmental phases in the intermediate host, human. It is important to recognize these exflagellated microgametes in the peripheral blood smear as they may lead to diagnostic confusion with organisms such as spirochetes and trypanosomes.

20.
Indian J Cancer ; 2009 Apr-Jun; 46(2): 160-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-49430

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We present a clinico-hematological profile and treatment outcome of Biphenotypic Acute Leukemia (BAL). AIM: Study incidence and subtypes of BAL, correlate with age, morphology, and cytogenetic findings and correlate the clinico-hematological data with the treatment response. St Jude's and the EGIL's criteria have been compared for their diagnostic and clinical relevance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Diagnosis was based on WHO classification, including clinical details, morphology, cytochemistry, immunophenotyping, and molecular genetics. We included those cases, which fulfilled the European Group for the Immunological Characterization of Acute Leukemia's (EGIL's) scoring system criteria for the diagnosis of BAL, as per recommendation of the WHO classification. RESULTS: There were 32 patients diagnosed with BAL, based on EGIL's criteria. Incidence of BAL was 1.2%. B-Myeloid (14 cases) followed by T-Myeloid BAL (13 cases) were the commonest subtypes. Polymorphous population of blasts (16 cases) was commonly associated with T-Myeloid BAL (10 cases). BCR ABL fusion positivity was a common cytogenetic abnormality (seven cases). Fifteen patients received chemotherapy; eight achieved complete remission (CR) at the end of the induction period. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric BAL and T-B lymphoid BAL have a better prognosis. A comprehensive panel of reagents is required, including cytoplasmic markers; to diagnose BAL. St Jude's criteria is a simple, easy, and cost-effective method to diagnose BAL. The outcome-related prognostic factors include age, HLA-DR, CD34 negativity, and subtype of BAL. BCR-ABL expression is an important prognostic factor, as these cases will be labeled as Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in blast crisis with biphenotypic expression and treated accordingly.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Progression , Female , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Incidence , Leukemia, Biphenotypic, Acute/blood , Leukemia, Biphenotypic, Acute/diagnosis , Leukemia, Biphenotypic, Acute/epidemiology , Leukemia, Biphenotypic, Acute/genetics , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
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