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1.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 56-67, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968727

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study evaluated the long-term cardiovascular complications among Korean patients with hypertension and compared them with that of controls without hypertension. @*Methods@#The Korean Hypertension Cohort (KHC) enrolled 11,043 patients with hypertension and followed them for more than 10 years. Age- and sex-matched controls without hypertension were enrolled at a 1:10 ratio. We compared the incidence of cardiovascular events and death among patients and controls without hypertension. @*Results@#The mean age was 59 years, and 34.8% and 16.5% of the patients belonged to the high and moderate cardiovascular risk groups, respectively. During the 10-year follow-up, 1,591 cardiovascular events (14.4%) with 588 deaths (5.3%) occurred among patients with hypertension and 7,635 cardiovascular events (6.9%) with 4,826 deaths (4.4%) occurred among controls. Even the low-risk population with hypertension showed a higher cardiovascular event rate than the population without hypertension. Although blood pressure measurements in the clinic showed remarkable inaccuracy compared with those measured in the national health examinations, systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 150 mmHg was significantly associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular events. @*Conclusions@#This long-term follow-up study confirmed the cardiovascular event rates among Korean hypertensive patients were substantial, reaching 15% in 10 years. SBP levels ≥ 150 mmHg were highly associated with occurrence of cardiovascular event rates.

2.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 81-92, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966822

ABSTRACT

Background@#The true benefit of thyroid cancer screening is incompletely understood. This study investigated the impact of ultrasound screening on thyroid cancer outcomes through a comparison with symptomatic thyroid cancer using data from a nationwide cohort study in Korea. @*Methods@#Cox regression analysis was performed to assess the hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause and thyroid cancer-specific mortality. Considering the possible bias arising from age, sex, year of thyroid cancer registration, and confounding factors for mortality (including smoking/drinking status, diabetes, and hypertension), all analyses were conducted with stabilized inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) according to the route of detection. @*Results@#Of 5,796 patients with thyroid cancer, 4,145 were included and 1,651 were excluded due to insufficient data. In comparison with the screening group, the clinical suspicion group was associated with large tumors (17.2±14.6 mm vs. 10.4±7.9 mm), advanced T stage (3–4) (odds ratio [OR], 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09 to 1.41), extrathyroidal extension (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.32), and advanced stage (III–IV) (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.35). In IPTW-adjusted Cox regression analysis, the clinical suspicion group had significantly higher risks of all-cause mortality (HR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.80) and thyroid cancer-specific mortality (HR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.77 to 5.29). Mediation analysis showed that the presence of thyroid-specific symptoms was directly associated with a higher risk of cancer-specific mortality. Thyroid-specific symptoms also indirectly affected thyroid cancer-specific mortality, mediated by tumor size and advanced clinicopathologic status. @*Conclusion@#Our findings provide important evidence for the survival benefit of early detection of thyroid cancer compared to symptomatic thyroid cancer.

3.
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health ; : 313-320, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938138

ABSTRACT

The KoreaN Cohort Study for Outcomes in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD) was launched in 2011 with the support of the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency. The study was designed with the aim of exploring the various clinical features and characteristics of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Koreans, and elucidating the risk factors for CKD progression and adverse outcomes of CKD. For the cohort study, nephrologists at 9 tertiary university-affiliated hospitals participated in patient recruitment and follow-up. Biostatisticians and epidemiologists also participated in the basic design and structuring of the study. From 2011 until 2016, the KNOW-CKD Phase I recruited 2238 adult patients with CKD from stages G1 to G5, who were not receiving renal replacement therapy. The KNOW-CKD Phase II recruitment was started in 2019, with an enrollment target of 1500 subjects, focused on diabetic nephropathy and hypertensive kidney diseases in patients with reduced kidney function who are presumed to be at a higher risk of adverse outcomes. As of 2021, the KNOW-CKD investigators have published articles in the fields of socioeconomics, quality of life, nutrition, physical activity, renal progression, cardiovascular disease and outcomes, anemia, mineral bone disease, serum and urine biomarkers, and international and inter-ethnic comparisons. The KNOW-CKD researchers will elaborate a prediction model for various outcomes of CKD such as the development of end-stage kidney disease, major adverse cardiovascular events, and death.

4.
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health ; : 226-233, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926179

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The aim of this study was to evaluate the subjective level of health-related quality of life of Korean healthcare workers using various quality-of-life instruments. @*Methods@#This study included 992 participants, who were doctors and nurses. A survey was conducted between November 28 and December 4, 2019. Data from 954 participants divided into 3 groups (physicians, residents, and nurses) were analyzed. Four measurement tools (29 questions) were used in the survey to evaluate subjective health status and well-being. @*Results@#In the Mayo Well-being Index, burnout during work (88.5%) and emotional difficulties caused by work (84.0%) were frequently cited by the respondents. Regarding questions on burnout and emotional difficulties, residents and nurses had the highest scores (91.0 and 89.6%, respectively). Emotional problems, such as anxiety, depression, and irritability, accounted for a high percentage (73.1%) of the total, while 82.2% of respondents reported that their work schedules interfered with their leisure and family time. There was no significant difference among the groups in subjective health status. However, 10.1% of the residents experienced very low quality of life, which was a higher proportion than that of physicians (2.7%) and nurses (5.2%). @*Conclusions@#The level of well-being that Korean medical workers experienced in relation to work was lower than the results of the United States healthcare workers surveyed using the same tool. This study was unique in that it conducted a subjective quality-of-life survey on Korean healthcare workers.

5.
Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health ; : 144-152, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926173

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study aimed to identify the social and policy determinants of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection across 23 countries. @*Methods@#COVID-19 indicators (incidence, mortality, and fatality) for each country were calculated by direct and indirect standardization. Multivariable regression analyses were used to identify the social and policy determinants of COVID-19 infection. @*Results@#A higher number of doctors per population was related to lower incidence, mortality, and fatality rates of COVID-19 in 23 countries (β=-0.672, -0.445, and -0.564, respectively). The number of nurses/midwives per population was associated with lower mortality and fatality rates of COVID-19 in 23 countries (β=-0.215 and -0.372, respectively). Strengthening of policy restriction indicators, such as restrictions of public gatherings, was related to lower COVID-19 incidence (β=-0.423). A national Bacillus Calmette–Guérin vaccination policy conducted among special groups or in the past was associated with a higher incidence of COVID-19 in 23 countries (β=0.341). The proportion of the elderly population (aged over 70 years) was related to higher mortality and fatality rates (β=0.209 and 0.350, respectively), and income support was associated with mortality and fatality rates (β=-0.362 and -0.449, respectively). @*Conclusions@#These findings do not imply causality because this was a country-based correlation study. However, COVID-19 transmission can be influenced by social and policy determinants such as integrated health systems and policy responses to COVID-19. Various social and policy determinants should be considered when planning responses to COVID-19.

6.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e149-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925962

ABSTRACT

Background@#Comparison of the prevalence of cardiometabolic disorders (CMDs) and comorbidities in Korea and the United States (US) can be an important indicator for forecasting future risk of cardiovascular events in Korea. This study aimed to estimate and compare the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia, obesity, and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korea and the US. @*Methods@#A total of 15,872 individuals from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2014 and 26,492 from the Korea NHANES (KNHANES) 2007–2014 were included. Additionally, 164,339 (139,345 from the Health Examinees-Gem Study and 24,994 from the Cardiovascular Disease Association Study) participants enrolled in the Korea Genome and Epidemiology Study were included to investigate the differences of CMDs between urban and rural regions. To estimate the age-standardized prevalence of CMDs in individuals aged 40–69 years, direct standardization using the World Health Organization standard population was performed. @*Results@#The prevalence of CMDs was lower in Korea than the US (hypertension 49.9% vs.56.8%; DM 13.4% vs. 14.3%; hypercholesterolemia 16.8% vs. 17.8%; obesity 36.2% vs. 38.6%; and MetS 29.4% vs. 36.5%). According to the median survey years, dyslipidemia has become more prevalent in Korea than in the US since 2010. The prevalence of CMDs was greater in rural than that in urban areas in Korea. @*Conclusion@#The prevalence of dyslipidemia in Korea exceeded that of the US after 2010, which was associated with increasing burden of cardiovascular events. The present study suggests that further preventive strategies are needed to mitigate the prevalence of CMDs in Korea.

7.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 574-581, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898233

ABSTRACT

Background@#Postoperative thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression therapy is recommended for patients with intermediate- and high-risk differentiated thyroid cancer to prevent the recurrence of thyroid cancer. With the recent increase in small thyroid cancer cases, the extent of resection during surgery has generally decreased. Therefore, questions have been raised about the efficacy and long-term side effects of TSH suppression therapy in patients who have undergone a lobectomy. @*Methods@#This is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial in which 2,986 patients with papillary thyroid cancer are randomized into a high-TSH group (intervention) and a low-TSH group (control) after having undergone a lobectomy. The principle of treatment includes a TSH-lowering regimen aimed at TSH levels between 0.3 and 1.99 μIU/mL in the low-TSH group. The high-TSH group targets TSH levels between 2.0 and 7.99 μIU/mL. The dose of levothyroxine will be adjusted at each visit to maintain the target TSH level. The primary outcome is recurrence-free survival, as assessed by neck ultrasound every 6 to 12 months. Secondary endpoints include disease-free survival, overall survival, success rate in reaching the TSH target range, the proportion of patients with major cardiovascular diseases or bone metabolic disease, the quality of life, and medical costs. The follow-up period is 5 years. @*Conclusion@#The results of this trial will contribute to establishing the optimal indication for TSH suppression therapy in low-risk papillary thyroid cancer patients by evaluating the benefit and harm of lowering TSH levels in terms of recurrence, metabolic complications, costs, and quality of life.

8.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 790-799, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898200

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to assess the effects of iodine intake, thyroid function, and their combined effect on the risk of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). @*Methods@#A case-control study was conducted including 500 community-based controls who had undergone a health check-up, and 446 overall PTC cases (209 PTC and 237 PTMC) from the Thyroid Cancer Longitudinal Study. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC), was used as an indicator of iodine intake, and serum for thyroid function. The risk of PTC and PTMC was estimated using unconditional logistic regression. @*Results@#Excessive iodine intake (UIC ≥220 μg/gCr) was associated with both PTC (odds ratio [OR], 18.13 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.87 to 37.04) and PTMC (OR, 8.02; 95% CI, 4.64 to 13.87), compared to adequate iodine intake (UIC, 85 to 219 μg/gCr). Free thyroxine (T4) levels ≥1.25 ng/dL were associated with PTC (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.36 to 2.87) and PTMC (OR, 2.98; 95% CI, 2.01 to 4.41), compared to free T4 levels of 0.7 to 1.24 ng/dL. Individuals with excessive iodine intake and high free T4 levels had a greatly increased OR of PTC (OR, 43.48; 95% CI, 12.63 to 149.62), and PTMC (OR, 26.96; 95% CI, 10.26 to 70.89), compared to individuals with adequate iodine intake and low free T4 levels. @*Conclusion@#Excessive iodine intake using creatinine-adjusted UIC and high free T4 levels may have a synergistic effect on PTC and PTMC. Considering both iodine intake and thyroid function is important to assess PTC and PTMC risk.

9.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 725-736, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898195

ABSTRACT

Economic evaluation is a type of comparative analysis between interventions in terms of both their resource use and health outcomes. Due to the good prognosis of thyroid cancer (TC), the socioeconomic burden of TC patients post-diagnosis is increasing. Therefore, economic evaluation studies focusing on TC are recommended. This study aimed to describe the concept and methods of economic evaluation and reviewed previous TC studies. Several previous studies compared the costs of interventions or evaluated recurrence, complications, or quality of life as measures of their effectiveness. Regarding costs, most studies focused on direct costs and applied hypothetical models. Cost-minimization analysis should be distinguished from simple cost analysis. Furthermore, due to the universality of the term “cost-effectiveness analysis” (CEA), several studies have not distinguished CEA from cost-utility analysis; this point needs to be considered in future research. Cost-benefit analyses have not been conducted in previous TC research. Since TC has a high survival rate and good prognosis, the need for economic evaluations has recently been pointed out. Therefore, correct concepts and methods are needed to obtain clear economic evaluation results. On this basis, it will be possible to provide appropriate guidelines for TC treatment and management in the future.

10.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 1115-1125, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896022

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Hypertension (HT) has a significant impact on public health and medical expenses. However, HT is a chronic disease that requires the long-term follow-up of a large number of patients. @*Methods@#The Korean Hypertension Cohort (KHC) study aimed to develop a model for calculating cardiovascular risk in HT patients by linking and utilizing the detailed clinical and longitudinal data from hospitals and the national health insurance claim database, respectively. This cohort had a planned sample size of over 11,000 HT patients and 100,000 non-HT controls. Eligible patients were hypertensive patients, who were presenting for the first time and were diagnosed with HT as a main disease from 2006 to 2011. Long-term survival data over a period of approximately 9 years were obtained from the national health insurance claim and national health examination data. @*Results@#This cohort enrolled 11,083 patients with HT. The mean age was 58.87 ± 11.5 years, 50.5% were male, and 31.4% were never-treated HT. Of the enrolled patients, 32.9% and 37.7% belonged to the high and moderate cardiovascular risk groups, respectively. Initial blood pressures were 149.4 ± 18.5/88.5 ± 12.5 mmHg. During the 2 years hospital data follow-up period, blood pressures lowered to 130.8 ± 14.1/78.0 ± 9.7 mmHg with 1.9 ± 1.0 tablet doses of antihypertensive medication. Cardiovascular events occurred in 7.5% of the overall patients; 8.5%, 8.8%, and 4.7% in the high, moderate, and low risk patients, respectively. @*Conclusions@#The KHC study has provided important information on the long-term outcomes of HT patients according to the blood pressure, comorbid diseases, medication, and adherence, as well as health behaviors and health resource use.

11.
Korean Journal of Community Nutrition ; : 211-227, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894178

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#We aimed to examine the association between the relative preference for vegetables and meat and cancer incidence, in a population-based retrospective cohort in Korea. @*Methods@#We included 10,148,131 participants (5,794,124 men; 4,354,007 women) who underwent national health screening between 2004 and 2005 from the National Health Information Database of the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS-NHID). Participants were asked whether they preferred consuming 1) vegetables more often, 2) both vegetables and meat or 3) meat more often. Participants were followed up to Dec. 31, 2017. All cancer and eighteen common cancer cases were identified through the code from the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision. We estimated sexspecific relative risks and 95% confidence intervals, adjusting for age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, and income level. @*Results@#During an average follow-up of 12.4 years, 714,170 cancer cases were documented. In men, consuming meat more often was associated with lower risk of esophageal, liver, and stomach cancers, but higher risk of lung and kidney cancers. Consuming both vegetables and meat was associated with higher risk of prostate cancer, but with lower risk of esophageal, liver, and stomach cancers in men. In women, consuming meat more often was associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer and breast, endometrial, and cervical cancers diagnosed before the age of 50. Consuming both vegetables and meat was associated with lower risk of liver cancer in women. @*Conclusions@#Our study suggests a potential link between vegetable and meat intake and cancer incidence in the Korean population. Further investigation on the association between the intake of specific types of vegetables and meat and cancer risk in Korean prospective cohort studies is needed.

12.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 574-581, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890529

ABSTRACT

Background@#Postoperative thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression therapy is recommended for patients with intermediate- and high-risk differentiated thyroid cancer to prevent the recurrence of thyroid cancer. With the recent increase in small thyroid cancer cases, the extent of resection during surgery has generally decreased. Therefore, questions have been raised about the efficacy and long-term side effects of TSH suppression therapy in patients who have undergone a lobectomy. @*Methods@#This is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial in which 2,986 patients with papillary thyroid cancer are randomized into a high-TSH group (intervention) and a low-TSH group (control) after having undergone a lobectomy. The principle of treatment includes a TSH-lowering regimen aimed at TSH levels between 0.3 and 1.99 μIU/mL in the low-TSH group. The high-TSH group targets TSH levels between 2.0 and 7.99 μIU/mL. The dose of levothyroxine will be adjusted at each visit to maintain the target TSH level. The primary outcome is recurrence-free survival, as assessed by neck ultrasound every 6 to 12 months. Secondary endpoints include disease-free survival, overall survival, success rate in reaching the TSH target range, the proportion of patients with major cardiovascular diseases or bone metabolic disease, the quality of life, and medical costs. The follow-up period is 5 years. @*Conclusion@#The results of this trial will contribute to establishing the optimal indication for TSH suppression therapy in low-risk papillary thyroid cancer patients by evaluating the benefit and harm of lowering TSH levels in terms of recurrence, metabolic complications, costs, and quality of life.

13.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 790-799, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890496

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to assess the effects of iodine intake, thyroid function, and their combined effect on the risk of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). @*Methods@#A case-control study was conducted including 500 community-based controls who had undergone a health check-up, and 446 overall PTC cases (209 PTC and 237 PTMC) from the Thyroid Cancer Longitudinal Study. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC), was used as an indicator of iodine intake, and serum for thyroid function. The risk of PTC and PTMC was estimated using unconditional logistic regression. @*Results@#Excessive iodine intake (UIC ≥220 μg/gCr) was associated with both PTC (odds ratio [OR], 18.13 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.87 to 37.04) and PTMC (OR, 8.02; 95% CI, 4.64 to 13.87), compared to adequate iodine intake (UIC, 85 to 219 μg/gCr). Free thyroxine (T4) levels ≥1.25 ng/dL were associated with PTC (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.36 to 2.87) and PTMC (OR, 2.98; 95% CI, 2.01 to 4.41), compared to free T4 levels of 0.7 to 1.24 ng/dL. Individuals with excessive iodine intake and high free T4 levels had a greatly increased OR of PTC (OR, 43.48; 95% CI, 12.63 to 149.62), and PTMC (OR, 26.96; 95% CI, 10.26 to 70.89), compared to individuals with adequate iodine intake and low free T4 levels. @*Conclusion@#Excessive iodine intake using creatinine-adjusted UIC and high free T4 levels may have a synergistic effect on PTC and PTMC. Considering both iodine intake and thyroid function is important to assess PTC and PTMC risk.

14.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 725-736, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890491

ABSTRACT

Economic evaluation is a type of comparative analysis between interventions in terms of both their resource use and health outcomes. Due to the good prognosis of thyroid cancer (TC), the socioeconomic burden of TC patients post-diagnosis is increasing. Therefore, economic evaluation studies focusing on TC are recommended. This study aimed to describe the concept and methods of economic evaluation and reviewed previous TC studies. Several previous studies compared the costs of interventions or evaluated recurrence, complications, or quality of life as measures of their effectiveness. Regarding costs, most studies focused on direct costs and applied hypothetical models. Cost-minimization analysis should be distinguished from simple cost analysis. Furthermore, due to the universality of the term “cost-effectiveness analysis” (CEA), several studies have not distinguished CEA from cost-utility analysis; this point needs to be considered in future research. Cost-benefit analyses have not been conducted in previous TC research. Since TC has a high survival rate and good prognosis, the need for economic evaluations has recently been pointed out. Therefore, correct concepts and methods are needed to obtain clear economic evaluation results. On this basis, it will be possible to provide appropriate guidelines for TC treatment and management in the future.

15.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 1115-1125, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903726

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Hypertension (HT) has a significant impact on public health and medical expenses. However, HT is a chronic disease that requires the long-term follow-up of a large number of patients. @*Methods@#The Korean Hypertension Cohort (KHC) study aimed to develop a model for calculating cardiovascular risk in HT patients by linking and utilizing the detailed clinical and longitudinal data from hospitals and the national health insurance claim database, respectively. This cohort had a planned sample size of over 11,000 HT patients and 100,000 non-HT controls. Eligible patients were hypertensive patients, who were presenting for the first time and were diagnosed with HT as a main disease from 2006 to 2011. Long-term survival data over a period of approximately 9 years were obtained from the national health insurance claim and national health examination data. @*Results@#This cohort enrolled 11,083 patients with HT. The mean age was 58.87 ± 11.5 years, 50.5% were male, and 31.4% were never-treated HT. Of the enrolled patients, 32.9% and 37.7% belonged to the high and moderate cardiovascular risk groups, respectively. Initial blood pressures were 149.4 ± 18.5/88.5 ± 12.5 mmHg. During the 2 years hospital data follow-up period, blood pressures lowered to 130.8 ± 14.1/78.0 ± 9.7 mmHg with 1.9 ± 1.0 tablet doses of antihypertensive medication. Cardiovascular events occurred in 7.5% of the overall patients; 8.5%, 8.8%, and 4.7% in the high, moderate, and low risk patients, respectively. @*Conclusions@#The KHC study has provided important information on the long-term outcomes of HT patients according to the blood pressure, comorbid diseases, medication, and adherence, as well as health behaviors and health resource use.

16.
Korean Journal of Community Nutrition ; : 211-227, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901882

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#We aimed to examine the association between the relative preference for vegetables and meat and cancer incidence, in a population-based retrospective cohort in Korea. @*Methods@#We included 10,148,131 participants (5,794,124 men; 4,354,007 women) who underwent national health screening between 2004 and 2005 from the National Health Information Database of the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS-NHID). Participants were asked whether they preferred consuming 1) vegetables more often, 2) both vegetables and meat or 3) meat more often. Participants were followed up to Dec. 31, 2017. All cancer and eighteen common cancer cases were identified through the code from the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision. We estimated sexspecific relative risks and 95% confidence intervals, adjusting for age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, and income level. @*Results@#During an average follow-up of 12.4 years, 714,170 cancer cases were documented. In men, consuming meat more often was associated with lower risk of esophageal, liver, and stomach cancers, but higher risk of lung and kidney cancers. Consuming both vegetables and meat was associated with higher risk of prostate cancer, but with lower risk of esophageal, liver, and stomach cancers in men. In women, consuming meat more often was associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer and breast, endometrial, and cervical cancers diagnosed before the age of 50. Consuming both vegetables and meat was associated with lower risk of liver cancer in women. @*Conclusions@#Our study suggests a potential link between vegetable and meat intake and cancer incidence in the Korean population. Further investigation on the association between the intake of specific types of vegetables and meat and cancer risk in Korean prospective cohort studies is needed.

18.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e2-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892080

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Few studies have examined the relationship between cardiac function and geometry and serum hepcidin levels in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We aimed to identify the relationship between cardiac function and geometry and serum hepcidin levels.@*METHODS@#We reviewed data of 1,897 patients in a large-scale multicenter prospective Korean study. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the relationship between cardiac function and geometry and serum hepcidin levels.@*RESULTS@#The mean relative wall thickness (RWT) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) were 0.38 and 42.0 g/m2.7, respectively. The mean ejection fraction (EF) and early diastolic mitral inflow to annulus velocity ratio (E/e′) were 64.1% and 9.9, respectively. Although EF and E/e′ were not associated with high serum hepcidin, RWT and LVMI were significantly associated with high serum hepcidin levels in univariate logistic regression analysis. In multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjusting for variables related to anemia, bone mineral metabolism, comorbidities, and inflammation, however, only each 0.1-unit increase in RWT was associated with increased odds of high serum hepcidin (odds ratio, 1.989; 95% confidence interval, 1.358–2.916; P < 0.001). In the subgroup analysis, the independent relationship between RWT and high serum hepcidin level was valid only in women and patients with low transferrin saturation (TSAT).@*CONCLUSION@#Although the relationship was not cause-and-effect, increased RWT was independently associated with high serum hepcidin, particularly in women and patients with low TSAT. The relationship between cardiac geometry and serum hepcidin in CKD patients needs to be confirmed in future studies.

19.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e2-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899784

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Few studies have examined the relationship between cardiac function and geometry and serum hepcidin levels in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We aimed to identify the relationship between cardiac function and geometry and serum hepcidin levels.@*METHODS@#We reviewed data of 1,897 patients in a large-scale multicenter prospective Korean study. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the relationship between cardiac function and geometry and serum hepcidin levels.@*RESULTS@#The mean relative wall thickness (RWT) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) were 0.38 and 42.0 g/m2.7, respectively. The mean ejection fraction (EF) and early diastolic mitral inflow to annulus velocity ratio (E/e′) were 64.1% and 9.9, respectively. Although EF and E/e′ were not associated with high serum hepcidin, RWT and LVMI were significantly associated with high serum hepcidin levels in univariate logistic regression analysis. In multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjusting for variables related to anemia, bone mineral metabolism, comorbidities, and inflammation, however, only each 0.1-unit increase in RWT was associated with increased odds of high serum hepcidin (odds ratio, 1.989; 95% confidence interval, 1.358–2.916; P < 0.001). In the subgroup analysis, the independent relationship between RWT and high serum hepcidin level was valid only in women and patients with low transferrin saturation (TSAT).@*CONCLUSION@#Although the relationship was not cause-and-effect, increased RWT was independently associated with high serum hepcidin, particularly in women and patients with low TSAT. The relationship between cardiac geometry and serum hepcidin in CKD patients needs to be confirmed in future studies.

20.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 121-135, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834941

ABSTRACT

As the nation’s largest chronic kidney disease (CKD) cohort, the KoreaN Cohort Study for Outcomes in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD) was established to investigate the clinical course, risk factors for progression, and adverse outcomes of CKD. From 2011 to 2016, the KNOW-CKD recruited 2,238 adult patients with CKD from stage G1 to G5 who were not receiving renal replacement therapy from nine tertiary care hospitals throughout Korea. As of 2019, the KNOW-CKD has published more than 50 articles in the areas of socio-economics, nutrition, quality of life, health-related habits, CKD progression, cardiovascular comorbidity and outcome, anemia, mineral bone disease, biomarker discovery, and international and inter-ethnic comparisons. The KNOW-CKD will eventually offer a prediction model for long-term consequences of CKD, such as the occurrences of end-stage renal disease, cardiovascular disease, and death, thereby enabling the identification and treatment of at-risk populations that require extra medical attention.

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