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Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913704


In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a heme precursor, on inflammatory and oxidative stress activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in RAW 264.7 macrophages by estimating nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cytokines, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also evaluated the molecular mechanisms through analysis of the expression of their regulatory genes, and further evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant efficacy of ALA against LPS in the zebrafish model. Our results indicated that ALA treatment significantly attenuated the LPS-induced release of pro-inflammatory mediators including NO and PGE2, which was associated with decreased inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. ALA also inhibited the LPS-induced expression of pro- inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6, reducing their extracellular secretion. Additionally, ALA abolished ROS generation, improved the mitochondrial mass, and enhanced the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and the activation of nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. However, zinc protoporphyrin, a specific inhibitor of HO-1, reversed the ALA-mediated inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines production and activation of mitochondrial function in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, ALA significantly abolished the expression of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines, and showed strong protective effects against NO and ROS production in zebrafish larvae. In conclusion, our findings suggest that ALA exerts LPS-induced anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects by upregulating the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway, and that ALA can be a potential functional agent to prevent inflammatory and oxidative damage.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-823919


Objective: To investigate whether ethanol extracts of Hizikia fusiforme could induce apoptosis in human prostate cancer PC3 cells.Methods: Cell viability was evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. Apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were measured using flow cytometry in PC3 cells. DNA damage was assessed by nuclear staining and DNA fragmentation assay. Expressions of apoptosis-associated proteins were determined by Western blotting assays. Activities of caspase-3, -8, and -9 were determined by colorimetric assay. Moreover, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was detected using a flow cytometer and fluorescence microscope. Results: Treatment of PC3 cells with ethanol extracts of Hizikia fusiforme inhibited proliferation, which was associated with induction of apoptosis, and accompanied by increased expression of Fas, Fas-ligand (FasL), Bax and tBid, and decreased expression of Bcl-2. In addition, ethanol extracts of Hizikia fusiforme reduced c-Flip expression and activated caspase-8, -9 and -3, resulting in an increase in poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)cleavage. However, in the presence of a pan-caspase inhibitor, ethanol extracts of Hizikia fusiforme-mediated growth inhibition and apoptosis were significantly attenuated. Ethanol extracts of Hizikia fusiforme also destroyed the integrity of mitochondria due to the loss of MMP, leading to cytosolic release of cytochrome c. Moreover, the levels of ROS were markedly increased by treatment with ethanol extracts of Hizikia fusiforme, which was significantly suppressed by the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Further investigation of whether ethanol extracts of Hizikia fusiforme-induced apoptosis was related to the generation of ROS was conducted and the results showed that N-acetyl-L-cysteine fully blocked ethanol extracts of Hizikia fusiforme-induced apoptotic events including loss of MMP, activation of caspase-3, the cytosolic release of cytochrome c and cytotoxicity.Conclusions: Ethanol extracts of Hizikia fusiforme have chemopreventive potential via induction of ROS-dependent apoptosis. Therefore, ethanol extracts of Hizikia fusiforme may be useful for developing effective and selective natural sources to inhibit cancer cell proliferation.

Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918398


Red Liriope platyphylla (RLP) is a known herbal medicine used in the treatment of some chronic diseases including constipation, neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes and obesity. To determine and characterize putative biomarkers that predict the laxative effects induced by RLP treatment, alteration of endogenous metabolites was measured in the serum of loperamide (Lop)-induced constipation rats after administration of RLP extract (EtRLP) using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectral data. The urine volume and amounts, and weights and water contents of stools were significantly recovered in the Lop + EtRLP treated group as compared to the No group, whereas body weight and food intake maintained constant levels. Also, significant recoveries in the thickness of mucosa and muscle were detected in the colon of the Lop + EtRLP treated group. Furthermore, pattern recognition showed absolutely different clustering of the serum analysis parameters when comparing the Lop treated group and Lop + EtRLP treated group. Of the 33 endogenous metabolites, 7 amino acids (alanine, arginine, glutamate, glutamine, glycine, threonine and valine) and 8 endogenous metabolites (betaine, creatine, glucose, taurine, ethanol, lactate, glycerol and succinate) were dramatically increased in the Lop + EtRLP treated SD rats. These results provide the first evidence pertaining to metabolic changes in the constipation rats treated with Lop + EtRLP. Additionally, these findings correlate with changes observed in 15 metabolites during the laxative effects of EtRLP.

Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713581


Spermidine is a naturally occurring polyamine compound that has recently emerged with anti-aging properties and suppresses inflammation and oxidation. However, its mechanisms of action on anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects have not been fully elucidated. In this study, the potential of spermidine for reducing pro-inflammatory and oxidative effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages and zebrafish was explored. Our data indicate that spermidine significantly inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in RAW 264.7 macrophages without any significant cytotoxicity. The protective effects of spermidine accompanied by a marked suppression in their regulatory gene expression at the transcription levels. Spermidine also attenuated the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit and reduced LPS-induced intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Moreover, spermidine prevented the LPS-induced NO production and ROS accumulation in zebrafish larvae and was found to be associated with a diminished recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages. Although more work is needed to fully understand the critical role of spermidine on the inhibition of inflammation-associated migration of immune cells, our findings clearly demonstrate that spermidine may be a potential therapeutic intervention for the treatment of inflammatory and oxidative disorders.

Antioxidants , Cytokines , Dinoprostone , Genes, Regulator , Inflammation , Larva , Macrophages , Necrosis , Neutrophils , Nitric Oxide , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species , Spermidine , Zebrafish
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-201290


BACKGROUND: Immunoregulatory elements have emerged as useful immunotherapeutic agents against cancer. In traditional medicine, Mori folium, the leaf of Morus alba L. (Moraceae), has been used for various medicinal purposes; however, the immunomodulatory effects have not been fully identified. We evaluated the immunoenhancing potential of water extract of Mori folium (WEMF) in murine RAW264.7 macrophages. METHODS: RAW264.7 cells were treated with WEMF for 24 hours and cell viability was detected by an MTT method. Nitric oxide (NO) levels in the culture supernatants were assayed using Griess reagent. The productions of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and immune-related cytokines was measured using ELISA detection kits. The mRNA and protein expression levels of Inducible NO synthase, COX-2, and cytokines were assayed by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The effect of WEMF on phagocytic activity was measured using a Phagocytosis Assay Kit. RESULTS: WEMF significantly stimulated the production of NO and PGE2 as immune response parameters at noncytotoxic concentrations, which was associated with the increased expression of inducible NO synthase and COX-2. The release and expression of cytokines, such as TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, were also significantly increased in response to treatment with WEMF. Moreover, WEMF promoted the macrophagic differentiation of RAW264.7 cells and the resulting phagocytosis activity. CONCLUSIONS: WEMF has the potential to modulate the immune function by regulating immunological parameters. Further studies are needed to identify the active compounds and to support the use of WEMF as an immune stimulant.

Blotting, Western , Cell Survival , Cytokines , Dinoprostone , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , In Vitro Techniques , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6 , Interleukins , Macrophages , Medicine, Traditional , Methods , Morus , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Phagocytosis , RNA, Messenger , Water
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126814


Loperamide has long been known as an opioid-receptor agonist useful as a drug for treatment of diarrhea resulting from gastroenteritis or inflammatory bowel disease as well as to induce constipation. To determine and characterize putative biomarkers that can predict constipation induced by loperamide treatment, alteration of endogenous metabolites was measured in the serum of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats treated with loperamide for 3 days using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectral data. The amounts and weights of stool and urine excretion were significantly lower in the loperamide-treated group than the No-treated group, while the thickness of the villus, crypt layer, and muscle layer was decreased in the transverse colon of the same group. The concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatinine (Cr) were also slightly changed in the loperamide-treated group, although most of the serum components were maintained at a constant level. Furthermore, pattern recognition of endogenous metabolites showed completely separate clustering of the serum analysis parameters between the No-treated group and loperamide-treated group. Among 35 endogenous metabolites, four amino acids (alanine, glutamate, glutamine and glycine) and six endogenous metabolites (acetate, glucose, glycerol, lactate, succinate and taurine) were dramatically decreased in loperamide-treated SD rats. These results provide the first data pertaining to metabolic changes in SD rats with loperamide-induced constipation. Additionally, these findings correlate the changes in 10 metabolites with constipation.

Amino Acids , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Biomarkers , Colon, Transverse , Constipation , Creatinine , Diarrhea , Gastroenteritis , Glucose , Glutamic Acid , Glutamine , Glycerol , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Lactic Acid , Loperamide , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Metabolomics , Rats , Succinic Acid , Weights and Measures