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1.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 117-124, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926902

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of depressive symptoms on health-seeking behaviors using the large epidemiological study data of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination (KNHANES). @*Methods@#Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), which is a large-scale national survey, were used in this study. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was used to assess the depressive state of the participants. Specialized self-reported questionnaires that included questions about health-seeking behaviors were also performed. To examine the relationships between depression and health-seeking behaviors, complex sample logistic regression models with control for covariates were used. @*Results@#There was a significant association between decreased health-seeking behaviors and depressive symptoms in adults (odds ratio [OR]: 3.11, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.44–3.96). The association was found to be especially strong in males (OR: 2.63, 95% CI: 1.69–4.10) versus in females (OR: 2.49, 95% CI: 1.90–3.27). With regard to age group, younger adults (19–44 years of age) showed the highest OR (OR: 3.07, 95% CI: 2.12–4.45). @*Conclusion@#Our findings support the idea that there is a significant association between health-seeking behaviors and depressive symptoms in the Korean population. These results suggest that individuals with decreased health-seeking behaviors could be evaluated for depressive symptoms.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926643

ABSTRACT

Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) caused by Escherichia coli is an uncommon condition. It usually occurs secondary to urinary tract infection (UTI), following hematogenous propagation. Disruption of spinal anatomic barriers increases susceptibility to SEA. Although rarely, such disruption can take the form of lumbar spine stress fractures, which can result from even innocuous activity. Here, we describe a case of SEA secondary to UTI in a patient with pre-existing stress fractures of the lumbar spine, following use of an automated massage chair. Successful treatment of SEA consisted of surgical debridement and a six-month course of antibiotic therapy.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926580

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Recently, weight loss has emerged as a national concern in South Korea, and this has resulted in an increase in the frequency of use of central nervous system (CNS)-stimulating appetite suppressants. This study aimed to collect cases of psychotic disorders and bipolar disorders triggered by phentermine and phendimetrazine and explore the clinical features and courses. @*Methods@#In this retrospective study, we analyzed the electronic medical records of patients and selected eight patients who developed psychotic symptoms and manic symptoms for the first time after taking phentermine and phendimetrazine. All cases were reviewed, and their clinical features and course were summarized. @*Results@#All eight patients developed psychotic symptoms, and one had accompanying manic symptoms. The final diagnosis was appetite-suppressant-induced psychotic disorder in four patients, schizophrenia in three, and appetite-suppressant-induced bipolar disorder in one. In addition, three patients were diagnosed as having substance-use disorder. The key psychotic symptoms of these patients were hallucinations and paranoia. @*Conclusions@#These case findings suggest that phentermine and phendimetrazine can cause psychotic disorder, bipolar disorder, or substance use disorder and that medical professionals and the public should practice caution when prescribing and using these drugs.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925892

ABSTRACT

Background@#The relationship between changes in anxiety levels and personal protective equipment (PPE) use is yet to be evaluated. The present study assessed this relationship among healthcare workers (HCWs) involved in the care of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). @*Methods@#An online survey was conducted in a municipal hospital with 195 nationally designated negative pressure isolation units in Korea. Anxiety level was measured using the self-rating anxiety scale (SAS), and changes in anxiety levels were assessed based on the time when COVID-19 vaccine was introduced in March 2021 in Korea. Monthly PPE usage between June 2020 and May 2021 was investigated. @*Results@#The mean SAS score (33.25 ± 5.97) was within normal range and was lower than those reported in previous studies conducted before COVID-19 vaccination became available.Among the 93 HCWs who participated, 64 (68.8%) answered that their fear of contracting COVID-19 decreased after vaccination. The number of coveralls used per patient decreased from 33.6 to 0. However, a demand for more PPE than necessary was observed in situations where HCWs were exposed to body fluids and secretions (n = 38, 40.9%). Excessive demand for PPE was not related to age, working experience, or SAS score. @*Conclusion@#Anxiety in HCWs exposed to COVID-19 was lower than it was during the early period of the pandemic, and the period before vaccination was introduced. The number of coveralls used per patient also decreased although an excessive demand for PPE was observed.

5.
Asian Oncology Nursing ; : 37-45, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925553

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of anxiety, uncertainty, and cancer coping on the quality of life in breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. @*Methods@#The participants of the study were 103 breast cancer patients who were in B Metropolitan City. Data had been collected between August 28 and November 22, 2020. For data analysis, SPSS/WIN 24.0 program was used, and descriptive, independent t-test, ANOVA and Scheffe’s test, and Pearson’s correlation coefficients and multiple regression were used for analysis. @*Results@#The most influencing factor on quality of life was anxiety (β=-.66, p<.001) which was followed by the number of chemotherapy treatments (β=.23, p<.001), interpersonal cancer coping(β=.18, p=.007) and inter-personal cancer coping (β=.18, p=.004). The overall explanatory power was 78.0%. @*Conclusion@#In order to improve the quality of life for breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy, it is necessary to develop a nursing program that may reduce their anxiety, promote cancer coping, and consider the number of their chemotherapy treatments.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925517

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Pancreatic enzyme reflux into the biliary tract is associated with chronic inflammation and increased cellular proliferation in the biliary epithelium, leading to biliary carcinoma. We evaluated the relationship between high bile juice amylase levels and biliary microflora in patients with malignant gallbladder lesions. @*Methods@#In this retrospective study, 25 gallbladder specimens were obtained from patients with gallbladder cancer to evaluate amylase levels and perform bacterial culture. The samples were divided into high and low amylase groups and culture-positive and negative groups for analysis. Bile juice amylase 3 times higher than the normal serum amylase level (36–128 IU/L) was considered high. @*Results@#The number of positive cultures was higher in the high amylase group than in the low amylase group, but the difference was insignificant. There were no differences in other clinicopathological factors. Sixteen patients showed positive culture results; Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. were the most common gram-negative bacteria, whereas Enterococcus and Streptococcus spp. were the most common gram-positive bacteria. Age and bile juice amylase levels were significantly higher in the culture-positive group than in the culture-negative group. The incidence of bacterial resistance to cephalosporins was 6.25%–35.29%, and this incidence was particularly high for lower-generation cephalosporins. @*Conclusion@#Bacteria in gallbladder were identified more frequently when the amylase level was high. High amylase levels in the gallbladder can be associated with caused chronic bacterial infections with occult pancreaticobiliary reflux, potentially triggering gallbladder cancer

7.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 48-54, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925389

ABSTRACT

The gluteal region is a frequent target for injecting high volumes. However, the safe intramuscular injection sites have been controversy in this region. This study was aimed to compare the subcutaneous fat and muscle thicknesses at the two gluteal injection sites and to determine the influence of sex and body mass index (BMI) on fat and muscle thicknesses.The ultimate purpose of this study is to suggest the most suitable intramuscular injection site among the ventrogluteal and dorsogluteal regions. Eleven fresh cadavers were injected with colored gelatin using syringes at the two gluteal injection sites.Seven variables were measured at both gluteal injection sites and analyzed relative to sex and the BMI. No variables showed statistically significant differences between the two gluteal injection sites according to sex. In a one-way analysis of variance, total length and muscle thickness had significant difference according to the BMI category. In obese cadavers, the injected gelatin core was located in the subcutaneous layer (average 109.0 percentile), and in the muscle layer (average 78.9 percentile) in the dorsogluteal region. These were found that the success rate of injection in the dorsogluteal region was higher than in the ventrogluteal region, especially when classed as obese. Also, it is suggested that nurses should use the traditional intramuscular injection method. It will also be necessary to consider expanding these findings to other ethnic groups in the Asia–Pacific region and then also education in universities and health providers on selecting the intramuscular gluteal injection site.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925283

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Climate change has various negative effects on human health, which has resulted in increased burden on the health care system. Nurses contribute significantly to assessing climate-related health risks and creating a healthy environment. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Climate, Health, and Nursing Tool (K-CHANT) to measure nurses’ awareness, motivation, concern, and behaviors at work and at home regarding climate change and health. @*Methods@#The 22 items of English CHANT were translated into Korean with forward-backward translation techniques. Internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, and construct validity using confirmatory factor analysis were performed using SPSS WIN (25.0) and AMOS (26.0). Survey data were collected from 220 master’s, doctoral, and post-doctoral nursing students. @*Results@#The K-CHANT consists of 20 items across 5 domains.Two items of the original CHANT were excluded because of low content validity index and standardized regression weights. The internal consistency reliability of the K-CHANT, assessed by Cronbach’s αá was .81, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of .66~.90. The five subscales model was validated by confirmatory factor analysis (SRMR .70, CFI > .70). @*Conclusion@#The K-CHANT has satisfactory construct validity and reliability to measure nurses’ awareness, motivation, concern, and behaviors at work and at home regarding climate change and health. Future research should examine nurses’ perceptions and behaviors related to the health effects of climate change and develop an action plan to improve it.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925267

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to identify the factors influencing the wellness of call center employees. @*Methods@#From December 2018 to October 2019, a cross-sectional study was conducted with 155 workers recruited from the call centers in Seoul, South Korea. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. The questionnaires were used to measure the following scales: Korean occupational stress scale, emotional labor scale, work-life balance scale and wellness scale. Using the SPSS 26.0 program, the descriptive statistics, independent t-test, ANOVA, correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis were conducted. @*Results@#The mean score of the wellness level of call center employees was 3.05 out of a maximum of 5.00. More wellness level of call center employees was associated with gender, psychiatric diagnosis, and call characteristics. A multiple regression analysis indicated that the total scores on the wellness scale were predicted by call characteristics, occupational stress and work-life balance, with an explanatory power of 42.2%. @*Conclusion@#Study findings show that it is necessary to promote wellness in call center workers with differentiated strategies according to call characteristics, occupational stress and work-life balance. This implies that it is necessary to understand the call characteristics and patterns of workers and to provide an innovative wellness program tailored to individual characteristics for an effective management of the emotional labor and occupational stress.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937334

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Sepsis-3 criteria and quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) have been advocated to be used in defining sepsis in the general population. We aimed to compare the Sepsis-3 criteria and Chronic Liver Failure-SOFA (CLIF-SOFA) scores as predictors of in-hospital mortality in cirrhotic patients admitted to the emergency department (ED) for infections. @*Methods@#A total of 1,622 cirrhosis patients admitted at the ED for infections were assessed retrospectively. We analyzed their demographic, laboratory, and microbiological data upon diagnosis of the infection. The primary endpoint was inhospital mortality rate. The predictive performances of baseline CLIF-SOFA, Sepsis-3, and qSOFA scores for in-hospital mortality were evaluated. @*Results@#The CLIF-SOFA score proved to be significantly better in predicting in-hospital mortality (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC], 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78–0.82) than the Sepsis-3 (AUROC, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.72–0.77, P10%; this is the cutoff point for the definition of sepsis. @*Conclusions@#Among cirrhosis patients presenting with infections at the ED, CLIF-SOFA scores showed a better predictive performance for mortality than both Sepsis-3 criteria and qSOFA scores, and can be a useful tool of risk stratification in cirrhotic patients requiring timely intervention for infection.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937274

ABSTRACT

Congenital isolated hydronephrosis encompasses a spectrum of physiologic states that spontaneously resolve and pathologic obstruction that necessitates surgical intervention. Distinguishing patients whose condition will resolve, those who will require stringent follow-up, and those who will eventually need surgical intervention present a challenge to clinicians, particularly because no unified guidelines for assessment and follow-up have been established. The recognition of the natural course and prognosis of hydronephrosis and a comprehensive understanding of the currently proposed consensus guidelines may aid in multidisciplinary treatment and in providing proper counseling to caregivers. In this review, we aimed to summarize the literature on the grading systems and management strategies for congenital isolated hydronephrosis.

12.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 118-123, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937103

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to clarify the anatomy of middle rectal artery and pelvic vasculature patterns, and to provide schematic information in a manner applicable to the total mesorectal excision. Forty sides of pelvis from 20 formalinembalmed cadavers (10 male, 10 female) were dissected, and all the pelvic vasculatures from the internal iliac artery were investigated, focusing on the middle rectal artery. Middle rectal arteries were classified into major types depending on their vascular origins. Each type was subdivided into minor types according to variability of the pelvic vasculature. A middle rectal artery was identified in 18 out of 20 cadavers, and in 25 out of 40 pelvic sides. In most cases, the middle rectal artery originated from the internal pudendal artery or inferior gluteal artery. These two arteries arose directly from the anterior trunk of the internal iliac artery or were bifurcated from the gluteal-pudendal trunk. In rare cases, these arteries arose from the posterior trunk of the internal iliac artery. The other origins of the middle rectal artery included the gluteal pudendal trunk, inferior vesical artery, internal iliac artery, obturator artery, and the prostatic artery, and the pelvic vasculatures in these cases also presented variability. The detailed anatomical findings related to the middle rectal artery and pelvic vasculatures are noteworthy for their improved clinical applicability.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938855

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#Adolescents who skip breakfast have an increased prevalence of chronic diseases. Thus, we aimed to evaluate whether the intake of rice-based breakfast had positive effects on blood glucose indices and to determine the possibility of diabetes prevalence in Korean youths who habitually skip breakfast. @*SUBJECTS/METHODS@#In this randomized parallel-group controlled trial, 81 subjects who were suitable for compliance among 105 middle-and high-school students aged 12-18 years who usually skipped breakfast were included in this study (rice-meal group [RMG], n = 26; wheat-meal group [WMG], n = 29; general-meal group [GMG], n = 26). The RMG and WMG received a rice-based breakfast and a wheat-based breakfast for 12 weeks, respectively. The anthropometric indices, blood glucose indices, and metabolites were measured at baseline and the endpoint, respectively. @*RESULTS@#The mean body weights in the RMG, WMG, and GMG groups at the endpoint were 62.44 kg, 61.80 kg, and 60.28 kg, respectively, and the mean body weights of the WMG and GMG groups at the endpoint were significantly higher than that at baseline (P < 0.05). The levels of fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values were significantly decreased in the RMG group at the endpoint compared to baseline (P < 0.05, P < 0.05, respectively). The levels of tryptophan and tyrosine in the WMG group at the endpoint were significantly higher than that those at baseline (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively). @*CONCLUSIONS@#Rice-based breakfast has positive effects on fasting insulin levels and HOMA-IR in Korean adolescents who skip breakfast. Additionally, it was found that a skipping breakfast could increase the prevalence of diabetes in adolescents who skip breakfast. Therefore, in addition to reducing breakfast skipping, it is vital to develop a ricebased menu that fits teenage preferences to prevent chronic diseases such as diabetes.

14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938783

ABSTRACT

This study investigated dexamethasone (DXM) residues in the milk from intramuscularly dosed dairy cows and established the withdrawal time (WT) of DXM in milk. Eighteen healthy Holstein cows were injected with 20 (DXM-1) or 40 mL (DXM-2) of a drug containing 1 mg/mL of DXM. After administering DXM, milk samples were collected from all cows at 12-hour intervals for five days. The DXM residue concentrations in milk were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. The correlation coefficient of the calibration curve was 0.9966, and the limits of detection and quantification (LOQ) were 0.03 and 0.1 μg/kg, respectively. The recoveries were 97.0% to 104.0%, and the coefficient of variations was less than 7.22%. After treatment, DXM in DXM-1 was detected above the LOQ in two milk samples at 36 hours and below the LOQ in all milk samples of DXM-2 at 48 hours. Using the WT calculation program WT 1.4, the withdrawal periods of DXM-1 and DXM-2 in milk were established to be two days. In conclusion, the developed analytical method is sensitive and reliable for detecting DXM in milk. The estimated WT of DXM in bovine milk is shorter than the current milk WT recommendation of three days for DXM in lactating dairy cows.

15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938750

ABSTRACT

Percutaneous balloon dilation with or without placement of an external biliary drain is a nonoperative alternative method for treating benign bilioenteric anastomotic strictures. Although this procedure has a high technical success rate, outcomes are less optimal when attempting to dilate refractory tight strictures. For the stricture, cutting balloon can be an option. We present four patients with benign bilioenteric anastomotic strictures refractory to conventional balloon dilation. To the patients, a peripheral cutting balloon over-the-wire system was inflated, following subsequent conventional non-compliant balloon dilation. After the balloon dilation treatment, an external drainage catheter was placed through the stricture site and maintained for up to 30 days. Technical and end-treatment success was achieved in all four patients. In conclusion, the use of cutting balloon dilation may appear to be a safe and effective alternative method of treatment in patients with benign bilioenteric anastomotic strictures refractory to conventional balloon dilation.

16.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 164-170, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938688

ABSTRACT

Malignant hilar biliary obstruction (MHBO) frequently accompanies cholestasis and cholangitis, and requires biliary stent placement. To prevent stent occlusion and prolong survival, local ablation therapy can be considered adjunctive to stent placement. Intraductal radiofrequency ablation (ID-RFA) is a recently developed local therapy for malignant biliary obstruction that can be easily performed employing endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. The use of ID-RFA to treat MHBO (as distinct from distal biliary obstruction) was suggested to be associated with severe adverse events. However, recent comparative studies have shown that ID-RFA is feasible and safe, and acceptably efficacious, in patients with advanced MHBO; newer temperature-controlled ID-RFA devices may enhance safety further. Regularly repeated ID-RFA with stent exchange affords better survival than stenting alone. However, the optimal ID-RFA strategy for MHBO remains inconclusive given the lack of data. Further large-scale clinical trials are needed.

17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938251

ABSTRACT

Background@#The purpose of this study is to describe the current status of the payment rate of the Korean Medical Association (KMA) membership fee and to suggest a way to overcome the decreased payment rate of membership fees by analyzing the causal factors of the decrease. @*Methods@#Quantitative analysis of the KMA membership data, qualitative research of in-depth interviews with 2 staff members of the regional subsidiaries, and literature research were conducted. @*Results@#From the results, 6 major factors for reducing the membership fee payment rate were derived, and plans to improve the payment rate of membership fees were suggested to improve the factors. First, the role of the KMA and the promotion of its members should be strengthened. Second, there should be a flexible adjustment of the membership fee. Third, there should be an enhancement of the transparency of budget execution and increased awareness through the promotion of the members. Fourth, differentiated incentives should be offered to the members who pay dues. Fifth, an improvement of a more efficient and easier payment method should be installed. Finally, legal enforcement measures to pay the membership fee should be considered. @*Conclusion@#In order to improve the payment rate of the KMA membership fee, the KMA should try to make the members understand the performance of the business affairs and health policies. Furthermore, incentives that members can feel should be given.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938022

ABSTRACT

Background@#The clinical features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in the COVID-19 vaccination era need to be clarified because breakthrough infection after vaccination is not uncommon. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed hospitalized COVID-19 patients during a delta variantdominant period 6 months after the national COVID-19 vaccination rollout. The clinical characteristics and risk factors for severe progression were assessed and subclassified according to vaccination status. @*Results@#A total of 438 COVID-19 patients were included; the numbers of patients in the unvaccinated, partially vaccinated and fully vaccinated groups were 188 (42.9%), 117 (26.7%) and 133 (30.4%), respectively. The vaccinated group was older, less symptomatic and had a higher Charlson comorbidity index at presentation. The proportions of patients who experienced severe progression in the unvaccinated and fully vaccinated groups were 20.3% (31/153) and 10.8% (13/120), respectively. Older age, diabetes mellitus, solid cancer, elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase and chest X-ray abnormalities were associated with severe progression, and the vaccination at least once was the only protective factor for severe progression. Chest X-ray abnormalities at presentation were the only predictor for severe progression among fully vaccinated patients. @*Conclusion@#In the hospitalized setting, vaccinated and unvaccinated COVID-19 patients showed different clinical features and risk of oxygen demand despite a relatively high proportion of patients in the two groups. Vaccination needs to be assessed as an initial checkpoint, and chest X-ray may be helpful for predicting severe progression in vaccinated patients.

19.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 360-363, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937672

ABSTRACT

The STANDARD™ M10 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) assay (M10 assay) (SD Biosensor Inc., Suwon, Korea) is a rapid, fully-automated, cartridgetype molecular diagnostic assay that detects SARS-CoV-2 RNA using primers and probes for each target gene (ORF1ab gene, E gene). This study evaluated its performance by assessing its concordance with the approved SARS-CoV-2 real-time PCR assay. Tests were performed on 80 nasopharyngeal samples. The sensitivity and specificity of the M10 assay were 100%.The M10 assay effectively diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 infection, and it was comparable to the approved SARS-CoV-2 real-time PCR assay. It is a viable point-of-care test due to its short turnaround time.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914874

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Diagnosing ulnar neuropathy at the wrist (UNW) is often challenging, and performing several short segmental studies have been suggested for achieving this. We aimed to determine the utility of ulnar nerve segmental studies at the wrist (UNSWs) in patients with suspected UNW. @*Methods@#Fourteen patients with typical symptoms of unilateral UNW were evaluated using conventional electrophysiological tests, UNSWs, and ultrasonography (US). In UNSWs, the ulnar nerve was stimulated at three sites (3 cm distal, just lateral, and 2 cm proximal to the pisiform), and recordings were made at the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle and the fifth digit. Four types of UNW were identified by conventional ulnar nerve conduction studies based on motor and sensory fiber involvement. UNW was also categorized as either a proximal or distal lesion relative to the pisiform based on the UNSWs. The relationships between the conventional electrophysiological type, UNSW categorization results, and lesion location as verified by US were analyzed. @*Results@#Proximal UNW lesions were associated with involvement of the entire deep motor and the superficial sensory fibers (type I). Distal lesions were more closely related to deep motor fibers that innervated the FDI (type III). All five proximal and six distal lesions seen in US matched the lesion locations found on UNSWs. @*Conclusions@#Motor and sensory UNSW are considered useful assistive techniques for diagnosing UNW and localizing its lesion sites.

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