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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254252, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355876

ABSTRACT

Abstract Indian major carps are the widely consumed fish species of Pakistan, being a cheap source of proteins and unsaturated fatty acids, they are good for cardiovascular health. Water pollution due to discharge of untreated industrial waste water into water bodies contaminates this precious source of nutrients. The present study therefore, was aimed to assess deterioration of fatty acid profile of three Indian major carp species due to different concentrations of industrial wastes. The water samples were collected from the river Chenab at the site where it receives industrial wastewater via Chakbandi drain. After exposure to 1.5%, 3.0%, and 4.5% dilutions of collected water in different aquaria it was observed that proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in selected fish species were decreased significantly as the intensity of the dose increased (P < 0.05). Conversely the level of saturated fatty acids increased with the increasing dose of treatment (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that untreated wastewater not only deteriorate the fatty acid profile of aquatic animals but also these toxic substances can reach human body through fish meat and pose further health hazards. Therefore, it is highly recommended that industrial effluents should be treated before they are dumped into water bodies.


Resumo As carpas indianas são as espécies de peixes mais consumidas no Paquistão, sendo uma fonte barata de proteínas e de ácidos graxos insaturados e boa para a saúde cardiovascular. A poluição da água por causa do descarte de resíduos industriais não tratados em corpos d'água contamina essa preciosa fonte de nutrientes. Portanto, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a deterioração do perfil de ácidos graxos de três principais espécies de carpas indianas em diferentes concentrações de resíduos industriais. As amostras de água foram coletadas do rio Chenab no local onde recebe esgoto industrial via dreno de Chakbandi. Após a exposição a diluições de 1,5%, 3% e 4,5% da água coletada em diferentes aquários, foi observado que a proporção de ácidos graxos insaturados em espécies de peixes selecionadas diminuiu significativamente com o aumento da intensidade da dose (P < 0,05). Por outro lado, o nível de ácidos graxos saturados aumentou com a elevação da dose de tratamento (P < 0,05). Essas descobertas sugerem que águas residuais não tratadas não apenas deterioram o perfil de ácidos graxos dos animais aquáticos, mas também essas substâncias tóxicas podem atingir o corpo humano por meio da carne de peixe e representar mais riscos à saúde. Portanto, é recomendável que os efluentes industriais sejam tratados antes de serem despejados em corpos d'água.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Carps , Textile Industry , Rivers , Fatty Acids
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246984, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285632

ABSTRACT

Abstract Physids belong to Class Gastropoda; belong to Phylum Mollusca and being bioindicators, intermediate hosts of parasites and pests hold a key position in the ecosystem. There are three species of Genus Physa i.e. P. fontinalis, Physa acuta and P. gyrina water bodies of Central Punjab and were characterized on the basis of molecular markers High level of genetic diversity was revealed by polymorphic RAPD, however SSR markers were not amplified. The multivariate analysis revealed polymorphism ranging from 9.09 percent to 50 percent among the three Physid species. Total number of 79 loci were observed for the three species under study and 24 loci were observed to be polymorphic. These RAPD fragment(s) can be developed into co dominant markers (SCAR) by cloning and can be further sequenced for the development of the Physa species specific markers to identify the introduced and native species in Pakistan.


Resumo Os físidos pertencem à classe Gastropoda; pertencem ao filo Mollusca e, sendo bioindicadores, hospedeiros intermediários de parasitas e pragas, ocupam uma posição-chave no ecossistema. Existem três espécies do gênero Physa, ou seja, P. fontinalis, Physa acuta e P. gyrina em corpos d'água do Punjab Central e foram caracterizadas com base em marcadores moleculares. Alto nível de diversidade genética foi revelado por RAPD polimórfico, no entanto os marcadores SSR não foram amplificados. A análise multivariada revelou polimorfismo variando de 9,09% a 50% entre as três espécies de Physid. Um número total de 79 loci foi observado para as três espécies em estudo e 24 loci foram observados como polimórficos. Esses fragmentos RAPD podem ser desenvolvidos em marcadores codominantes (SCAR) por clonagem e podem ser posteriormente sequenciados para o desenvolvimento de marcadores específicos da espécie Physa para identificar as espécies introduzidas e nativas no Paquistão.


Subject(s)
Animals , Gastropoda , Introduced Species , Pakistan , Phylogeny , Ecosystem , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246934, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285605

ABSTRACT

Abstract Physids belong to Class Gastropoda; Phylum Mollusca have important position in food web and act as bio indicators, pests and intermediate host. Being resistant these are called cockroaches of malacology. Physid snails were collected from different water bodies of Faisalabad (Punjab) and were identified up to species using morphological markers. The morphometry of the specimens was carried out with the help of a digital Vernier caliper in millimeters (mm) using linear measurement of shell characters. Linear regression analysis of the AL/SW ratio vs AL and SL/SW ratio vs AL indicated that allometric growth exists only in Physa acuta when compared with P.gyrina and P. fontinalis. This study will lead to assess the status of the Physid species in Central Punjab. The Principal component analysis shows that the Component 1 (Shell Length) and component 2 (Shell Width) are the most prolific components and nearly 80 percent of the identification. The distance between P. acuta and P. fontinalis is 5.4699, P. acuta and P. gyrina is 7.6411, P. fontinalis and P. gyrina is 16.6080 showing that P. acuta resembles with P. fontinalis, and both these specimens donot resemble with P. gyrina. P.acuta is an invasive species and shows bioactivity making it a potent candidate for bioactive substances.


Resumo Os físidos pertencem à classe Gastropoda; o filo Mollusca possui importante posição na teia alimentar e atua como bioindicador, praga e hospedeiro intermediário. Por serem resistentes, são chamadas baratas de malacologia. Os caramujos físidos foram coletados em diferentes corpos d'água de Faisalabad (Punjab) e identificados até as espécies por meio de marcadores morfológicos. A morfometria dos corpos de prova foi realizada com auxílio de paquímetro digital Vernier em milímetros (mm) por meio de medida linear dos caracteres da casca. A análise de regressão linear da razão AL / SW vs. AL e razão SL / SW vs. AL indicou que o crescimento alométrico existe apenas em Physa acuta quando comparado com P. gyrina e P. fontinalis. Este estudo levará a avaliar a situação das espécies de físido no Punjab Central. A análise do componente principal mostra que o componente 1 (comprimento da casca) e o componente 2 (largura da casca) são os componentes mais prolíficos e quase 80% da identificação. A distância entre P. acuta e P. fontinalis é 5,4699, P. acuta e P. gyrina é 7,6411, P. fontinalis e P. gyrina é 16,6080, mostrando que P. acuta se assemelha a P. fontinalis, e ambos os espécimes não se parecem com P. gyrina. P. acuta é uma espécie invasora e apresenta bioatividade, tornando-se uma candidata potente para substâncias bioativas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Snails , Introduced Species
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 814-821, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153402

ABSTRACT

Abstract Untreated sewage and industrial wastes from Faisalabad city are disposed to River Chenab through Chakbandi Main Drain (CMD). The present project is planned to investigate the effects of this freshwater pollution on the body of fish Ictalurus punctatus. The specimens of this fish species were collected upstream and downstream of the entrance of CMD into River Chenab. Fish gills, liver, kidney and muscles from dorsolateral regions of fish were subjected to histopathology. Farmed fish and fish from upstream areas were used as control. Fish collected from polluted experimental sites showed significant damage in selected organs. Gill tissues showed an abnormality in the form of an uplifting of the primary epithelium, fusion, vacuolation, hypertrophy, and necrosis. While liver tissues subjected to hepatocytes degeneration, necrosis, mitochondrial granular hepatocyte, and sinusoids dilation. Kidney tissues indicated increased bowmen space and constricted glomerulus and degenerated nephrons. Edema, necrosis, and atrophy were observed in muscle tissues of fish from polluted areas. Fish from the upstream area showed fused gill lamellae, inflammatory cell infiltration, hypertrophy and vacuolation in hepatocytes. Kidney tissues indicated the presence of nuclear tubular cells, destructive renal tubules, hemorrhage, and necrosis at tubular epithelium. Intra myofibril spaces were also observed in muscles. Specimens of control fish indicated no variation in gills, liver, kidney, and muscles. The present study revealed a strong correlation between the degree of tissue damage and environmental contamination. Present findings also compel global warnings to protect our water bodies and fish to rescue the human population.


Resumo O esgoto não tratado e os resíduos industriais da cidade de Faisalabad, no Paquistão, são descartados no Rio Chenab através do dreno principal de Chakbandi (CMD). O presente projeto busca investigar os efeitos dessa poluição de água doce no corpo de peixes Ictalurus punctatus. Os espécimes deste peixe foram coletados a montante e a jusante da entrada do CMD no Rio Chenab. Brânquias, fígado, rim e músculos das regiões dorsolaterais dos peixes foram submetidos à histopatologia. Peixes de criação e peixes de áreas a montante foram utilizados como controle. Peixes coletados em locais experimentais poluídos mostraram danos significativos em órgãos selecionados. Os tecidos branquiais mostraram uma anormalidade na forma de elevação do epitélio primário, fusão, vacuolação, hipertrofia e necrose. Observou-se que os tecidos hepáticos estão sujeitos a degeneração de hepatócitos, necrose, hepatócitos mitocondriais granulares e dilatação de sinusoides. Os tecidos renais indicaram aumento do espaço dos arqueiros, glomérulos contraídos e néfrons degenerados. Edema, necrose e atrofia foram observados nos tecidos musculares de peixes de áreas poluídas. Peixes da área a montante apresentaram lamelas branquiais fundidas, infiltração de células inflamatórias, hipertrofia e vacuolização em hepatócitos. Os tecidos renais indicaram a presença de células tubulares nucleares, túbulos renais destrutivos, hemorragia e necrose no epitélio tubular. Os espaços intramiofibrilas também foram observados nos músculos. Amostras de peixes controle não indicaram variação em brânquias, fígado, rim e músculos. O presente estudo revelou uma forte correlação entre o grau de dano tecidual e a contaminação ambiental. As descobertas atuais também constituem avisos globais para proteger nossos corpos d'água e peixes para resguardar a população humana.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Ictaluridae , Gills , Kidney , Liver , Muscles
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(4): 823-828, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142532

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study was conducted to assess water pollution by examining DNA fragmentation in selected fish organs (kidney, liver, gills, and muscle tissue) from Wallago attu, Sperata sarwari, Vulgaris vulgaris, and Labeo rohita collected from a known polluted section of the Chenab River, Pakistan, and from a control site. The fish were caught using a gill net and were assigned to three different weight groups (W1, W2, and W3) to study the degree of variation in DNA fragmentation in relation to body weight. In fish from the polluted site, DNA fragmentation was higher in kidney, liver, gills, and muscles, compared to the control. No significant DNA fragmentation was observed in fish collected from the control site. Highly significant (P < 0.01) relationship between body weight and DNA fragmentation was found in the organs of fish procured at the contaminated site. DNA fragmentation in body organs was found to be affected by the concentrations of lead, copper, nickel, and cadmium in W. attu, S. sarwari, L. rohita, and V. vulgarus harvested from Chenab River. DNA fragmentation in different freshwater fish species is therefore a reliable biomarker of water pollution.


Resumo Este estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a poluição da água examinando a fragmentação do DNA em órgãos de peixes selecionados (rim, fígado, brânquias e tecido muscular) de Wallago attu, Sperata sarwari, Vulgaris vulgaris e Labeo rohita coletados de uma conhecida área poluída do rio Chenab, Paquistão e de um local de controle. Os peixes foram capturados usando uma rede branquial e foram divididos em três grupos de pesos diferentes (W1, W2 e W3) para estudar o grau de variação na fragmentação do DNA em relação ao peso corporal. Nos peixes do local poluído, a fragmentação do DNA foi maior nos rins, fígado, brânquias e músculos, em comparação ao controle. Não foi observada fragmentação significativa do DNA em peixes coletados no local de controle. Relação altamente significativa (P <0,01) entre o peso corporal e a fragmentação do DNA foi encontrada nos órgãos dos peixes adquiridos no local contaminado. Verificou-se que a fragmentação do DNA nos órgãos do corpo é afetada pelas concentrações de chumbo, cobre, níquel e cádmio em W. attu, S. sarwari, L. rohita e V. vulgarus colhidos no rio Chenab. A fragmentação do DNA em diferentes espécies de peixes de água doce é, portanto, um biomarcador confiável da poluição da água.


Subject(s)
Animals , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Pakistan , Environmental Monitoring , Rivers , DNA Fragmentation , Gills
6.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-204864

ABSTRACT

Climate change is possibly the most significant environmental challenge and possess serious threats to sustainable development in the world and more so in developing countries. Impact of climate change affects ecosystems, water resources, food and health. To adapt to the change and overcome the threats of climate change several climate-resilient agro-technologies have been introduced under the National Innovations on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) Project. The present study was conducted in Lakhimpur District of Assam to measure the extent of adoption of the climate-resilient agro-technologies introduced under the NICRA Project by the participant and non-participant farmers. A total of 160 farmers, 80 NICRA participant farmers and 80 non-participant farmers were interviewed. Findings revealed that the majority of the participant farmers (68.75 per cent) had a medium extent of adoption followed by 17.50 per cent with a low extent of adoption of climate-resilient agro-technologies. Only 13.75 per cent of the participant farmers were found to have a high level of adoption of climate-resilient agro-technologies. Among the non-participant farmers, majority of them (75.00 per cent) had a low extent of adoption followed by 17.50 per cent with a medium extent of adoption of climate-resilient agro-technologies. Only a very small proportion of them (7.50 per cent) had a high extent of adoption of climate-resilient agro-technologies.

7.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(4): 667-672, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951598

ABSTRACT

Abstract Various bird pests caused severe economic losses to valuable crops and fruit orchards all over the world. Among the birds, house sparrow is also considered to cause heavy plunder, not only to seeds of crops but also seedlings especially in organic farming. In present study two bird repellents, methylanthranilate and anthraquinone tested against house sparrows on maize seeds and seedlings in aviary conditions. Trial group in aviary-I, the treated maize seeds and seedlings with different doses of both bird repellents, control group in aviary-II, untreated seeds and seedlings were provided for three hours in the early morning. In each aviary, two closed circuit cameras were also installed to monitor the behavioral responses against different concentrations of both chemical repellents. Statistical analysis showed that there existed highly significant (P<0.01) variations among the trial and control groups for seeds and seedlings. By comparing both repellents, significant (P<0.05) differences were detected and anthraquinone showed better efficacy when compared to methylanthranilate, but in maize seedlings both repellents equal repellent properties. Non-significant (P>0.05) differences were observed in different grading of both natural chemical repellents for maize seeds while significant (P<0.05) variations were noticed for maize seedlings when provided to sparrows. By videotaped behavior sparrows presented manifest head juddering and feather upsetting activities by consumption of treated seeds and seedlings with higher concentrations of both natural bird repellents.


Resumo Várias pragas de aves causaram graves perdas econômicas para cultivos valiosos e pomares de frutas em todo o mundo. Entre os pássaros, o pardal da casa também é considerado um grande saqueo, não só para as sementes das culturas, mas também para as mudas, especialmente na agricultura orgânica. No presente estudo, dois repelentes de aves, metilantranilato e antraquinona testados contra pardais de casa em sementes de milho e mudas em condições de aviário. O grupo de ensaio em aviary-I, as sementes de milho tratadas e as mudas com diferentes doses de repelentes de aves, grupo de controle em aviary-II, sementes não tratadas e mudas foram fornecidas por três horas no início da manhã. Em cada aviário, duas câmeras de circuito fechado também foram instaladas para monitorar as respostas comportamentais contra diferentes concentrações de ambos os repelentes químicos. A análise estatística mostrou que existiam variações altamente significativas (P<0,01) entre os grupos de teste e controle para sementes e mudas. Ao comparar os dois repelentes, detectaram-se diferenças significativas (P<0,05) e a antraquinona apresentou maior eficácia quando comparada ao metilantranilato, mas em mudas de milho, ambos os repelentes são iguais às propriedades repelentes. As diferenças não significantes (P>0,05) foram observadas em diferentes classificações de repelentes químicos naturais para sementes de milho, enquanto as variações significativas (P<0,05) foram observadas para as mudas de milho quando fornecidas aos pardais. Por um comportamento gravado em video, os pardais apresentaram manifestações de cabeça e vibrações de penas por consumo de sementes tratadas e mudas com maiores concentrações de repelentes de aves naturais.


Subject(s)
Animals , Seeds/drug effects , Anthraquinones/pharmacology , Zea mays/drug effects , Seedlings/drug effects , Feeding Behavior/drug effects , ortho-Aminobenzoates/pharmacology , Seeds/growth & development , Pest Control/methods , Agrochemicals/pharmacology , Crops, Agricultural , Zea mays/growth & development , Seedlings/growth & development , Sparrows , Animals, Wild
8.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 59: e16150275, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-951355

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of heavy metals on an important tissue of two fish species Cyprinus carpio and Wallago attu, sampled from the Indus river, Mianwali District, Pakistan. The concentration of selected heavy metals Fe, Cr, Cu, and in gills, muscles, kidney and liver was compared with an International standard of food fish. The overall metal concentrations among different weight categories in C. carpio were in the order of Fe > Cu > Cr >. In W. attu the overall accumulation of these metals were, in order of Fe > Cu > Cr > Pb The order of accumulation of metals in gills and muscle of C. carpio was Fe > Cr > Pb > Cu; kidney and muscles of W. attu was Fe > Cr > Cu > Pb; liver Fe > Cu > Cr > Pb. An increasing trend of concentration of iron, copper, chromium and lead occurred with an increase in weight of C. carpio and W. attu. There was a significant difference in the accumulation of heavy metals in different organs of both species (p<0.01). All studied heavy metals except Cr were within permissible limits described by various international agencies like WHO, FAO and FEPA in edible tissues of C. carpio and W. attu.

9.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-168315

ABSTRACT

Background- Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a genetically transmitted disease with diverse natural history for which the potential to produce adverse consequences has been emphasized. However, the possibility of this disease remaining clinically dormant for many years has not been as widely appreciated. Certainly, the clinical recognition of previously undiagnosed patients with HCM may be advantageous by permitting risk stratification for sudden cardiac death or for timely pharmacologic therapy when symptoms intervene. The purpose of this study was to assess the disease pattern and the extent to which hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) exists undetected in a suspected group of population never diagnosed to have any cardiovascular disease, referred from the primary care facilities to one of the largest tertiary level hospital of Bangladesh. Methods-We prospectively conducted an echocardiographic survey in 3648 cases between 19-03-2009 to 03-08-2010 (18 months) in the cardiac centre of Combined Military Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Results- A total of 3648 cases referred by primary care physicians underwent echocardiogram either to confirm a new diagnosis or to exclude obvious cardiovascular abnormalities. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was identified in 148 patients (4.06%) who was not known have any cardiac disease before. At diagnosis, age ranged from 20 to 83 years (mean 52.19) with male gender preponderance (85.81%). Ninety eight patients (67%) had no functional limitation and the remaining fifty patients reported with symptoms mostly giving multiple responses like chest pain (39.2%), palpitation (18.9%), dyspnoea (22.3%), unusual fatigability (16.9%) and syncope (6.8%). Twelve patients had strong suspicion of familial predisposition depending on the symptomatology of the familial tree but were confirmed only in 03 cases by echocardiography. Basal left ventricular outflow obstruction (gradients 20 to 76 mm Hg) was evident in 14 patients (9.45%). Relatively variable phenotypic expression of the disease was substantiated by diffuse thickening of left ventricular wall occurring more commonly than localized distributed hypertrophy (56.08% vs. 43.94%, respectively). Electrocardiogram was abnormal in almost 95% of cases and typical pattern of left ventricular hypertrophy was observed in 25.68% cases. Conclusion -This prospectively assembled data show that HCM cases may remain asymptomatic, clinically dormant and undetectable for many years (often to advance ages) in our community. The actual prevalence of the disease in our community needs to be ascertained which might exceed the prevalence mentioned in the text books.

10.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-167259

ABSTRACT

Hyperproinsulinemia is commonly present in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. The present study was undertaken to investigate the proinsulin level in Bangladeshi IGT subjects and to explore its association with insulin resistance. This observational study was conducted under a case-control design with IGT subjects (n=50) and controls (n=44). IGT was diagnosed following the WHO Study Group Criteria. Serum glucose was measured by glucose-oxidase method, serum lipid profile by enzymatic method and serum insulin and serum proinsulin were measured by ELISA method. Insulin secretory capacity (HOMA%B) and insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S) were calculated from fasting serum glucose and fasting serum insulin by homeostasis model assessment. The study subjects were age- and BMI- matched. Mean (±SD) age (yrs) of the control and IGT subjects were 40±6 and 40±5 respectively (p=0.853). Mean (±SD) BMI of the control and IGT subjects were 23±3 and 22±2 respectively (p=0.123). Fasting glucose was not significantly higher in IGT subjects, but serum glucose 2 hours after 75 gm glucose load was significantly higher in IGT subjects. Median (Range) value of fasting serum glucose (mmol/l) of control and IGT subjects were 5.3 (3.8-6) and 5.2 (4-12) respectively; (p=0.297). Median (Range) value of serum glucose (mmol/l) 2 hours after 75 gm glucose load of control and IGT subjects were 6.1 (3-7.8) and 7.9 (5- 21) respectively; (p=0.001). Fasting TG was significantly higher in IGT subjects and LDL-c was significantly lower in IGT subjects. Serum Total cholesterol and HDL-c were not significantly different between the IGT and control subjects. Median (Range) value of fasting serum TG (mg/dl) of control and IGT subjects were 119 (51-474) and 178 (82-540) respectively; (p=0.001). Median (Range) value of fasting serum T chol (mg/dl) of control and IGT subjects were 180 (65-272) and 186 (140-400) respectively; (p=0.191). Median (Range) value of fasting serum HDL-C (mg/dl) of control and IGT subjects were 29 (19-45) and 31 (15-78) respectively; (p=0.914). Median (Range) value of fasting serum LDL-C (mg/dl) of control and IGT subjects were 117(29-201) and 111(41- 320) respectively; (p=0.001). Fasting serum proinsulin was significantly higher in IGT subjects. Median (Range) value of fasting serum proinsulin (pmol/l) of control and IGT subjects were 9.2(1.8-156) and 17(3-51) respectively; (p=0.001). Insulin secretory capacity (HOMA%B) was higher but insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S) was significantly lower in case of IGT subjects. Median (Range) value of HOMA%B of control and IGT subjects were 97(46-498) and 164(17-300) respectively; (p=0.001). Median (Range) value of HOMA%S of control and IGT subjects were 68(19-270) and 39(15-110) respectively (p=0.001). In multiple regression analysis a significant negative association was found between fasting proinsulin and insulin sensitivity (p=0.037). The data led to the following conclusions: a) Insulin resistance is the predominant defect in Bangladeshi IGT subjects. b) Basal proinsulin level is significantly increased in IGT subjects. c) Insulin resistance is negatively associated with serum proinsulin in IGT subjects.

11.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-167255

ABSTRACT

Risk of coronary heart disease and other forms of atherosclerotic vascular diseases, rises with plasma cholesterol concentration and in particular with the rise of ratio of total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) cholesterol. A much weaker correlation also exists with plasma triglyceride concentration. Extensive large-scale randomized trials have shown that lowering total cholesterol and LDL-C concentrations reduces the risk of cardiovascular events including death, myocardial infarction and stroke and reduces the need for revascularisation.This cross-sectional analytical study was designed to observe association between lipid profile level with chronic ischaemic heart disease and the study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka from July 2010 to June 2011. A total of 50 cases were selected purposively according to the selection criteria from the patients admitted in the Department of Cardiology, Dhaka Medical College Hospital with chronic ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Diagnosed IHD patients were taken as cases and 50 age- & sex- matched healthy subjects were taken as controls. Serum TC, TG, LDL-C & HDL-C were measured in all study subjects.The mean±SD of serum TC, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C concentration in cases were 314.54±73.72 mg/dl, 288.04±60.45 mg/dl, 36.02±4.12 mg/dl, and 178.62±22.7 mg/dl respectively and in controls were 174.64±18.97 mg/dl, 119.42±12.47 mg/dl, 43.04±2.58 mg/dl & 126.28±11.45 mg/dl respectively. Serum Total Cholesterol, TG & LDL-C were found to be significantly higher in cases than that of controls. Serum HDL-C was found to be significantly lower in cases than that of controls. The present study reveals that the patients with chronic ischemic heart disease is accociated with significantly higher levels of serum TC, TG and LDL-C whereas HDL-C was found to be lower in IHD patients.

12.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-167254

ABSTRACT

Majority of the patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) are on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) in Bangladesh. Dialysis patients are at high risk for contracting blood borne infection including hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibody response of hepatitis C virus infection in patients on MHD by detecting different viral markers in blood. A total of 88 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD)were recruited from BIRDEM and BSMMU during the period from June 2006 to June 2007. Of them 63 patients on MHD and 25 predialysis patients were taken as cases and controls respectivly. Anti-HCV antibody were positive in 38% of dialysis patients but none of the controls were positive for Anti-HCV. When HCV positive MHD patients (38%) were compared to HCV negative MHD patients (62%), it showed that HCV positive patients had longer duration of dialysis (24±25 vs 9±6 months, p<0.001), increased number blood transfusions (29±34 vs 10±9 units, p<0.004) and elevated serum alanine aminotransferase level (35±23 vs 20±9 U/L, p=0.001). Implementing comprehensive infection control program by routine screening of the CKD patients, safe blood transfusion program, reducing transfusion of blood by use of erythropoietin and proper disinfection and cleaning of hemodialysis units may reduce the infection by HCV Virus.

13.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-167240

ABSTRACT

C-reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive marker of inflammation, and elevated levels have been associated with future risk of myocardial infarction (MI). Even elevated CRP in healthy men and women can predict the future coronary events. This cross-sectional analytical study was undertaken to observe association between high hsCRP level with chronic ischaemic heart disease and was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka from July 2010 to June 2011. A total 50 cases were selected purposively according to the selection criteria form the patients admitted in the Department of Cardiology, Dhaka Medical College Hospital with chronic ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Diagnosed IHD patients were taken as cases; age- and sex-matched 50 healthy subjects were taken as controls. Serum hsCRP and serum TC, TAG, LDL-C and HDL-C were measured in all study subjects. The mean serum hsCRP concentration in cases and controls were 11.22±7.64 mg/dl and 1.72±0.98 mg/dl respectively. Serum hsCRP, Total Cholesterol, TAG and LDL-C were significantly higher in cases than control subjects. Serum HDL-C was significantly lower in cases than control subjects. The present study reveals that the patients of chronic ischemic heart disease have been found to have close association of increased level of hsCRP.

14.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-172694

ABSTRACT

In the absence of an effective treatment in modern medicine, efforts are being made to find suitable herbal remedies for hepatitis. This prospective experimental study was conducted in the department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka from July 2006 to June 2007 to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of Carica papaya against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity and compared it with that of vitamin-E. Total 36 adult rats were used and they were divided into six equal groups namely A, B, C, D, E and F. All the rats were fed with normal diet and 2ml distilled water orally for 7 days. In addition, Group D received Carica papaya extract, Group E received olive oil and Group F received vitamin E orally per day for 7 days. On the seventh day CCl4 was administered to all the rats except Group A and was sacrificed on 8th day of experiment. Serum bilirubin, alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase and hepatic histopathology were done thereafter. Carica papaya and vitamin E showed significant hepatoprotection against CCL4 induced hepatotoxicity but Carica papaya showed more significant changes in ALP level than vitamin E. Prevention of hepatic necrosis and fatty degeneration were also observed in Carica papaya and vitamin E pretreated rats but there is no significant difference.

15.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-167373

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess trends of smoking and the relation between smoking behavior of undergraduate medical students and their attitudes towards smoking and treatment of tobacco dependence. Methodology: Data was collected from the medical students of Rajshahi Islami Bank Medical College, Bangladesh. A total of 200 male students completed the anonymous questionnaire. Response rate was 80.0%. Results: Of the respondents 20% and 80% were regular smokers and non-smokers respectively. Only 32.50 % of the regular smokers smoke less than ten cigarettes, 30.0 % smoke ten to twenty cigarettes whereas, 37.50% smoke more than 20 cigarettes per day. 25% started smoking at nineteen years of age, 22.5% started before this age and 27.5% and 25.0 % started at twenty and twenty one years of ages respectively. 70% started smoking just for pleasure. Only 29.72% smoke light cigarettes whereas 33.78% and 36.48% smoke medium and heavy cigarettes respectively. Almost 75% smokers agreed with the fact that smoking is harmful to health and 45% realized that their cigarette smoke bother others and again 70% of smokers have attempted to quit smoking but failed and 42.5% still wanted to quit smoking. About 55% of smokers complained that they suffer from chronic cough, 60% were lacking concentration in their studies and 45% felt that they were short of memory. Conclusions: Attitudes of smokers were significantly different on most items of tobacco, but knowledge of tobacco problem in the undergraduate medical students was not sufficient. Teaching about tobacco and related issues remains essential in the undergraduate medical course.

16.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-167371

ABSTRACT

Acute Glomerulonephritis (AGN) in children is common in our country and possesses a significant hospital load. AGN is principally a disease of children were poverty, overcrowding and poor hygiene are prevailing. It is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Objective : To see the immediate outcome of the children with AGN. Materials and Mithods: Sixty two cases of AGN were enrolled in this study. All cases were collected from paediatric department of Sir Salimullah Medical College (SSMC) and Mitford Hospital, Dhaka during the period of September 2000 to November 2001. A thorough history were taken and chemical examination were carried out and the patient were observed during hospitalization and after discharge and recorded in a preformed questionnaire. Results: Total number of cases were sixty two. Eighty one percent were between 6 years to 12 years of age with male predominance. Most of then came from poor socioecononic status (81%). All patients had generalized edema. Eighty one percent had reduced micturation, 29% had gross haematuria, 13% ascitis, 3% anuria, 2% had epistaxis with convulsion and coma. Eighty four percent had hypertension, 50% had infected scabies. Urinary RBC was found in 93.55% cases and RBC cast in 70-96% cases, blood urea over 40 mg/dl in 30.64% patient and serum creatinine over 1.0 mg/dl in 9.88% patients.

17.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-167370

ABSTRACT

Aims: The morphological study was aimed to finedout the ovarian weight in dif ferent age group in Bangladeshi people to increase the knowledge regarding weight variation in our population. Subject & Methods: This cross - sectional study was carried out on Sixty two postmortem tissue contain ovary and fallopian tube along with surrounding structures were collected from 62- female cadaver of different age group by block dissection and fixed in 10% formal saline solution. Gross and fine dissections were carried out to see the morphological parameter of weight of the ovary in different age groups. In the present study, findings were compared with findings of the other researchers. Results: Maximum mean weight of the right ovary is found in this study in group C (46-80) years is 5.78gm and minimum weight is found in group A (2-13 years ) is 3.36gm .But incase left ovary Maximum in group B(14-45)years is 5.01 and minimum group a (2-13)is 2.72gm. statistatical analysis significant different between two groups was calculated by using students "T"Test. In the present study it is observed that the weight of the ovary is not equal on both side of same individual.

18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-171618

ABSTRACT

Background: The mesentery of the appendix extends almost to the appendicular tip along the whole tube or may not be to the tip. The mesoappendix has a free border which carries the blood supply to the organ. Failure of the mesoappendix to reach the tip probably reduces the vascularization of the tip of the organ making it more liable to become gangrenous and hence early perforation occurs during inflammation. Objective: This cross sectional study was carried out to advance our knowledge regarding the extent of mesoappendix in Bangladeshi people and also to find out the variations in the anatomical positions of the vermiform appendix in Bangladeshi population and their distribution according to the sex. Methods: A total of 100 (60 male and 40 female) specimens of vermiform appendix were collected of different age and sex during postmortem examination in the morgue of Mymensingh Medical College from July 2006 to June 2007. Data was collected by convenient sampling technique. Results: In this study pelvic position of the vermiform appendix were common in both sexes. The two thirds extension of mesoappendix was found in 45% cases where as in pelvic position it was 26 (14 male and 12 female) cases. Half and whole extension of mesoappendix were found in 31% and 24% cases respectively. Among half extension of mesoappendix, retrocaecal position were found to be more (12) than other positions. In whole extension of vermiform appendix pelvic position were found to be common (16) than others. Conclusion: This study provides certain basic information of extent of mesoappendix of vermiform appendix of Bangladeshi population which is responsible for vascularization of the organ and severity during inflammation.

19.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-171591

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to establish the standard weight of the normal spleen in Bangladeshi people. One hundred and twenty human cadavers of which eighty seven male and thirty three female were dissected to remove spleen with associated structures. Collected specimens were tagged with specific identification number, and divided into five groups according to age, sex and height of the individual. Gross and fine dissections were carried out after fixing the specimen in 10% formal saline solution. Weight of the spleen was measured by analytical balance and expressed in gram and findings of the study were compared with the findings of national and global studies. This cross sectional descriptive study was carried out in the Department of Anatomy of Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. In this study maximum mean weight of spleen was 86.35 gram in male and 85.33 gram in female in 31 – 45 years age group. Minimum mean weight of spleen was 47.37 gram in male and 38.83 gram in female up to 15 years age group. The weight of spleen increases with age of the individual. Mean weight of spleen in male was 73.43 gram, which was higher than the mean weight of female spleen (59.17 gram). According to height of individual the mean weight of spleen was maximum 84.32 gram in 165.01 to 180 cm height group and minimum in 54.87 gram in up to 120 cm height group which indicate that weight of the spleen increases with height of the individual. In conclusion, the weight of the spleen depends on the age, sex and body height of the individual.

20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-171588

ABSTRACT

This cross sectional descriptive morphological study was done to see the site of origin of cystic artery supplying the gallbladder in Bangladeshi people to increase the knowledge regarding variation anatomy in our population. Sixty post mortem tissue blocks containing liver and gallbladder along with surrounding structures were collected from 40 male and 20 female cadavers of different age groups and fixed in 10% formal saline solution. This study was carried out in the Department of Anatomy in Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh , from July 2007 to June 2008. Gross and fine dissections were carried out to study the different origin of cystic artery and its topographic relationship with adjacent structures. In the present study, findings were compared with the findings of Western researchers. In the present study, the so-called typical origin of the cystic artery from right hepatic artery was 90% and in 10% cases it was found to arise from other sources. Out of 10%, 3% arise from left hepatic artery, 3% from junction between right and left hepatic artery, 2% from hepatic artery proper and 2% from gastro duodenal artery.

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