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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918967

ABSTRACT

Proton Pump Inhibitors and Risk of Gastric Cancer: Population-based Cohort Study

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917544

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Curative treatment is challenging in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer and unresectable metastases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of short-course radiotherapy (RT) followed by systemic chemotherapy for patients with rectal cancer with mesorectal fascia (MRF) involvement and unresectable distant metastases. @*Methods@#The study included consecutive patients diagnosed as having metastatic mid-to-low rectal cancer treated with short-course RT followed by systemic chemotherapy for conversion radical or palliative surgery between 2014 and 2019 at Gil Medical Center. The patients had primary rectal tumors involving the MRF and unresectable distant metastases. The treatment strategies were determined in a multidisciplinary team discussion. @*Results@#Seven patients (five men and two women) underwent short-course RT (5 × 5 Gy) and preoperative systemic chemotherapy. The median age was 68 years (range, 46–84 years), and the median distance from the anal verge to the primary tumor was 6.0 cm (range, 2.0–9.0 cm). During the median follow-up period of 29.4 months, three patients underwent conversion radical surgery with R0 resection, two underwent palliative surgery, and two could not undergo surgery. No postoperative major morbidity or mortality occurred. The patients who underwent conversion complete radical surgery showed good long-term survival outcomes, with an overall survival time of 29.4–48.8 months and progression-free survival time of 14.7–41.1 months. @*Conclusion@#Short-course RT followed by systemic chemotherapy could provide patients with unresectable stage IV rectal cancer a chance to undergo to conversion radical surgery with good long-term survival outcomes.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917541

ABSTRACT

There have been several reports of complications of small bowel lymphoma, such as bleeding, obstruction, and perforation, often require emergency surgery. It is hardly showed complications of bleeding and wound dehiscence for diffuse large B cell lymphoma with distal ileum involvement, which needed urgent surgery and medical management. A 65-year-old man with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with distal ileum involvement experienced both intestinal bleeding and perforation during the course of treatment. As the patient was diagnosed with stage III disease, resection before chemotherapy was not considered due to the resulting delay in chemotherapy, which necessitated sufficient tissue healing. Chemotherapy is important when treating small bowel lymphoma, complications such as bleeding and perforation should always be considered for the treatment of small bowel lymphoma, and surgery is necessary in this situation. After surgery of the small bowel, subsequent chemotherapy could cause wound dehiscence and perforation; therefore, adequate recovery time should be given before chemotherapy.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892216

ABSTRACT

Background@#The frequencies of South Korean soldiers' depression and resulting suicide are increasing every year. Thus, this study aimed to develop and confirm the reliability and validity of a simple short form depression screening scale for soldiers. @*Methods@#This study was conducted as part of a 2013 research project named ‘The Epidemiological Study on the Prevalence of Depression in Military Service and a Search for High Risk Group Management.’ Clinical depression was diagnosed using the Korean version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and suicide risk was assessed through the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Furthermore, the Center for Epidemiological Studies for Depression Scale (CES-D), the Stress Response Inventory, and the Barret Impulsiveness Scale were employed. Of the 20 CES-D items, three of the most correlated items with clinical diagnosis were derived to form the short form scale.Analyses for internal consistency, concurrent validity, and factor analysis were implemented for its validation. We performed a receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis using a clinical diagnosis of depression as a gold standard to calculate the area under the curve (AUC) value, cut-off score, and corresponding sensitivity and specificity to that cut-off score. @*Results@#According to the results of the correlation analysis, 7, 18, and 4 were selected to be on our scale. The three-item scale was reliable with a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.720, and a factor was derived from the factor analysis. The ROC analysis showed a high discriminant validity, with an AUC value of 0.891. The sensitivity and specificity were 84.8% and 78.2%, and 71.7% and 91.6%, respectively, for each when the selected cut-off scores were 2 and 3, respectively. Depression screened through the scale when the cut-off score was 2 or 3 was significantly associated with suicidality, stress, and social support. @*Conclusion@#The depression screening questionnaire for Korean soldiers developed through this study demonstrated high reliability and validity. Since it comprises only three items, it can be utilized easily and frequently. It is expected to be employed in a large-scale suicide prevention project targeting military soldiers in the future; it will be beneficial in selecting high-risk groups for depression.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891013

ABSTRACT

Periodontitis and periimplantitis are caused as a result of dental biofilm formation. This biofilm is composed of multiple species of pathogens. Therefore, controlling biofilm formation is critical for disease prevention. To inhibit biofilm formation, sugars can be used to interrupt lectin-involving interactions between bacteria or between bacteria and a host. In this study, we evaluated the effect of D-Arabinose on biofilm formation of putative periodontal pathogens as well as the quorum sensing activity and whole protein profiles of the pathogens. Crystal violet staining, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy revealed that D-Arabinose inhibited biofilm formation of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Tannerella forsythia. D-Arabinose also significantly inhibited the activity of autoinducer 2 of F. nucleatum and the expression of representative bacterial virulence genes.Furthermore, D-Arabinose treatment altered the expression of some bacterial proteins. These results demonstrate that D-Arabinose can be used as an antibiofilm agent for the prevention of periodontal infections.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899920

ABSTRACT

Background@#The frequencies of South Korean soldiers' depression and resulting suicide are increasing every year. Thus, this study aimed to develop and confirm the reliability and validity of a simple short form depression screening scale for soldiers. @*Methods@#This study was conducted as part of a 2013 research project named ‘The Epidemiological Study on the Prevalence of Depression in Military Service and a Search for High Risk Group Management.’ Clinical depression was diagnosed using the Korean version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and suicide risk was assessed through the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Furthermore, the Center for Epidemiological Studies for Depression Scale (CES-D), the Stress Response Inventory, and the Barret Impulsiveness Scale were employed. Of the 20 CES-D items, three of the most correlated items with clinical diagnosis were derived to form the short form scale.Analyses for internal consistency, concurrent validity, and factor analysis were implemented for its validation. We performed a receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis using a clinical diagnosis of depression as a gold standard to calculate the area under the curve (AUC) value, cut-off score, and corresponding sensitivity and specificity to that cut-off score. @*Results@#According to the results of the correlation analysis, 7, 18, and 4 were selected to be on our scale. The three-item scale was reliable with a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.720, and a factor was derived from the factor analysis. The ROC analysis showed a high discriminant validity, with an AUC value of 0.891. The sensitivity and specificity were 84.8% and 78.2%, and 71.7% and 91.6%, respectively, for each when the selected cut-off scores were 2 and 3, respectively. Depression screened through the scale when the cut-off score was 2 or 3 was significantly associated with suicidality, stress, and social support. @*Conclusion@#The depression screening questionnaire for Korean soldiers developed through this study demonstrated high reliability and validity. Since it comprises only three items, it can be utilized easily and frequently. It is expected to be employed in a large-scale suicide prevention project targeting military soldiers in the future; it will be beneficial in selecting high-risk groups for depression.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898717

ABSTRACT

Periodontitis and periimplantitis are caused as a result of dental biofilm formation. This biofilm is composed of multiple species of pathogens. Therefore, controlling biofilm formation is critical for disease prevention. To inhibit biofilm formation, sugars can be used to interrupt lectin-involving interactions between bacteria or between bacteria and a host. In this study, we evaluated the effect of D-Arabinose on biofilm formation of putative periodontal pathogens as well as the quorum sensing activity and whole protein profiles of the pathogens. Crystal violet staining, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy revealed that D-Arabinose inhibited biofilm formation of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Tannerella forsythia. D-Arabinose also significantly inhibited the activity of autoinducer 2 of F. nucleatum and the expression of representative bacterial virulence genes.Furthermore, D-Arabinose treatment altered the expression of some bacterial proteins. These results demonstrate that D-Arabinose can be used as an antibiofilm agent for the prevention of periodontal infections.

8.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2021028-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898315

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#We aimed to explore trends in the prevalence and management of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia in Korean adults from 1998 to 2018 using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). @*METHODS@#The study participants included 79,753 individuals aged ≥ 30 years who had participated in the health examination and health interview of the first (1998) to the seventh (2016-2018) KNHANES. The prevalence and management as well as annual percent change (APC) in chronic diseases were analyzed using SAS and the Joinpoint software program. @*RESULTS@#The prevalence of obesity in men significantly increased from 26.8% in 1998 to 44.7% in 2018 (APC= 1.9, p< 0.001), whereas that in women decreased slightly from 30.5% in 1998 to 28.3% in 2018 (APC= -0.5, p< 0.001). The prevalence of hypertension in men was 33.2% in 2018, with no significant change, whereas that in women slightly decreased to 23.1% in 2018 (APC= -0.9, p< 0.001). The prevalence of diabetes in men increased slightly from 10.5% in 2005 to 12.9% in 2018 (APC= 1.6, p< 0.001), whereas that in women remained at approximately 8%, with no significant change. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia in both men and women increased 3-fold in 2018 (20.9% in men [APC = 8.2, p < 0.001] and 21.4% in women [APC= 7.1, p< 0.001]) compared to that in 2005. The awareness rate, treatment rate, and control rate of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia increased 2-3 fold. Regarding diabetes, the treatment rate increased, but the control rate did not change. @*CONCLUSIONS@#Over the past 20 years, the prevalence of obesity (in men), diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia has increased and management indicators, such as the awareness rate, treatment rate, and control rate of chronic diseases, have improved continuously.

9.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2021028-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890611

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#We aimed to explore trends in the prevalence and management of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia in Korean adults from 1998 to 2018 using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). @*METHODS@#The study participants included 79,753 individuals aged ≥ 30 years who had participated in the health examination and health interview of the first (1998) to the seventh (2016-2018) KNHANES. The prevalence and management as well as annual percent change (APC) in chronic diseases were analyzed using SAS and the Joinpoint software program. @*RESULTS@#The prevalence of obesity in men significantly increased from 26.8% in 1998 to 44.7% in 2018 (APC= 1.9, p< 0.001), whereas that in women decreased slightly from 30.5% in 1998 to 28.3% in 2018 (APC= -0.5, p< 0.001). The prevalence of hypertension in men was 33.2% in 2018, with no significant change, whereas that in women slightly decreased to 23.1% in 2018 (APC= -0.9, p< 0.001). The prevalence of diabetes in men increased slightly from 10.5% in 2005 to 12.9% in 2018 (APC= 1.6, p< 0.001), whereas that in women remained at approximately 8%, with no significant change. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia in both men and women increased 3-fold in 2018 (20.9% in men [APC = 8.2, p < 0.001] and 21.4% in women [APC= 7.1, p< 0.001]) compared to that in 2005. The awareness rate, treatment rate, and control rate of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia increased 2-3 fold. Regarding diabetes, the treatment rate increased, but the control rate did not change. @*CONCLUSIONS@#Over the past 20 years, the prevalence of obesity (in men), diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia has increased and management indicators, such as the awareness rate, treatment rate, and control rate of chronic diseases, have improved continuously.

10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(2): e9944, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142581

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to inhibit adipogenic differentiation by transfecting two growth factors, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB) and bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP-2), into modified rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs) and then compounded with platelet-rich plasma (PRP). To achieve rBMSCs, the osteoporosis model of rats was established, and then the rBMSCs from the rats were isolated and identified. Co-transfection of rBMSCs with PDGF-BB-GFP and BMP-2 and detection of PDGF-BB/BMP-2 expression in transfected BMSCs was assessed by qRT-PCR and western blot, respectively. Moreover, the effect of the two growth factors transfection of rBMSCs on adipogenic differentiation was evaluated by oil red O staining and western blot, respectively. Finally, construction of the two growth factors transfection of rBMSCs compounded with PRP and detection of adipogenic differentiation were assessed by oil red O staining, CCK-8, and western blot, respectively. In vitro studies revealed that the two growth factors transfection of rBMSCs compounded with PRP promoted cell viability and inhibited adipogenic differentiation and could be promising for inhibiting adipogenic differentiation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Cell Differentiation , Adipose Tissue/cytology , Platelet-Rich Plasma , Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2/genetics , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Becaplermin/genetics , Transfection , Cells, Cultured
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915577

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The aim of this study was to identify risk and protective factors of suicidality among Korean military officers. @*Methods@#This study was conducted on 3162 military officers. Data were collected by online survey after obtaining informed consent. Demographic characteristics, depression, anxiety, suicidality, social support, stress, and attitude toward suicide were evaluated using structured instruments and self-report questionnaires. Suicidality was defined as having a suicidal idea, a suicide plan, or attempting suicide. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression to investigate associations between potential risk and protective factors and suicidality. @*Results@#Depression (odds ratio [OR]=16.313, 95% confidence interval [CI]=10.028–26.539), anxiety (OR=14.377, 95% CI=8.680–23.812), and stress (OR=8.116, 95% CI=4.637–14.207) were positively associated with suicidality. On the other hand, good social networks and an unaccepting attitude toward suicide were negatively associated with suicidality (OR=0.131, 95% CI=0.072–0.240). No significant correlation was observed between living status and suicidality (OR=0.991, 95% CI=0.598–1.642). @*Conclusion@#Depression, anxiety, and stress were found to be risk factors of suicidality among Korean military officers. In contrast, good social networks and unaccepting attitudes toward suicide acted as protective factors. Hence, preventive interventions that place focus on risk and protective factors should be developed and implemented to mitigate suicidality.

12.
Mood and Emotion ; (2): 90-99, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918508

ABSTRACT

Background@#The study examined the prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among registrants of public community healthcare centers and compared between the characteristics of mental and general healthcare center (GHC) registrants. @*Methods@#The study measured lifetime suicidal behaviors, psychosocial variables, psychiatric comorbidities, and suicide related factors. @*Results@#A total of 132 (73.7%) and 126 (42.3%) mental and GHC registrants, respectively, reported a history of suicidal ideation; whereas 64 (35.8%) and 29 (9.7%) of mental and GHC registrants, respectively, reported a history of suicidal attempts. Scores of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) for both suicidal ideation groups were above the severe level, although only 2% of GHC group recognized their diagnoses of depressive disorders. @*Conclusion@#The study observed high suicidal risk among the mental and GHC registrants. High BDI scores and unevaluated depression under score the need for screening and provision of appropriate early interventions in public community healthcare centers.

13.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831098

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We report nationwide data on the current status of laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC) in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#Nationwide data of patients who underwent surgery for CRC from 2013 to 2018 were obtained from the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service database. Data and trends of laparoscopy use for colorectal resection over six years were examined. @*Results@#In Korea, a total of 117,320 patients underwent surgical resection for CRC from 2013 to 2018. The proportion of laparoscopic resection increased from 64.9% in 2013 to 78.5% in 2018. The rate of laparoscopic resection for colon cancer increased from 64.7% in 2013 to 77.4% in 2018. For rectal cancer, the rate of laparoscopic resection increased from 65.4% to 81.6%. Males accounted for 59.8% of all patients, but females surpassed males at over 80 years of age. The age of peak incidence was in the 60s for males and in the 70s for females. A steady increase in the number of patients undergoing surgery for CRC was observed over 80 years of age. @*Conclusion@#The laparoscopic penetration rate for CRC in Korea continued to increase annually and reached 78.5% in 2018.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811198

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We investigated the expression of the N-myc and STAT interactor (NMI) protein in invasive ductal carcinoma tissue and estimated its clinicopathologic significance as a prognostic factor. The expression levels and prognostic significance of NMI were also analyzed according to the molecular subgroup of breast cancers.METHODS: Human NMI detection by immunohistochemistry was performed using tissue microarrays of 382 invasive ductal carcinomas. The correlation of NMI expression with patient clinicopathological parameters and prognostic significance was analyzed and further assessed according to the molecular subgroup of breast cancers. Moreover, in vitro experiments with 13 breast cancer cell lines were carried out. We also validated NMI expression significance in The Cancer Genome Atlas cohort using the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) database.RESULTS: Low NMI expression was observed in 190 cases (49.7%). Low NMI expression was significantly associated with the “triple-negative” molecular subtype (p < 0.001), high nuclear grade (p < 0.001), high histologic grade (p < 0.001), and advanced anatomic stage (p = 0.041). Patients with low NMI expression had poorer progression-free survival (p = 0.038) than patients with high NMI expression. Low NMI expression was not significantly associated with patient prognosis in the molecular subgroup analysis. In vitro, a reduction of NMI expression was observed in 8 breast cancer cell lines, especially in the estrogen receptor-positive and basal B type of triple-negative breast cancer molecular subgroups. The HPA database showed that low NMI expression levels were associated with a lower survival probability compared with that associated with high NMI expression (p = 0.053).CONCLUSION: NMI expression could be a useful prognostic biomarker and a potential novel therapeutic target in invasive ductal carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers, Tumor , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Ductal , Cell Line , Cohort Studies , Databases, Genetic , Disease-Free Survival , Down-Regulation , Estrogens , Genome , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , In Vitro Techniques , Prognosis , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
15.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2020016-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898287

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#This study examined the association between high risk of Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and online game genres used by adolescents. @*METHODS@#The data derived from the baseline data of the Internet user Cohort for Unbiased Recognition of gaming disorder in Early Adolescence. A total 1,532 middle school students who use online games included. The participants reported the names of the online games they used during the past year. Game genres were categorized into role playing games (RPGs), shooting, multiplayer online battle arena (MOBA), simulation, arcade, sports and action games. The risk of IGD was measured using the Internet Gaming Use-Elicited symptom Screen. The relationship between the experience of online game genre and high risk of IGD was analyzed using multiple logistic regression model. @*RESULTS@#The game time of a student was longer if he or she had an experience of RPGs, shooting games, MOBA games, simulation games, and action games. The direct and independent association between high risk of IGD in adolescents and the genres of RPGs, simulation games and MOBA were found to be odds ratios 1.52 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03 to 2.26); 1.59 (95% CI, 1.03 to 2.45); and 1.51 (95% CI, 1.03 to 2.21), respectively after adjusted the potential confounding variables and the use of other online game genres. @*CONCLUSIONS@#The present cross-sectional study has found an association between online game genres and the risk of IGD in adolescents attending a school. A cohort study should verify the causal association in future.

16.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2020016-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890583

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#This study examined the association between high risk of Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and online game genres used by adolescents. @*METHODS@#The data derived from the baseline data of the Internet user Cohort for Unbiased Recognition of gaming disorder in Early Adolescence. A total 1,532 middle school students who use online games included. The participants reported the names of the online games they used during the past year. Game genres were categorized into role playing games (RPGs), shooting, multiplayer online battle arena (MOBA), simulation, arcade, sports and action games. The risk of IGD was measured using the Internet Gaming Use-Elicited symptom Screen. The relationship between the experience of online game genre and high risk of IGD was analyzed using multiple logistic regression model. @*RESULTS@#The game time of a student was longer if he or she had an experience of RPGs, shooting games, MOBA games, simulation games, and action games. The direct and independent association between high risk of IGD in adolescents and the genres of RPGs, simulation games and MOBA were found to be odds ratios 1.52 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03 to 2.26); 1.59 (95% CI, 1.03 to 2.45); and 1.51 (95% CI, 1.03 to 2.21), respectively after adjusted the potential confounding variables and the use of other online game genres. @*CONCLUSIONS@#The present cross-sectional study has found an association between online game genres and the risk of IGD in adolescents attending a school. A cohort study should verify the causal association in future.

18.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836147

ABSTRACT

We often encounter patients complaining of shoulder pain after laparoscopic surgery. The pain mechanism is believed to be due to the diaphragmatic overstretching under pressure in a pneumoperitoneum, which causes referred pain to the shoulder, but the exact mechanism has not been clarified.

19.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836143

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Two-millimeter needlescopic instruments induce minimal damage to the abdominal wall and have excellent cosmetic benefits. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a laparoscopic intracorporeal suture using 2-mm instruments for pediatric inguinal hernia. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed 131 patients who underwent laparoscopic repair between March 2011 and February 2017. Three trocars were used: a 5-mm umbilical trocar for a needle holder and two 2-mm trocars for a camera and a grasper. The internal ring was closed with an intracorporeal purse-string suture. A telephone interview was conducted to confirm recurrence. @*Results@#In the 131 patients, 169 procedures were successfully performed. The ages ranged from 2 months to 14 years (mean, 52.5 months), and the mean body weight was 18.0 kg (range, 6.7~49 kg). The mean operating time was 42 minutes for the unilateral cases and 46 minutes for the bilateral inguinal hernia repairs. All the cases were completed laparoscopically without intraoperative complications. Herniotomy was not performed in all the patients except nine. A contralateral patent processus vaginalis was present in 27.3% (35/128) of the patients. During the mean follow-up period of 54.6 months, 3 recurrences (2.3%) were observed. Two recurrences were treated using laparoscopy and one using open herniorrhaphy. Hydrocele occurred in one male patient. No wound complications or umbilical hernias developed. No testicular atrophy was observed. @*Conclusion@#This study showed that laparoscopic intracorporeal internal ring suture using 2-mm instruments for pediatric inguinal hernia was technically feasible and safe, with excellent cosmetic results.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835185

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the distribution, side involvement, phenotype, and associated anomalies of Korean patients with craniofacial clefts (CFC). @*Methods@#The samples consisted of 38 CFC patients, who were treated at Seoul National University Dental Hospital during 1998–2018. The Tessier cleft type, sex, side involvement, phenotype, and associated anomalies were investigated using nonparametric statistical analysis. @*Results@#The three most common types were #7 cleft, followed by #0 cleft and #14 cleft. There was no difference between the frequency of male and female. Patients with #0 cleft exhibited nasal deformity, bony defect, and missing teeth in the premaxilla, midline cleft lip, and eye problems. A patient with #3 cleft (unilateral type) exhibited bilateral cleft lip and alveolus. All patients with #4 cleft were the bilateral type, including a combination of #3 and #4 clefts, and had multiple missing teeth. A patient with #5 cleft (unilateral type) had a posterior openbite. In patients with #7 cleft, the unilateral type was more prevalent than the bilateral type (87.0% vs. 13.0%, p < 0.001). Sixteen patients showed hemifacial microsomia (HFM), Goldenhar syndrome, and unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP). There was a significant match in the side involvement of #7 cleft and HFM (87.5%, p < 0.01). Patients with #14 cleft had plagiocephaly, UCLP, or hyperterorbitism. A patient with #30 cleft exhibited tongue tie and missing tooth. @*Conclusions@#Due to the diverse associated craniofacial anomalies in patients with CFC, a multidisciplinary approach involving a well-experienced cooperative team is mandatory for these patients.

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