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1.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 153-159, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918907

ABSTRACT

The present article demonstrates an unusual case of type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), focusing on the cause of deterioration in glycemic control and weight loss in a patient with pre-existing type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). A 67-year-old man was diagnosed with type 2 DM 23 years prior and presented with weight loss of approximately 6 kg over a period of 3 months and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of 9.1%. His carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) level was elevated to 158.54 U/mL (normal, 0~37 U/mL). Considering these findings, we needed to rule out hidden malignancy. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed diffuse swelling of the pancreas uncinated process. The serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) level was elevated to 2,418 mg/dL (normal, 700~1,600 mg/dL), and IgG4 level was elevated to 1,115.0 mg/dL (normal range, 3.9~86.4 mg/dL). This case highlights that AIP should be considered as a cause of significant weight loss and a deterioration in glycemic control in patients with DM. Furthermore, a pancreatic imaging study should be considered in clinical practice to differentiate pancreatic cancer and AIP.

2.
Asian Oncology Nursing ; : 15-23, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889514

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to examine knowledge, attitudes, performance, and barriers to pain management of nurses working in oncology settings. @*Methods@#This cross-sectional study was conducted on 222 nurses in five tertiary hospitals in Korea.The period of data collection was 1 September to 30 November 2018. Participants were surveyed using the Nurse Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (NKASRP), a pain management performance, and barriers questionnaire. The data were analyzed through independent t-test and One-way ANOVA, and the post-hoc test was conducted with the Scheffé test using the SPSS 23 program. @*Results@#According to the study, oncology nurses’ knowledge and attitudes to pain received a score of 26.4±3.77 (out of 41 points) and the performance received a score of 3.24±0.35 (out of 4 points). Among the barriers to pain management, time constraints were the most frequent medical staff-related factor, and reluctance to take opioids was the most frequent patient-related factor. In terms of factors related to the health care system, strict regulation of opioids was the most significant. There was a significant positive correlation between knowledge and attitude of pain management and performance of pain management. @*Conclusion@#Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that structured education programs to be developed and implemented to enhance knowledge, attitudes, and performance on pain.

3.
Asian Oncology Nursing ; : 15-23, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897218

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to examine knowledge, attitudes, performance, and barriers to pain management of nurses working in oncology settings. @*Methods@#This cross-sectional study was conducted on 222 nurses in five tertiary hospitals in Korea.The period of data collection was 1 September to 30 November 2018. Participants were surveyed using the Nurse Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (NKASRP), a pain management performance, and barriers questionnaire. The data were analyzed through independent t-test and One-way ANOVA, and the post-hoc test was conducted with the Scheffé test using the SPSS 23 program. @*Results@#According to the study, oncology nurses’ knowledge and attitudes to pain received a score of 26.4±3.77 (out of 41 points) and the performance received a score of 3.24±0.35 (out of 4 points). Among the barriers to pain management, time constraints were the most frequent medical staff-related factor, and reluctance to take opioids was the most frequent patient-related factor. In terms of factors related to the health care system, strict regulation of opioids was the most significant. There was a significant positive correlation between knowledge and attitude of pain management and performance of pain management. @*Conclusion@#Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that structured education programs to be developed and implemented to enhance knowledge, attitudes, and performance on pain.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896001

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder that usually follows an indolent clinical course. However, some patients show an aggressive clinical course leading to death. We explored the risk factors predicting poor prognosis in WM patients. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed 47 patients diagnosed with WM between 2000 and 2018 to explore risk factors predicting poor prognosis using various clinical and laboratory parameters and risk models including the International Prognostic Staging System for WM (IPSS-WM). @*Results@#Over a median follow-up duration of 80.4 months, 29 patients died. The main causes of death were disease progression, organ failure related to amyloidosis, and infection. The median overall survival (OS) was 55.1 months, and 14 patients, including three with amyloidosis, died within 2 years. Serum β2-microglobulin level higher than 4 mg/dL was significantly associated with poor OS. Accordingly, the IPSS-WM showed a significant association with poor prognosis compared with other risk models, and the low-risk group had better OS than intermediate- and high-risk groups. In the retrospective analysis using the results of targeted sequencing in two cases representing good and bad prognosis, different patterns of mutation profiles were observed, including mutations of MYD88, TP53, ARID1A, and JAK2 in a refractory case. @*Conclusions@#Serum β2-microglobulin could be a single biomarker strongly predictive of poor survival of WM patients, and the low-risk group of the IPSS-WM risk model including serum β2-microglobulin has better prognostic value than other risk models. Mutation analysis also might provide additional information to predict high-risk patients.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894889

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study compared maternal age at childbirth, the number of live births, and the weight of live births between Korean women and immigrant women using statistical data from the Republic of Korea for 2018. @*Methods@#The analysis was conducted using data from the Microdata Integrated Service of Statistics Korea (https://mdis.kostat.go.kr/index.do). @*Results@#Korean women and immigrant women showed a higher age at childbirth in 2018 than in 2008. The percentage of newborns of Korean women with a birth weight of less than 2.5 kg increased slightly for 3 consecutive years from 2016 to 2018, whereas for immigrant women, this percentage increased in 2017 compared to 2016 and then decreased again in 2018. Very low birth weight (less than 1.5 kg) became more common among immigrant women from 2016 to 2018. Birth at a gestational age of fewer than 37 weeks increased both among Korean and immigrant women from 2016 to 2018. In both groups, the percentage of women who had their first child within their first 2 years of marriage decreased from 2008 to 2018. @*Conclusion@#Immigrant women had higher birth rates than Korean women, while both groups showed an increasing trend in premature birth. Greater attention should be paid to the pregnancy and birth needs of immigrant women, and steps are needed to ensure health equity and access in order to prevent premature births. It is also necessary to identify factors that affect preterm birth and birth of very low birth weight infants among immigrant women in the future.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875227

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of nurse practice environment, coworker support, and work-life balance on job satisfaction for newly graduated nurses. @*Methods@#This study used a cross-sectional design, and the participants were 118 registered nurses who acquired license within the last 1 year and were working in hospitals. They completed questionnaires through online survey systems. Data were collected from June to July 2019 and were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, Pearson’s correlation coefficients, and multiple stepwise regression using IBM/SPSS 26.0 for Windows program. @*Results@#The mean job satisfaction was 2.66±0.70 points on a 5-point scale. Multiple stepwise regression revealed that factors affecting job satisfaction of nurses included age ( β=.18, p=.014), nurse practice environment (β=.28, p<.001), coworker support ( β=.26, p=.002), and work-life balance ( β=.29 p<.001), and these variables explained 39.1% of job satisfaction. @*Conclusion@#These findings indicate that it is necessary to enhance nurse practice environment, coworker support, and work-life balance to improve job satisfaction among newly graduated nurses. These results can be used to help nurse managers develop related policies and retention programs for newly graduated nurses.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875216

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of awareness of good death and end-of-life care attitudes on end-of-life care performance in long-term care hospital nurses. @*Methods@#This study used a cross-sectional study design. The participants were 147 nurses working at six long-term care hospitals with more than 200 beds in B city, South Korea. Data were collected using self-reported questionnaires, and analyzed with descriptive statistics, the t-test, analysis of variance, Pearson correlation coefficients, and multiple stepwise regression analysis using IBM/SPSS 26.0 for Windows. @*Results@#The participants’ awareness of good death, end-of-life care attitudes, and end-of-life care performance were positively correlated. The factors affecting end-of-life care performance were age, education level, awareness of good death, and end-of-life care attitudes; these variables explained 19.0% of end-of-life care performance. @*Conclusion@#In order to improve long term care hospital nurses’ end-of-life care performance, continuing education and training should be provided regarding awareness of good death and end-of-life care attitudes.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874147

ABSTRACT

Procalcitonin (PCT) is a useful bacterial infection biomarker with the potential for guiding antibiotic therapy. We evaluated the concordance of three automated PCT immunoassays: Kryptor (BRAHMS GmbH, Hennigsdorf, Germany), Atellica IM 1600 (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Munich, Germany), and Cobas e801 (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany). In 119 serum samples with a PCT concentration < 5.00 μg/L, Kryptor (reference assay) was compared with the other two immunoassays by Spearman’s rank correlation, regression analysis, and concordance at two antibiotic stewardship medical decision points: 0.25 and 0.50 μg/L. The Atellica IM 1600 and Cobas e801 results showed high correlations with those of Kryptor, with correlation coefficient (ρ) values of 0.97 and 0.99, respectively. However, negative biases were observed in both immunoassays (slope/y-intercept: 0.75/–0.00 for Atellica IM 1600; 0.88/–0.01 for Cobas e801). Atellica IM 1600 and Cobas e801 demonstrated excellent concordance with Kryptor at both medical decision points, with linearly weighted κ values of 0.90 and 0.92, respectively, despite discrepancies, which were more prominent at the 0.25 μg/L medical decision point. Based on these biases and discrepancies, the alternate use of different PCT immunoassays in repeat examinations is inadvisable. Standardization is required before comparing the results of different PCT immunoassays.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874055

ABSTRACT

Background@#Transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) is a conservative treatment for patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH). However, there are reports of various complications that can occur after TFESI; among these, paraplegia is a serious complication. Case: A 70-year-old woman who was unable to lie supine due to low back pain exacerbation during back extension underwent TFESI. After injection, there was pain relief and the patient was able to lie supine; however, paraplegia developed immediately. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed cauda equina syndrome (CES) due to nerve compression from L1–2 LDH. We determined that the patient's LDH was already severe enough to be considered CES and that the TFESI procedure performed without an accurate understanding of the patient's condition aggravated the disease. @*Conclusions@#It is important to accurately determine the cause of pain and disease state of a patient to establish a correct treatment plan before TFESI is performed.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903705

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder that usually follows an indolent clinical course. However, some patients show an aggressive clinical course leading to death. We explored the risk factors predicting poor prognosis in WM patients. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed 47 patients diagnosed with WM between 2000 and 2018 to explore risk factors predicting poor prognosis using various clinical and laboratory parameters and risk models including the International Prognostic Staging System for WM (IPSS-WM). @*Results@#Over a median follow-up duration of 80.4 months, 29 patients died. The main causes of death were disease progression, organ failure related to amyloidosis, and infection. The median overall survival (OS) was 55.1 months, and 14 patients, including three with amyloidosis, died within 2 years. Serum β2-microglobulin level higher than 4 mg/dL was significantly associated with poor OS. Accordingly, the IPSS-WM showed a significant association with poor prognosis compared with other risk models, and the low-risk group had better OS than intermediate- and high-risk groups. In the retrospective analysis using the results of targeted sequencing in two cases representing good and bad prognosis, different patterns of mutation profiles were observed, including mutations of MYD88, TP53, ARID1A, and JAK2 in a refractory case. @*Conclusions@#Serum β2-microglobulin could be a single biomarker strongly predictive of poor survival of WM patients, and the low-risk group of the IPSS-WM risk model including serum β2-microglobulin has better prognostic value than other risk models. Mutation analysis also might provide additional information to predict high-risk patients.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902593

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study compared maternal age at childbirth, the number of live births, and the weight of live births between Korean women and immigrant women using statistical data from the Republic of Korea for 2018. @*Methods@#The analysis was conducted using data from the Microdata Integrated Service of Statistics Korea (https://mdis.kostat.go.kr/index.do). @*Results@#Korean women and immigrant women showed a higher age at childbirth in 2018 than in 2008. The percentage of newborns of Korean women with a birth weight of less than 2.5 kg increased slightly for 3 consecutive years from 2016 to 2018, whereas for immigrant women, this percentage increased in 2017 compared to 2016 and then decreased again in 2018. Very low birth weight (less than 1.5 kg) became more common among immigrant women from 2016 to 2018. Birth at a gestational age of fewer than 37 weeks increased both among Korean and immigrant women from 2016 to 2018. In both groups, the percentage of women who had their first child within their first 2 years of marriage decreased from 2008 to 2018. @*Conclusion@#Immigrant women had higher birth rates than Korean women, while both groups showed an increasing trend in premature birth. Greater attention should be paid to the pregnancy and birth needs of immigrant women, and steps are needed to ensure health equity and access in order to prevent premature births. It is also necessary to identify factors that affect preterm birth and birth of very low birth weight infants among immigrant women in the future.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917755

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to identify factors influencing dementia-screening behaviors among community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults using the Korean Community Health Survey data in 2018. @*Methods@#This cross-sectional study included community-dwelling adults aged ≥50 years. We used data related to socio-demographic and health-related factors and subjective cognitive function. We conducted a chi-squared test and multiple logistic regression analysis with weighted analysis. @*Results@#Of 108,050 participants (men, 46.6%; ≥65 years old, 41.5%), only 13.4% (20,404 participants) performed dementia-screening. Using multiple logistic regression, we found that advanced age, female, and unemployed, having a low level of education, low monthly family income, and rural residence, no alcohol intake, no-smoking, hypertension, cognitive dysfunction, and awareness of the dementia helpline service center were positively associated with dementia-screening behaviors. @*Conclusions@#This study suggests the application of holistic approaches to improve dementia-screening behaviors among middle-aged and older adults considering their socioeconomic and health related conditions. Our findings highlight that government health programs should consider socio-economic status and awareness of dementia helpline services in designing dementia prevention programs.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916044

ABSTRACT

There is a dearth of Korean studies on dehydration, one of the health risks for adult women. This study analyzed the subjects of the 2016∼2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) to investigate the relationship between nutrient intake ratios and sedentary time in dehydrated women. Body mass index and waist circumference in the dehydrated group (DG) were significantly higher than the normal group (NG). Intake of other liquids in the DG was significantly higher than in the NG, but total water intake in the DG was significantly lower than in the NG. Compared to the 600 sedentary minutes or more per day group, the odds ratio of dehydration was significantly higher in the less than 300 sedentary minutes per day group (1.871 [95% CI: 1.579∼2.215], P<0.001). Compared to the drinking over 6.0 cups of water per day group, the odds ratio of dehydration was significantly higher in the 3 cups or fewer per day (OR [95% CI] is 1.198 times [1.019 to 1.408], P<0.05), and 6.0 cups or fewer group (OR [95% CI] is 1.162 times [1.018 to 1.326], P<0.05). The results of this study showed that the total water intake was relatively lower in the ≥600 sedentary minutes per day group compared to the 300 sedentary minutes per day group, making them more vulnerable to dehydration. The nutrient intake ratios were higher in the dehydration group than in the normal group. In conclusion, emphasis should be placed on the importance of hydration and nutrition education for adult women in the workplace.

14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915344

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#: This systematic review was conducted to identify which dyadic intervention could be implemented for heart failure patient–family caregiver dyads to improve patient and/or their family caregivers outcomes.Method : Eleven databases were searched from their inception to July, 2021. This review considered any randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effectiveness of intervention including heart failure patient-family caregiver dyads. Two reviewers independently evaluated the methodological quality using the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias and extracted details of the included studies. The studies included in this review were not suitable for meta-analysis and therefore the results were presented as a narrative summary. @*Results@#: Six studies including 900 dyads were included and mainly primary family caregiver of patients was spouse. Majority of dyadic intervention were focused on psychoeducational intervention excepting one study on mobile health intervention. All studies included in this review focused on patients’ outcomes compared to family caregivers’ outcomes and dyadic outcomes. Individual interventions improved quality of life among heart failure patients and their family caregivers in two articles. The overall quality of selected articles was low. @*Conclusions@#: This study provides moderate support for the use of a dyadic intervention to improve quality of life among heart failure patients and their family caregivers. More rigorous high-quality studies investigating interventions to meet the needs of patient and family caregivers in heart failure care are needed.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890331

ABSTRACT

BackgroundMetformin is widely marketed medication for the treatment of diabetes, but its pharmacological effect on diabetic peripheral neuropathy remains unclear. In this study, the effect of metformin on peripheral nerves in diabetic rats was investigated using diverse neuronal parameters of nerve fibers.MethodsRats were assigned to one of four groups (n=7 to 10 per group): normal, diabetes mellitus (DM), DM+metformin (100 mg/kg), and DM+alpha lipoic acid (ALA, 100 mg/kg). DM was induced by streptozotocin/high-fat diet (STZ/HFD). After 12 weeks, the sensory thresholds to mechanical and heat stimuli were assessed. Repeated sensory tests, immunofluorescence microscopic comparison of peripheral nerves, and biochemical blood analysis were performed after 24 weeks.ResultsBoth DM+metformin and DM+ALA groups showed similar trends to diverse sensory tests at 24 weeks compared to DM group although the degree of change were different according to the stimulated senses. There was no significant difference in the comparison of the intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) of peripheral nerves between the DM+metformin and DM+ALA groups (11.83±0.07 fibers/mm vs. 12.37±1.82 fibers/mm, respectively). Both groups showed preserved IENFD significantly compared with DM group (8.46±1.98 fibers/mm, PConclusionMetformin has beneficial pharmacological effects on the preservation of peripheral nerves in diabetic rats and its effects are comparable to those of ALA.

16.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 276-285, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832169

ABSTRACT

The area of endoscopic application has been continuously expanded since its introduction in the last century and the frequency of its use also increased stiffly in the last decades. Because gastrointestinal endoscopy is naturally exposed to diseased internal organs and contact with pathogenic materials, endoscopy mediated infection or disease transmission becomes a major concern in this field. Gastrointestinal endoscopy is not for single use and the proper reprocessing process is a critical factor for safe and reliable endoscopy procedures. What needed in these circumstances is a practical guideline for reprocessing the endoscope and its accessories which is feasible in the real clinical field to guarantee acceptable prevention of pathogen transmission. This guideline contains principles and instructions of the reprocessing procedure according to the step by step. And it newly includes general information and updated knowledge about endoscopy-mediated infection and disinfection. Multiple societies and working groups participated to revise; Korean Association for the Study of the Liver, the Korean Society of Infectious Diseases, Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research, the Korean Society of Gastroenterology, Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Cancer, Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases, Korean Pancreatobiliary Association, the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Nurses and Associates and Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Through this cooperation, we enhanced communication and established a better concordance. We still need more researches in this field and fill up the unproven area. And our guidelines will be renewed accordingly.

17.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836343

ABSTRACT

Dietary nitrate supplementation from green leafy vegetables and beetroot is involved in the ‘nitratenitrite- nitric oxide (NO) pathway’ and is reported to have important vascular impacts. This study evaluated the blood parameters and blood flow change subsequent to a raw juice diet program. The 28 subjects who voluntarily participated in the raw juice diet program at Sahmyook University were instructed to drink the juice composed of fruits and vegetables instead of partaking the usual meal, at a scheduled time daily. The study was approved by the research ethics council of the Sahmyook University (SYUIRB 2014-043). Evaluation of the participants after the required duration revealed decreased levels of soft lean mass (P<0.05), skeletal muscle mass (P<0.001), body fat mass (P<0.001), body mass index (P<0.001) and circulating levels of total cholesterol (P<0.001), triglycerides (P<0.05), HDL-cholesterol (P<0.01), LDL-cholesterol (P<0.01), and blood urea nitrogen (P<0.001). Conversely, circulating levels of creatinine (P<0.001), hemoglobin (P<0.001), and hematocrit (P<0.01) were increased after the intervention. The blood flow levels were also increased after the program (P<0.001). Our results indicate that a short-term raw juice diet contributes to the improvement of vascular blood flow and blood lipid parameters, and decreases the lean muscle mass related to dehydration.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899454

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to construct a model that describes the health related quality of life in working women with preschool children and to verify the goodness of fitness of the model. @*Methods@#The data were collected with a structured self-report questionnaire from 483 working women with preschool children. @*Results@#The modified model showed a reasonable fitness to the data. Social support, job satisfaction, parenting stress, sense of coherence and depression accounted for 78% of the health related quality of life in working women with preschool children. @*Conclusion@#This study suggests that the health related quality of life in working women with preschool children can be improved by reducing parenting stress and depression level, and by increasing social support, job satisfaction, and sense of coherence. Depression can also be managed by reducing parenting stress and by increasing job satisfaction and sense of coherence. Based on the results of this study, it is necessary to develop intervention programs to increase the health related quality of life or to decrease depression in working women.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898035

ABSTRACT

BackgroundMetformin is widely marketed medication for the treatment of diabetes, but its pharmacological effect on diabetic peripheral neuropathy remains unclear. In this study, the effect of metformin on peripheral nerves in diabetic rats was investigated using diverse neuronal parameters of nerve fibers.MethodsRats were assigned to one of four groups (n=7 to 10 per group): normal, diabetes mellitus (DM), DM+metformin (100 mg/kg), and DM+alpha lipoic acid (ALA, 100 mg/kg). DM was induced by streptozotocin/high-fat diet (STZ/HFD). After 12 weeks, the sensory thresholds to mechanical and heat stimuli were assessed. Repeated sensory tests, immunofluorescence microscopic comparison of peripheral nerves, and biochemical blood analysis were performed after 24 weeks.ResultsBoth DM+metformin and DM+ALA groups showed similar trends to diverse sensory tests at 24 weeks compared to DM group although the degree of change were different according to the stimulated senses. There was no significant difference in the comparison of the intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) of peripheral nerves between the DM+metformin and DM+ALA groups (11.83±0.07 fibers/mm vs. 12.37±1.82 fibers/mm, respectively). Both groups showed preserved IENFD significantly compared with DM group (8.46±1.98 fibers/mm, PConclusionMetformin has beneficial pharmacological effects on the preservation of peripheral nerves in diabetic rats and its effects are comparable to those of ALA.

20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894876

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study was conducted to evaluate the construct validity, reliability, measurement invariance, and latent mean differences in the Breastfeeding Adaptation Scale-Short Form (BFAS-SF) for use with mothers at 2 weeks postpartum. @*Methods@#This methodological study was designed to evaluate the validity, reliability, and measurement invariance of a BFAS-SF. Data were recruited from 431 breastfeeding mothers at 2 weeks postpartum. Confirmatory factor analysis and multi-group confirmatory factor analysis were conducted to assess the factor structure and the measurement invariance across employment status, delivery mode, parity, and previous breastfeeding experience, and the latent mean differences between the two groups were then examined. @*Results@#The goodness of fit of the six-factor model at 2 weeks postpartum was acceptable. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis supported strict invariance of the BFAS-SF across employment status and delivery mode. Full configural invariance, full metric invariance, and partial scalar invariance across parity and full configural invariance and full metric invariance across previous breastfeeding experience were supported, respectively. The results for latent mean differences suggested that mothers who were employed showed significantly higher scores for breastfeeding confidence. Mothers who had a vaginal delivery showed significantly higher scores for sufficient breast milk and baby’s feeding capability. Multiparous mothers showed significantly higher scores for baby’s feeding capability and baby’s satisfaction with breastfeeding. @*Conclusion@#The validity and reliability of the BFAS-SF at 2 weeks postpartum are acceptable. It can be used to compare mean scores according to employment status, delivery mode, and parity.

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