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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874342

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The objective of this study was to define the learning curve required to attain satisfactory oncologic outcomes of cervical cancer patients who were undergoing open or minimally invasive surgery for radical hysterectomy, and to analyze the correlation between the learning curve and tumor size. @*Materials and Methods@#Cervical cancer patients (stage IA-IIA) who underwent open radical hysterectomy (n=280) or minimal invasive radical hysterectomy (n=282) were retrospectively reviewed. The learning curve was evaluated using cumulative sum of 5-year recurrence rates. Survival outcomes were analyzed based on the operation period (“learning period,” P1 vs. “skilled period,” P2), operation mode, and tumor size. @*Results@#The 5-year disease-free and overall survival rates between open and minimally invasive groups were 91.8% and 89.0% (p=0.098) and 96.1% and 97.2% (p=0.944), respectively. The number of surgeries for learning period was 30 and 60 in open and minimally invasive group, respectively. P2 had better 5-year disease-free survival than P1 after adjusting for risk factors (hazard ratio, 0.392; 95% confidence interval, 0.210 to 0.734; p=0.003). All patients with tumors < 2 cm had similar 5-year disease-free survival regardless of operation mode or learning curve. Minimally invasive group presented lower survival rates than open group when tumors ≥ 2 cm in P2. Preoperative conization improved disease-free survival in patients with tumors ≥ 2 cm, especially in minimally invasive group. @*Conclusion@#Minimally invasive radical hysterectomy required more cases than open group to achieve acceptable 5-year disease-free survival. When tumors ≥ 2 cm, the surgeon’s proficiency affected survival outcomes in both groups.

2.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834949

ABSTRACT

Background@#The worldwide incidence of renal disease diagnosed by a kidney biopsy varies with age, race, sex, and region. Owing to a lack of studies and limited research resources for this disease in Korea, we investigated renal disease patterns by analyzing data from kidney biopsies performed over 13 years in a university-based teaching hospital in Korea. @*Methods@#Among 2,053 kidney biopsies performed from 2001 to 2013 at Kyungpook National University Hospital, 1,924 were retrospectively analyzed for histopathologic, demographic, and clinical data as well as laboratory results. @*Results@#Among the 1,924 studied kidney biopsies, 1,078 were males (56.0%) and the mean age was 37.7 ± 16.5 years. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were the most common clinical manifestation (62.5%). Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) was the most common primary glomerular disease (37.4%), followed by minimal change disease (MCD), membranous nephropathy (MN), focal segmental glomerulonephritis and crescentic glomerulonephritis. Secondary glomerular diseases accounted for 10.3% of the total biopsies, with lupus nephritis being the most common (4.6%) followed by Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis and diabetic nephropathy. The most common cause of nephrotic syndrome was MCD (42.1%) followed by MN. Among patients seropositive for hepatitis B or C, IgAN (28.3% and 21.4%, respectively) was the most common cause. @*Conclusion@#IgAN and lupus nephritis were the most common primary and secondary glomerular diseases, respectively. Race, region, and practice patterns may affect renal disease patterns in different cohorts.

3.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 165-182, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834252

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has posed a challenge for healthcare systems, and healthcare workers (HCWs) are at high risk of exposure. Protecting HCWs is of paramount importance to maintain continuous patient care and keep healthcare systems functioning. Used alongside administrative and engineering control measures, personal protective equipment (PPE) is the last line of defense and the core component of protection. Current data suggest that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is mainly transmitted through respiratory droplets and close contact. Airborne transmission may occur during aerosol-generating procedures. However, the modes of transmission still remain uncertain, especially regarding the possibility of airborne transmission when aerosolgenerating procedures are not performed. Thus, there are some inconsistencies in the respiratory protective equipment recommended by international and national organizations. In Korea, there have been several modifications to PPE recommendations offering options in choosing PPE for respiratory and body protection, which confuses HCWs; they are often unsure what to wear and when to wear it. The choice of PPE is based on the risk of exposure and possible modes of transmission. The level of protection provided by PPE differs based on standards and test methods. Thus, understanding them is the key in selecting the proper PPE. This article reviews evidence on the mode of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, compares the current PPE recommendations of the World Health Organization with those in Korea, and discusses standard requirements and the proper selection of PPE.

4.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831642

ABSTRACT

Background@#Little is known regarding the safe fixed dose of mycophenolic acid (MPA) for preventing biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR) in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). We investigated the correlation of MPA trough concentration (MPA C0) and dose with renal transplant outcomes and adverse events. @*Methods@#This study included 79 consecutive KTRs who received MPA with tacrolimus (TAC) and corticosteroids. The MPA C0 of all the enrolled KTRs was measured, which was determined monthly by using particle-enhanced turbidimetric inhibition immunoassay for 12 months, and clinical data were collected at each time point. The clinical endpoints included BPAR, any cytopenia, and BK or cytomegalovirus infections. @*Results@#No differences in MPA C0 and dose were observed between KTRs with or without BPAR or viral infections under statistically comparable TAC concentrations. MPA C0 was significantly higher in patients with leukopenia (P = 0.021) and anemia (P = 0.002) compared with those without cytopenia. The MPA dose was significantly higher in patients with thrombocytopenia (P = 0.002) compared with those without thrombocytopenia. MPA C0 ≥ 3.5 μg/mL was an independent risk factor for leukopenia (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24–11.64; P = 0.019) and anemia (AOR, 5.90; 95% CI, 1.27–27.51; P = 0.024). An MPA dose greater than the mean value of 1,188.8 mg/day was an independent risk factor for thrombocytopenia (AOR, 3.83; 95% CI, 1.15–12.78; P = 0.029). However, an MPA dose less than the mean value of 1,137.3 mg/day did not increase the risk of BPAR. @*Conclusion@#Either a higher MPA C0 or dose is associated with an increased risk of cytopenia, but neither a lower MPA C0 nor dose is associated with BPAR within the first year of transplantation. Hence, a reduced MPA dose with TAC and corticosteroids might be safe in terms of reducing hematologic abnormalities without causing rejection.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831528

ABSTRACT

In 2019, a project designed to develop a system for measuring and comparing antibiotic usage in hospitals was launched in Korea. As part of this project, we developed a means to classify antibiotic usage in Korean hospitals using a modified Delphi method. In results, the following categories of antibiotic classification were accepted for use in Korean hospitals: 1) broad-spectrum antibacterial agents predominantly used for hospital-onset infections in adults, 2) broad-spectrum antibacterial agents predominantly used for community-acquired infections in adults, 3) antibacterial agents predominantly used for resistant gram-positive infections in adults, 4) narrow-spectrum beta-lactam agents in adults, 5) antibacterial agents predominantly used for extensive antibiotic resistant gram-negative bacteria in adults, and 6) total antibacterial agents.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831212

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Alport syndrome (AS) is one of the most common inherited renal diseases caused due to mutations of genes encoding specific proteins of the type IV collagen family, and its major clinical manifestations include progressive renal failure, sensorineural deafness, and ocular abnormalities. We investigated the clinical characteristics and long-term prognosis of AS in Korean pediatric and adult populations. @*Methods@#We conducted a retrospective review of medical records of 33 children and adults who had been diagnosed or treated with AS from 1985 to 2019. @*Results@#The mean age of the 33 patients diagnosed with AS was 16.2±13.6 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 2:1. At the first visit, recurrent gross hematuria was the most common initial symptom. In 10 of 33 patients (30.3%), sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) was diagnosed, but none had ophthalmic problems. Moreover, 11 of 33 patients (33.3%) had advanced to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and a significant difference was observed in the age of the patients who progressed to ESRD based on the presence or absence of SNHL (P =0.035). @*Conclusion@#SNHL in AS can be an important prognostic factor for long-term deterioration of renal function. Further investigation is required to confirm the clinical course and the genetic characteristics of AS in Korea through prospective national cohort studies.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816657

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare personnel (HCP) are at risk of being exposed to or transmitting infections in hospitals, and vaccination against vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) is a well-known preventive strategy. Vaccination against influenza, hepatitis B virus, measles-mumps-rubella, varicella, and pertussis is recommended for HCP. However, there is no information on the current status of hospitals' vaccination policies for HCP in Korea.METHODS: We conducted a nationwide survey on hospital vaccination policies and barriers to implementing recommended vaccination programs in 2018. The online survey questionnaire was distributed to 652 hospitals, and 200 of them responded.RESULTS: Of the 200 surveyed hospitals, 151 (75.5%) conducted a pre-employment screening program for at least one VPD, and 196 (98%) had vaccination programs that included at least one vaccine. Influenza vaccine was most commonly included in their programs (97.5%, n = 195), followed by hepatitis B vaccines (69%, n = 138). However, < 25% of the hospitals included other vaccines in their policies (measles-mumps-rubella, 24.5%; varicella, 18.5%; pertussis, 11%). Only 13 hospitals (6.5%) included the five recommended vaccines for HCP in their policies. Influenza vaccination coverage had a mean of 89.9% and was significantly higher in hospitals fully funding the vaccination cost (91.8% vs. 80.4%, P < 0.001). Among hospitals funding influenza vaccines, the coverage was lower in hospitals with ≥ 700 beds (−6.5%, P = 0.003). Hospitals' financial burden was the most important barrier to implementing vaccination polices as recommended (78.6%, 121/154), followed by lack of awareness (21%) or campaign (21%) and lack of leadership (17%).CONCLUSION: Despite the recommendations on vaccination for HCP, the vaccination policies for HCP differ in hospitals and appear to be insufficient to protect HCP and prevent nosocomial transmission. Strong leadership of each hospital to protect HCP and financial support from the government are required to implement appropriate vaccination policies in hospitals.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719547

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to assess the immunogenicity and safety of GC1107 (adult tetanus diphtheria [Td] vaccine). The primary goal was to evaluate the non-inferiority of the immunogenicity of GC1107 compared to the control vaccine. Additionally, the safety profiles of GC1107 and the control vaccine were compared. METHODS: The subjects were adults ≥ 18 years old who were not injected with Td or adult tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis (TdaP) vaccine within the recent 5 years. A total of 253 subjects were enrolled and randomized to either the GC1107 group or the control group. For immunogenicity assessment, blood samples were collected at baseline and 28 days after vaccination and antibody titer of diphtheria and tetanus were assessed. RESULTS: The seroprotection rates of diphtheria and tetanus were 89.76% and 91.34%, respectively, in the GC1107 group, and 87.80% and 86.99% in the control group. The geometric mean titer (GMT) of the anti-diphtheria antibody increased after vaccination in both groups, showing no significant difference between the groups (P = 0.139). The anti-tetanus GMTs after vaccination also showed comparable increases in both groups, and showed no significant difference (P = 0.860). In the safety evaluation, solicited local adverse reactions occurred in 81.2% of the subjects in the GC1107 group and in 86.4% of the subjects in the control group. Solicited systemic adverse events occurred in 33.2% of the subjects in the GC1107 group and in 47.2% of the subjects in the control group, which did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: This phase III study demonstrated non-inferiority in immunogenicity and comparable safety of GC1107 compared with the control Td vaccine. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02361866


Subject(s)
Adult , Diphtheria , Humans , Tetanus , Vaccination
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764933

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Optimal tacrolimus (TAC) trough levels for different periods after kidney transplantation (KT) has not been definitely established. This study aimed to investigate transplant outcomes of low-level (LL) and standard-level (SL) TAC according to post-transplant period. METHODS: A total of 278 consecutive kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) receiving TAC-based immunosuppression were divided into LL and SL-TAC groups (4–7 and 7–12 ng/mL for 0–2 months, 3–6 and 6–10 ng/mL for 3–6 months, 2–5 and 5–8 ng/mL for 7–12 months, respectively) according to TAC trough level at each period. We compared estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR), de novo donor-specific antibody (dnDSA), calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) toxicity, opportunistic infection, and allograft survival. RESULTS: SL-TAC group showed significantly higher mean eGFR at 0–2 months than LL-TAC group (72.1 ± 20.3 vs. 64.2 ± 22.7 mL/min/1.73m2; P = 0.003). Incidence of BPAR at 7–12 months was significantly lower in SL-TAC group than in LL-TAC group (0.0% vs. 3.9%; P = 0.039). Patients with persistent SL-TAC lasting 12 months showed higher eGFR at 7–12 months than those with persistent LL-TAC (65.5 ± 13.0 vs. 57.9 ± 13.9 mL/min/1.73m2; P = 0.007). No significant differences in dnDSA, CNI toxicity, serious infections, or allograft survival were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Maintenance of proper TAC trough level after 6 months could reduce BPAR without adverse drug toxicities in KTRs. Moreover, persistent SL-TAC during the first year after KT might have a beneficial effect on a trend for a lower incidence of dnDSA and better renal allograft function.


Subject(s)
Allografts , Calcineurin , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Immunosuppression , Incidence , Kidney Transplantation , Kidney , Opportunistic Infections , Tacrolimus , Transplant Recipients
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762283

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Campylobacter jejuni is an important food-borne pathogen that causes human gastroenteritis. This study was conducted to investigate the incidence of isolation, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, and C. jejuni genotype from diarrhea patients in Busan, Korea. METHODS: A total of 97 C. jejuni were isolated from diarrhea patients during five food-borne outbreaks from 2014 to September 2017. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were carried out by the broth microdilution method for ciprofloxacin (CIP), nalidixic acid (NAL), tetracycline (TET), chloramphenicol, azithromycin (AZI), erythromycin (ERY), streptomycin (STR), gentamicin, and telithromycin. To investigate C. jejuni genotypes, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profile analysis was performed. RESULTS: The isolation rate of C. jejuni was 2.0% for the last 4 years and increased annually. Antimicrobial resistance rates of C. jejuni were shown to be in the order of NAL (90.9%), CIP (89.4%), TET (13.6%), AZI (3.0%), ERY (3.0%), and STR (1.5%). The proportion of multidrug-resistance was 18.2%, and they commonly contained quinolones (CIP-NAL). Analysis of PFGE patterns of SmaI-restricted DNA of C. jejuni isolates showed 17 clusters; cluster 11 was the major genotype pattern. CONCLUSION: This study will provide useful data for the proper use of antimicrobials and the management of resistant C. jejuni. Also it will help to provide data for the epidemiological investigation of foodborne diseases caused by C. jejuni, which is expected to increase in the future.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin , Campylobacter jejuni , Campylobacter , Chloramphenicol , Ciprofloxacin , Diarrhea , Disease Outbreaks , DNA , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Erythromycin , Foodborne Diseases , Gastroenteritis , Genotype , Gentamicins , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Methods , Nalidixic Acid , Quinolones , Streptomycin , Tetracycline
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759000

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases of chronic dialysis patients are often undertreated because of their higher surgical risk. This study aimed to assess mortality and morbidity after open heart surgery in chronic dialysis patients compared to those with normal renal function and identify risk factors for postoperative outcomes. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 2,432 patients who underwent open heart surgery from 2002 to 2017 and collected data from 116 patients (38 patients on dialysis and 78 age-, sex-, and diabetes mellitus status-matched control patients with normal kidney function). We assessed comorbidities, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, laboratory data, surgical methods, and postoperative outcomes. RESULTS: The dialysis group had more comorbidities, higher NYHA classes, and greater need for urgent surgeries compared to the control group. They exhibited significantly higher postoperative mortality (18.4% vs. 2.6%, P = 0.005) and more overall complications (65.8% vs. 25.6%, P < 0.001). Dialysis itself significantly increased relative risk for in-hospital mortality after adjustment. EuroSCORE II was not as useful as in the general population. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that total (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 10.7; P = 0.029) and in-hospital death risk (AOR, 14.7; P = 0.033), the durations of postoperative hospitalization (AOR, 4.6; P = 0.034), CRRT (AOR 36.8; P = 0.004), and ventilator use (AOR, 7.6; P = 0.022) were significantly increased in the dialysis group. CONCLUSION: The dialysis group exhibited a higher risk for mortality and overcall complications after open heart surgery compared to the patients with normal renal function. Therefore, the benefit of surgical treatment must be balanced against potential risks.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus , Dialysis , Heart , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Kidney , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Logistic Models , Mortality , Odds Ratio , Renal Insufficiency , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Thoracic Surgery , Ventilators, Mechanical
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786532

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the molecular epidemiology of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreak at a newborn nursery and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).METHODS: During the outbreak, from August to September 2017, MRSA isolates collected from neonates and medical staff underwent genotyping and screened for virulence factors. Antibiotic susceptibilities were tested.RESULTS: During the study period, 41 neonates were admitted at the nursery (n=27) and NICU (n=14). Of these, 7 had MRSA infections (skin infection [n=6] and sepsis [n=1]) and 4 were colonized with MRSA. Associated medical staff (n=32) were screened; three were nasal MRSA carriers. Staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) type II, sequence type (ST) 89, spa type t375 was found to be the skin infection outbreak causing strain, with multi-drug resistance including low-level mupirocin resistance. SCCmec type IVa, ST 72, and a novel spa type designated t17879, was the cause of MRSA sepsis. Many different types of MRSA were colonized on the neonates; however, SCCmec type IVa, ST 72, spa type t664 was colonized in both neonates and a NICU nurse. All MRSA isolates from colonized infants were positive for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) toxin gene.CONCLUSIONS: The strain causing an outbreak of skin infections had multi-drug resistance. Also, MRSA colonized in the neonates were found to carry the PVL toxin gene. Because different strains are present during an outbreak, molecular epidemiologic studies are important to identify the outbreak strain and colonized strains which aid in effective control and prevention of future MRSA outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Colon , Disease Outbreaks , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Epidemiologic Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care, Neonatal , Leukocidins , Medical Staff , Methicillin Resistance , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Molecular Epidemiology , Mupirocin , Nurseries, Infant , Sepsis , Skin , Virulence Factors
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786197

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients require risk stratification and preventive strategies for sudden cardiac death (SCD) based on the dialysis modality because the process of dialysis is a risk factor for SCD. This study aimed to compare the risk of SCD in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) versus peritoneal dialysis (PD).METHODS: Patients on HD and PD were included in the end-stage renal disease registry of the Korean Society of Nephrology between 1985 and 2017. The incidence and associated factors of SCD were analyzed based on the dialysis modalityRESULTS: Of 132,083 patients, 34,632 (26.2%) died during 94.8 ± 73.6 months of follow-up. In patients on HD and PD, 22.2% and 19.6% of total deaths were SCDs. In the propensity score-matched population, SCD accounted for 21.7% and 19.6% of total deaths in patients on HD and PD, respectively. HD was independently associated with SCD even after adjusting for age and significant comorbidities. Hypertension, coronary artery disease, and congestive heart failure, and age at the time of death < 65 years were independent risk factors for SCD in patients on HD but not in those on PD. Diabetes was significantly associated with SCD regardless of the dialysis modality.CONCLUSION: Compared with patients on PD, Korean patients on HD have a higher risk of SCD, which is attributable to cardiac comorbidities.


Subject(s)
Comorbidity , Coronary Artery Disease , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Dialysis , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Failure , Humans , Hypertension , Incidence , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Nephrology , Peritoneal Dialysis , Renal Dialysis , Risk Factors
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716518

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The association of de novo donor-specific anti-human leukocyte antigens (HLA) antibodies (DSA) and development of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) is still undetermined. METHODS: We prospectively screened de novo DSA in 167 KTRs during 32 months after kidney transplantation (KT). Timing of DSA detection was at 3, 6, and 12 months post-transplant and annually thereafter and when clinically indicated. DSA levels were determined by Luminex assays and expressed as mean fluorescence intensity (MFI). We evaluated the incidence, characteristics of DSA, and association between DSA and tacrolimus trough levels or AMR. RESULTS: De novo DSA developed in 16 KTRs (9.6%) and acute AMR occurred more commonly in KTRs with de novo DSA compared to KTRs without de novo DSA (18.8% vs. 0%, P < 0.001). All de novo DSA were against class II antigens. The mean number of DSA was 1.8 ± 1.2 and the average MFI of DSA was 7,399 ± 5,470. Tacrolimus trough level during the first 0–2 months after KT was an independent predictor of DSA development (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.50–0.99; P = 0.043). No differences were found in the number of DSA, average MFI of DSA, and tacrolimus levels during the first year between de novo DSA-positive KTRs with AMR and those without AMR. CONCLUSION: The results of our study suggest that monitoring of DSA and maintaining proper tacrolimus levels are essential to prevent AMR during the initial period after KT.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Fluorescence , Graft Rejection , Histocompatibility Antigens Class II , HLA Antigens , Incidence , Kidney Transplantation , Kidney , Prospective Studies , Tacrolimus , Transplant Recipients
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717214

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) has been identified as a major autoantigen in primary membranous nephropathy (MN). We evaluated the association between anti-PLA2R antibodies and clinical outcome in Korean patients with primary MN. METHODS: A total of 66 patients with biopsy-proven MN were included. Serum level of anti-PLA2R antibodies was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Biochemical parameters were estimated initially and at follow-up. RESULTS: Anti-PLA2R antibodies were detected in 52.1% and 27.8% of patients with primary and secondary MN, respectively. Forty-eight patients with primary MN were grouped based on presence or absence of anti-PLA2R antibodies. Proteinuria was more severe in anti-PLA2R-positive patients than in anti-PLA2R-negative patients (urine protein/creatinine ratio 7.922 ± 3.985 g/g vs. 4.318 ± 3.304 g/g, P = 0.001), and anti-PLA2R antibody level was positively correlated with proteinuria. The incidence of chronic kidney disease stage ≥ 3 was higher in anti-PLA2R-positive patients compared with anti-PLA2R-negative patients (P = 0.004). The probabilities of spontaneous remission were higher in anti-PLA2R-negative patients compared with anti-PLA2R-positive patients (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that anti-PLA2R antibodies are an independent risk factor for developing chronic kidney disease stage ≥ 3 and for not reaching spontaneous remission. CONCLUSION: Detection of anti-PLA2R antibodies at diagnosis in patients with primary MN can predict prognosis and guide treatment decisions.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Follow-Up Studies , Glomerulonephritis, Membranous , Humans , Incidence , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Proteinuria , Receptors, Phospholipase A2 , Remission, Spontaneous , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Risk Factors
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717205

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Humans , Renal Dialysis
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716931

ABSTRACT

A 38-year-old man, who underwent a second kidney transplantation (KT), was admitted because of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) complicated by BK virus-associated nephropathy (BKVAN). He was placed on hemodialysis at the age of 24 years because of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. At the age of 28 years, he underwent a living donor KT from his father; however, 1 year after the transplantation, he developed a recurrence of the primary glomerular disease, resulting in graft failure 2 years after the first KT. Ten years later, he received a deceased-donor kidney with a B-cell-positive-cross-match. He received 600 mg of rituximab before the KT with three cycles of plasmapheresis and immunoglobulin (0.5 g/kg) therapy after KT. During the follow-up, the first and second allograft biopsies at 4 and 10 months after KT revealed AMR with a recurrence of primary glomerular disease that was reclassified as C3 glomerulonephritis (C3GN). He received a steroid pulse, rituximab, plasmapheresis, and immunoglobulin therapies. The third allograft biopsy demonstrated that the BKVAN was complicated with AMR and C3GN. As the azotemia did not improve after repeated conventional therapies for AMR, one cycle of bortezomib (1.3 mg/m²×4 doses) was administered. The allograft function stabilized, and BK viremia became undetectable after 6 months. The present case suggests that bortezomib therapy may be applicable to patients with refractory AMR, even in cases complicated with BKVAN.


Subject(s)
Adult , Allografts , Azotemia , Biopsy , BK Virus , Bortezomib , Fathers , Follow-Up Studies , Glomerulonephritis , Glomerulonephritis, Membranoproliferative , Graft Rejection , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulins , Kidney , Kidney Transplantation , Living Donors , Plasmapheresis , Recurrence , Renal Dialysis , Rituximab , Transplants , Viremia
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716811

ABSTRACT

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes a highly contagious and generally benign, self-limited disease. However, in high-risk populations including immunocompromised patients, pregnant women, and neonates, VZV infection can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Healthcare-associated transmission of VZV occurs among healthcare workers (HCWs) and patients by airborne transmission or by direct contact with the index case. To minimize the risk of transmission in healthcare settings, all VZV-susceptible HCWs should be encouraged strongly to be immunized with the varicella vaccine. For post-exposure management, active immunization (varicella vaccine), passive immunization (varicella-zoster immune globulin) and/or antiviral agents, and isolation could be used in specific situations. To prevent the transmission of VZV infection in the hospital settings, the development and implementation of hospital policies for appropriate infection control is also warranted. This article reviews the general information and healthcare-associated transmission of VZV and summarizes the recommendations for the pre- and post-exposure management of HCWs and patients, in hospital settings.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Chickenpox Vaccine , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Hospitals, Isolation , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunocompromised Host , Infant, Newborn , Infection Control , Mortality , Occupational Exposure , Pregnant Women , Vaccination
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