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1.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 126-134, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001251

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Jeollabuk-do Suicide Prevention Training Program for professional gatekeeper instructors, using psychological questionnaires. @*Methods@#Eighty-three participants were recruited from mental health centers and relevant organizations in Jeollabuk-do. All the participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (n=41), where they took part in the suicide prevention training program developed by Jeollabuk-do for professional gatekeeper instructors, or a control group (n=42), receiving no treatment. Four participants from the control group dropped out, and the final participants for each group were 41 and 38. We analyzed the changes in the two groups, before and after the program, using the Korean Suicide Literacy Scale, Counselors’ Professional Scale for Self-injury Behaviors, Attitudes towards the Suicide Scale, and Help-Giving. @*Results@#Participants in the experimental group exhibited a significant improvement in their knowledge of suicide prevention and their attitude toward suicide compared to those in the control group. @*Conclusion@#This study suggests that the Jeollabuk-do Suicide Prevention Training Program for professional gatekeeper instructors may serve as an effective means of improving the participant’s knowledge of suicide prevention and changing the attitude towards suicide, and may fulfill its purpose of preventing suicides.

2.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 830-840, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939105

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Membranous nephropathy (MN) is a major cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of rituximab (RTX) in patients with idiopathic MN (iMN) who have a high risk of progression. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed data of 13 patients with iMN, who received RTX treatments from January 2014 to July 2020. RTX was indicated in patients with iMN with severe proteinuria and decreasing estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in the previous 6 months despite other immunosuppressive therapies. @*Results@#The patients were predominantly males (n = 11) and with a mean age of 55.3 years; median eGFR, 37.0 mL/min/1.73 m2 (interquartile range [IQR], 26.3 to 66.5); serum albumin level, 2.6 g/dL (IQR, 1.9 to 3.1); and spot urine protein-to-creatinine ratio at baseline, 6.6 g/g (IQR, 5.7 to 12.9). In a median follow-up of 22 months, eight patients (61.5%) achieved complete or partial remission. In responder group (n = 8), median eGFR increased from 31.5 to 61.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 (p = 0.049) and serum albumin level increased from 2.3 to 4.2 g/dL (p = 0.017) from RTX initiation to last follow-up. Antiphospholipase A2 receptor antibody (anti-PLA2R-Ab) was positive in six among seven tested patients, which markedly decreased in the responder group. There were no adverse events after RTX. @*Conclusions@#This study suggests that RTX is a safe and effective treatment option for patients with iMN who have a high risk of progression. Individualized therapy based on anti-PLA2R-Ab titer would be needed for better outcomes.

3.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 372-383, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938430

ABSTRACT

The number of elderly patients with end-stage kidney disease has been increasing, but the outcomes of kidney transplants (KT) remain poorly understood in elderly patients. Therefore, we evaluated the clinical outcomes of elderly KT recipients and analyzed the impact of elderly donors. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included patients who underwent KT between 2000 and 2019. KT recipients were divided into four groups according to a combination of recipient and donor age (≥60 or <60 years); elderly recipients: old-to-old (n = 46) and young-to-old (n = 83); young recipients: old-to-young (n = 98) and young-to-young (n = 796). We compared the risks of mortality, graft failure, and acute rejection between groups using Cox regression analysis. Results: The incidence of delayed graft function, graft failure, and acute rejection was not different among groups. Annual mean tacrolimus trough level was not lower in elderly recipients than young recipients during 10-year follow-up. Mortality was significantly higher in elderly recipients (p = 0.001), particularly infection-related mortality (p < 0.001). In multivariable Cox regression analysis, old-toold and young-to-old groups had increased risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14– 7.32; p = 0.03; aHR, 3.06; 95% CI, 1.51–6.20; p = 0.002). However, graft failure and acute rejection risks were not increased in elderly recipients. Conclusion: In elderly recipients, graft survival and acute rejection-free survival were not inferior to those of young recipients. However, mortality, especially risk of infection-related death, was increased in elderly recipients. Thus, low immunosuppression intensity might help decrease mortality in elderly recipients.

4.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e191-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938070

ABSTRACT

Background@#The Korea National Antimicrobial Use Analysis System (KONAS), a benchmarking system for antimicrobial use in hospitals, provides Korean Standardized Antimicrobial Administration Ratio (K-SAAR) for benchmarking. This article describes K-SAAR predictive models to enhance the understanding of K-SAAR, an important benchmarking strategy for antimicrobial usage in KONAS. @*Methods@#We obtained medical insurance claims data for all hospitalized patients aged ≥ 28 days in all secondary and tertiary care hospitals in South Korea (n = 347) from January 2019 to December 2019 from the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service. Modeling was performed to derive a prediction value for antimicrobial use in each institution, which corresponded to the denominator value for calculating K-SAAR. The prediction values of antimicrobial use were modeled separately for each category, for all inpatients and adult patients (aged ≥ 15 years), using stepwise negative binomial regression. @*Results@#The final models for each antimicrobial category were adjusted for different significant risk factors. In the K-SAAR models of all aged patients as well as adult patients, most antimicrobial categories included the number of hospital beds and the number of operations as significant factors, while some antimicrobial categories included mean age for inpatients, hospital type, and the number of patients transferred from other hospitals as significant factors. @*Conclusion@#We developed a model to predict antimicrobial use rates in Korean hospitals, and the model was used as the denominator of the K-SAAR.

5.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 520-533, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927021

ABSTRACT

Kidney transplantation is the preferred treatment for patients with end-stage kidney disease, because it prolongs survival and improves quality of life. Allograft biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosing allograft rejection. However, it is invasive and reactive, and continuous monitoring is unrealistic. Various biomarkers for diagnosing allograft rejection have been developed over the last two decades based on omics technologies to overcome these limitations. Omics technologies are based on a holistic view of the molecules that constitute an individual. They include genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. The omics approach has dramatically accelerated biomarker discovery and enhanced our understanding of multifactorial biological processes in the field of transplantation. However, clinical application of omics-based biomarkers is limited by several issues. First, no large-scale prospective randomized controlled trial has been conducted to compare omics-based biomarkers with traditional biomarkers for rejection. Second, given the variety and complexity of injuries that a kidney allograft may experience, it is likely that no single omics approach will suffice to predict rejection or outcome. Therefore, integrated methods using multiomics technologies are needed. Herein, we introduce omics technologies and review the latest literature on omics biomarkers predictive of allograft rejection in kidney transplant recipients.

6.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 411-418, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917051

ABSTRACT

Background@#Minimal change disease (MCD) is one of the most common causes of nephrotic syndrome worldwide. Hyperuricemia increases the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) risk in glomerulonephritis. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of high serum uric acid levels on the progression to ESRD in MCD. @*Methods@#A total of 800 patients diagnosed with MCD by kidney biopsy were retrospectively analyzed. We determined the relationship of hyperuricemia with the progression to ESRD in MCD using the Cox proportional hazard model and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. The primary outcome was defined as the initiation of dialysis or kidney transplantation. @*Results@#A total of 42 patients (5.3%) progressed to ESRD during the follow-up period. In the restricted cubic spline curve, serum uric acid levels exhibited a positive correlation with ESRD progression in patients with MCD. In the fully adjusted model, the risk of MCD progression increased by 29% for every 1 mg/dL increase in the baseline serum uric acid level (hazard ratio [HR], 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09–1.54; p = 0.004). Falling into the high uric acid group (serum uric acid level > 7 mg/dL in men and > 6 mg/dL in women) was also a risk factor for progression of MCD to ESRD (HR, 3.40; 95% CI, 1.59–7.31; p < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#Our study shows that hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for the progression to ESRD in patients with MCD.

7.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 243-251, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874342

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The objective of this study was to define the learning curve required to attain satisfactory oncologic outcomes of cervical cancer patients who were undergoing open or minimally invasive surgery for radical hysterectomy, and to analyze the correlation between the learning curve and tumor size. @*Materials and Methods@#Cervical cancer patients (stage IA-IIA) who underwent open radical hysterectomy (n=280) or minimal invasive radical hysterectomy (n=282) were retrospectively reviewed. The learning curve was evaluated using cumulative sum of 5-year recurrence rates. Survival outcomes were analyzed based on the operation period (“learning period,” P1 vs. “skilled period,” P2), operation mode, and tumor size. @*Results@#The 5-year disease-free and overall survival rates between open and minimally invasive groups were 91.8% and 89.0% (p=0.098) and 96.1% and 97.2% (p=0.944), respectively. The number of surgeries for learning period was 30 and 60 in open and minimally invasive group, respectively. P2 had better 5-year disease-free survival than P1 after adjusting for risk factors (hazard ratio, 0.392; 95% confidence interval, 0.210 to 0.734; p=0.003). All patients with tumors < 2 cm had similar 5-year disease-free survival regardless of operation mode or learning curve. Minimally invasive group presented lower survival rates than open group when tumors ≥ 2 cm in P2. Preoperative conization improved disease-free survival in patients with tumors ≥ 2 cm, especially in minimally invasive group. @*Conclusion@#Minimally invasive radical hysterectomy required more cases than open group to achieve acceptable 5-year disease-free survival. When tumors ≥ 2 cm, the surgeon’s proficiency affected survival outcomes in both groups.

8.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 77-88, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901533

ABSTRACT

Background@#Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated glomerulonephritis (AAGN) is a common cause of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and requires prompt and proper immunosuppressive therapy to improve renal prognosis. This study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of two different classifications for renal outcomes in Korean AAGN patients. @*Methods@#Ninety-two patients who were diagnosed with AAGN at two tertiary hospitals between 2004 and 2018 were retrospectively analyzed retrospectively. The histopathologic classification according to glomerular pathology and the clinicopathologic classification according to normal glomeruli ratio, degree of interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy, and baseline renal function were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards model. @*Results@#Forty-five patients (48.9%) progressed to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) during the observation period. The mean age was 61.0 ± 15.3 years, and most patients had myeloperoxidase-ANCA (93.5%). In the histopathologic classification, the best renal survival occurred in the focal class, whereas the sclerotic class had the worst renal survival (sclerotic class vs. focal class; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 5.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32–19.31; p = 0.018). The mixed class had intermediate renal outcomes (mixed class vs. focal class; aHR, 4.23; 95% CI, 1.23–14.58; p = 0.022). In the clinicopathologic classification, the high-risk group had poor renal outcomes compared with the low-risk group (aHR, 6.56; 95% CI, 1.25–34.26; p = 0.026), but renal outcomes did not differ between the low- and medium-risk groups. @*Conclusion@#In Korean AAGN patients, histopathologic and clinicopathologic classifications had predictive value for renal outcomes, especially in the sclerotic class or the high-risk group with higher risk of progression to ESRD despite treatment.

9.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e218-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899861

ABSTRACT

Various coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines are being developed, which show practical preventive effects. Here, we report a 51-year-old healthy man with nephrotic syndrome secondary to minimal change disease (MCD) after Ad26.COV.2 (Janssen) vaccination. He had no comorbid disease and received Ad26.COV.2 on April 13, 2021. Seven days after vaccination, he developed edema and foamy urine. Edema rapidly aggravated with decreased urine volume. He was admitted to the hospital 28 days after vaccination, and his body weight increased by 21 kg after vaccination. His serum creatinine level was 1.54 mg/ dL, and 24-h urinary protein excretion was 8.6 g/day. Kidney biopsy revealed no abnormality in the glomeruli and interstitium of the cortex and medulla under the light microscope.Electron microscopy revealed diffuse effacement of the podocyte foot processes, thus, he was diagnosed with MCD. High-dose steroid therapy was applied, and his kidney function improved three days after steroid therapy. Three weeks after steroid use, his serum creatinine decreased to 0.95 mg/dL, and spot urine protein-to-creatine decreased to 0.2 g/g. This case highlights the risk of new-onset nephrotic syndrome secondary to MCD after vectored COVID-19 vaccination. Although the pathogenesis is uncertain, clinicians need to be careful about adverse renal effects of COVID-19 vaccines.

10.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 77-88, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893829

ABSTRACT

Background@#Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated glomerulonephritis (AAGN) is a common cause of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and requires prompt and proper immunosuppressive therapy to improve renal prognosis. This study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of two different classifications for renal outcomes in Korean AAGN patients. @*Methods@#Ninety-two patients who were diagnosed with AAGN at two tertiary hospitals between 2004 and 2018 were retrospectively analyzed retrospectively. The histopathologic classification according to glomerular pathology and the clinicopathologic classification according to normal glomeruli ratio, degree of interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy, and baseline renal function were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards model. @*Results@#Forty-five patients (48.9%) progressed to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) during the observation period. The mean age was 61.0 ± 15.3 years, and most patients had myeloperoxidase-ANCA (93.5%). In the histopathologic classification, the best renal survival occurred in the focal class, whereas the sclerotic class had the worst renal survival (sclerotic class vs. focal class; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 5.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32–19.31; p = 0.018). The mixed class had intermediate renal outcomes (mixed class vs. focal class; aHR, 4.23; 95% CI, 1.23–14.58; p = 0.022). In the clinicopathologic classification, the high-risk group had poor renal outcomes compared with the low-risk group (aHR, 6.56; 95% CI, 1.25–34.26; p = 0.026), but renal outcomes did not differ between the low- and medium-risk groups. @*Conclusion@#In Korean AAGN patients, histopathologic and clinicopathologic classifications had predictive value for renal outcomes, especially in the sclerotic class or the high-risk group with higher risk of progression to ESRD despite treatment.

11.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e218-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892157

ABSTRACT

Various coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines are being developed, which show practical preventive effects. Here, we report a 51-year-old healthy man with nephrotic syndrome secondary to minimal change disease (MCD) after Ad26.COV.2 (Janssen) vaccination. He had no comorbid disease and received Ad26.COV.2 on April 13, 2021. Seven days after vaccination, he developed edema and foamy urine. Edema rapidly aggravated with decreased urine volume. He was admitted to the hospital 28 days after vaccination, and his body weight increased by 21 kg after vaccination. His serum creatinine level was 1.54 mg/ dL, and 24-h urinary protein excretion was 8.6 g/day. Kidney biopsy revealed no abnormality in the glomeruli and interstitium of the cortex and medulla under the light microscope.Electron microscopy revealed diffuse effacement of the podocyte foot processes, thus, he was diagnosed with MCD. High-dose steroid therapy was applied, and his kidney function improved three days after steroid therapy. Three weeks after steroid use, his serum creatinine decreased to 0.95 mg/dL, and spot urine protein-to-creatine decreased to 0.2 g/g. This case highlights the risk of new-onset nephrotic syndrome secondary to MCD after vectored COVID-19 vaccination. Although the pathogenesis is uncertain, clinicians need to be careful about adverse renal effects of COVID-19 vaccines.

12.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 60-69, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834949

ABSTRACT

Background@#The worldwide incidence of renal disease diagnosed by a kidney biopsy varies with age, race, sex, and region. Owing to a lack of studies and limited research resources for this disease in Korea, we investigated renal disease patterns by analyzing data from kidney biopsies performed over 13 years in a university-based teaching hospital in Korea. @*Methods@#Among 2,053 kidney biopsies performed from 2001 to 2013 at Kyungpook National University Hospital, 1,924 were retrospectively analyzed for histopathologic, demographic, and clinical data as well as laboratory results. @*Results@#Among the 1,924 studied kidney biopsies, 1,078 were males (56.0%) and the mean age was 37.7 ± 16.5 years. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were the most common clinical manifestation (62.5%). Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) was the most common primary glomerular disease (37.4%), followed by minimal change disease (MCD), membranous nephropathy (MN), focal segmental glomerulonephritis and crescentic glomerulonephritis. Secondary glomerular diseases accounted for 10.3% of the total biopsies, with lupus nephritis being the most common (4.6%) followed by Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis and diabetic nephropathy. The most common cause of nephrotic syndrome was MCD (42.1%) followed by MN. Among patients seropositive for hepatitis B or C, IgAN (28.3% and 21.4%, respectively) was the most common cause. @*Conclusion@#IgAN and lupus nephritis were the most common primary and secondary glomerular diseases, respectively. Race, region, and practice patterns may affect renal disease patterns in different cohorts.

13.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 165-182, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834252

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has posed a challenge for healthcare systems, and healthcare workers (HCWs) are at high risk of exposure. Protecting HCWs is of paramount importance to maintain continuous patient care and keep healthcare systems functioning. Used alongside administrative and engineering control measures, personal protective equipment (PPE) is the last line of defense and the core component of protection. Current data suggest that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is mainly transmitted through respiratory droplets and close contact. Airborne transmission may occur during aerosol-generating procedures. However, the modes of transmission still remain uncertain, especially regarding the possibility of airborne transmission when aerosolgenerating procedures are not performed. Thus, there are some inconsistencies in the respiratory protective equipment recommended by international and national organizations. In Korea, there have been several modifications to PPE recommendations offering options in choosing PPE for respiratory and body protection, which confuses HCWs; they are often unsure what to wear and when to wear it. The choice of PPE is based on the risk of exposure and possible modes of transmission. The level of protection provided by PPE differs based on standards and test methods. Thus, understanding them is the key in selecting the proper PPE. This article reviews evidence on the mode of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, compares the current PPE recommendations of the World Health Organization with those in Korea, and discusses standard requirements and the proper selection of PPE.

14.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e185-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831642

ABSTRACT

Background@#Little is known regarding the safe fixed dose of mycophenolic acid (MPA) for preventing biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR) in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). We investigated the correlation of MPA trough concentration (MPA C0) and dose with renal transplant outcomes and adverse events. @*Methods@#This study included 79 consecutive KTRs who received MPA with tacrolimus (TAC) and corticosteroids. The MPA C0 of all the enrolled KTRs was measured, which was determined monthly by using particle-enhanced turbidimetric inhibition immunoassay for 12 months, and clinical data were collected at each time point. The clinical endpoints included BPAR, any cytopenia, and BK or cytomegalovirus infections. @*Results@#No differences in MPA C0 and dose were observed between KTRs with or without BPAR or viral infections under statistically comparable TAC concentrations. MPA C0 was significantly higher in patients with leukopenia (P = 0.021) and anemia (P = 0.002) compared with those without cytopenia. The MPA dose was significantly higher in patients with thrombocytopenia (P = 0.002) compared with those without thrombocytopenia. MPA C0 ≥ 3.5 μg/mL was an independent risk factor for leukopenia (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24–11.64; P = 0.019) and anemia (AOR, 5.90; 95% CI, 1.27–27.51; P = 0.024). An MPA dose greater than the mean value of 1,188.8 mg/day was an independent risk factor for thrombocytopenia (AOR, 3.83; 95% CI, 1.15–12.78; P = 0.029). However, an MPA dose less than the mean value of 1,137.3 mg/day did not increase the risk of BPAR. @*Conclusion@#Either a higher MPA C0 or dose is associated with an increased risk of cytopenia, but neither a lower MPA C0 nor dose is associated with BPAR within the first year of transplantation. Hence, a reduced MPA dose with TAC and corticosteroids might be safe in terms of reducing hematologic abnormalities without causing rejection.

15.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e241-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831528

ABSTRACT

In 2019, a project designed to develop a system for measuring and comparing antibiotic usage in hospitals was launched in Korea. As part of this project, we developed a means to classify antibiotic usage in Korean hospitals using a modified Delphi method. In results, the following categories of antibiotic classification were accepted for use in Korean hospitals: 1) broad-spectrum antibacterial agents predominantly used for hospital-onset infections in adults, 2) broad-spectrum antibacterial agents predominantly used for community-acquired infections in adults, 3) antibacterial agents predominantly used for resistant gram-positive infections in adults, 4) narrow-spectrum beta-lactam agents in adults, 5) antibacterial agents predominantly used for extensive antibiotic resistant gram-negative bacteria in adults, and 6) total antibacterial agents.

16.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 91-97, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831212

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Alport syndrome (AS) is one of the most common inherited renal diseases caused due to mutations of genes encoding specific proteins of the type IV collagen family, and its major clinical manifestations include progressive renal failure, sensorineural deafness, and ocular abnormalities. We investigated the clinical characteristics and long-term prognosis of AS in Korean pediatric and adult populations. @*Methods@#We conducted a retrospective review of medical records of 33 children and adults who had been diagnosed or treated with AS from 1985 to 2019. @*Results@#The mean age of the 33 patients diagnosed with AS was 16.2±13.6 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 2:1. At the first visit, recurrent gross hematuria was the most common initial symptom. In 10 of 33 patients (30.3%), sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) was diagnosed, but none had ophthalmic problems. Moreover, 11 of 33 patients (33.3%) had advanced to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and a significant difference was observed in the age of the patients who progressed to ESRD based on the presence or absence of SNHL (P =0.035). @*Conclusion@#SNHL in AS can be an important prognostic factor for long-term deterioration of renal function. Further investigation is required to confirm the clinical course and the genetic characteristics of AS in Korea through prospective national cohort studies.

17.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 76-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816657

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare personnel (HCP) are at risk of being exposed to or transmitting infections in hospitals, and vaccination against vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) is a well-known preventive strategy. Vaccination against influenza, hepatitis B virus, measles-mumps-rubella, varicella, and pertussis is recommended for HCP. However, there is no information on the current status of hospitals' vaccination policies for HCP in Korea.METHODS: We conducted a nationwide survey on hospital vaccination policies and barriers to implementing recommended vaccination programs in 2018. The online survey questionnaire was distributed to 652 hospitals, and 200 of them responded.RESULTS: Of the 200 surveyed hospitals, 151 (75.5%) conducted a pre-employment screening program for at least one VPD, and 196 (98%) had vaccination programs that included at least one vaccine. Influenza vaccine was most commonly included in their programs (97.5%, n = 195), followed by hepatitis B vaccines (69%, n = 138). However, < 25% of the hospitals included other vaccines in their policies (measles-mumps-rubella, 24.5%; varicella, 18.5%; pertussis, 11%). Only 13 hospitals (6.5%) included the five recommended vaccines for HCP in their policies. Influenza vaccination coverage had a mean of 89.9% and was significantly higher in hospitals fully funding the vaccination cost (91.8% vs. 80.4%, P < 0.001). Among hospitals funding influenza vaccines, the coverage was lower in hospitals with ≥ 700 beds (−6.5%, P = 0.003). Hospitals' financial burden was the most important barrier to implementing vaccination polices as recommended (78.6%, 121/154), followed by lack of awareness (21%) or campaign (21%) and lack of leadership (17%).CONCLUSION: Despite the recommendations on vaccination for HCP, the vaccination policies for HCP differ in hospitals and appear to be insufficient to protect HCP and prevent nosocomial transmission. Strong leadership of each hospital to protect HCP and financial support from the government are required to implement appropriate vaccination policies in hospitals.

18.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e76-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899820

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Healthcare personnel (HCP) are at risk of being exposed to or transmitting infections in hospitals, and vaccination against vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) is a well-known preventive strategy. Vaccination against influenza, hepatitis B virus, measles-mumps-rubella, varicella, and pertussis is recommended for HCP. However, there is no information on the current status of hospitals' vaccination policies for HCP in Korea.@*METHODS@#We conducted a nationwide survey on hospital vaccination policies and barriers to implementing recommended vaccination programs in 2018. The online survey questionnaire was distributed to 652 hospitals, and 200 of them responded.@*RESULTS@#Of the 200 surveyed hospitals, 151 (75.5%) conducted a pre-employment screening program for at least one VPD, and 196 (98%) had vaccination programs that included at least one vaccine. Influenza vaccine was most commonly included in their programs (97.5%, n = 195), followed by hepatitis B vaccines (69%, n = 138). However, < 25% of the hospitals included other vaccines in their policies (measles-mumps-rubella, 24.5%; varicella, 18.5%; pertussis, 11%). Only 13 hospitals (6.5%) included the five recommended vaccines for HCP in their policies. Influenza vaccination coverage had a mean of 89.9% and was significantly higher in hospitals fully funding the vaccination cost (91.8% vs. 80.4%, P < 0.001). Among hospitals funding influenza vaccines, the coverage was lower in hospitals with ≥ 700 beds (−6.5%, P = 0.003). Hospitals' financial burden was the most important barrier to implementing vaccination polices as recommended (78.6%, 121/154), followed by lack of awareness (21%) or campaign (21%) and lack of leadership (17%).@*CONCLUSION@#Despite the recommendations on vaccination for HCP, the vaccination policies for HCP differ in hospitals and appear to be insufficient to protect HCP and prevent nosocomial transmission. Strong leadership of each hospital to protect HCP and financial support from the government are required to implement appropriate vaccination policies in hospitals.

19.
Immune Network ; : e38-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898573

ABSTRACT

Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that initiate both T-cell responses and tolerance. Tolerogenic DCs (tDCs) are regulatory DCs that suppress immune responses through the induction of T-cell anergy and Tregs. Because lactoferrin (LF) was demonstrated to induce functional Tregs and has a protective effect against inflammatory bowel disease, we explored the tolerogenic effects of LF on mouse bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs). The expression of CD80/86 and MHC class II was diminished in LF-treated BMDCs (LF-BMDCs). LF facilitated BMDCs to suppress proliferation and elevate Foxp3 +induced Treg (iTreg) differentiation in ovalbumin-specific CD4 + T-cell culture. Foxp3 expression was further increased by blockade of the B7 molecule using CTLA4-Ig but was diminished by additional CD28 stimulation using anti-CD28 Ab. On the other hand, the levels of arginase-1 and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (known as key T-cell suppressive molecules) were increased in LF-BMDCs. Consistently, the suppressive activity of LF-BMDCs was partially restored by inhibitors of these molecules. Collectively, these results suggest that LF effectively causes DCs to be tolerogenic by both the suppression of T-cell proliferation and enhancement of iTreg differentiation. This tolerogenic effect of LF is due to the reduction of costimulatory molecules and enhancement of suppressive molecules.

20.
Electrolytes & Blood Pressure ; : 23-30, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898120

ABSTRACT

The worldwide coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is still in progress, but much remains unknown about the disease. In this article, we review the association of hypertension or the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) with COVID-19 and the correlation between electrolyte disorders and disease severity. Underlying hypertension is likely to be associated with severe or critical COVID-19, but the relationship is not clear owing to confounding factors. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) plays an important role in the non-classical RAS pathway and binds to a receptor binding domain of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The RAS blockade is known to increase ACE2 levels, but controversy remains regarding the effect of RAS blockade therapy in the course of COVID-19. Some reports have indicated a protective effect of RAS blockade on COVID-19, whereas others have reported an association of RAS blockade therapy with the occurrence of severe complications such as acute kidney injury and admission to the intensive care unit. Electrolyte disorders are not uncommon in patients with COVID-19, and severe COVID-19 has frequently shown hypokalemia, hyponatremia, and hypocalcemia. Electrolyte imbalances are caused by alteration of RAS, gastrointestinal loss, effects of proinflammatory cytokines, and renal tubular dysfunction by the invasion of SARS-CoV-2.

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