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1.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 353-362, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000776

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Several predictive models have been developed to predict the pathological complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC); however, few are broadly applicable owing to radiologic complexity and institution-specific clinical variables, and none have been externally validated. This study aimed to develop and externally validate a machine learning model that predicts pCR after NAC in patients with breast cancer using routinely collected clinical and demographic variables. @*Methods@#The electronic medical records of patients with advanced breast cancer who underwent NAC before surgical resection between January 2017 and December 2020 were reviewed. Patient data from Seoul National University Bundang Hospital were divided into training and internal validation cohorts. Five machine learning techniques, including gradient boosting machine (GBM), support vector machine, random forest, decision tree, and neural network, were used to build predictive models, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was compared to select the best model. Finally, the model was validated using an independent cohort from Seoul National University Hospital. @*Results@#A total of 1,003 patients were included in the study: 287, 71, and 645 in the training, internal validation, and external validation cohorts, respectively. Overall, 36.3% of the patients achieved pCR. Among the five machine learning models, the GBM showed the highest AUC for pCR prediction (AUC, 0.903; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.833–0.972).External validation confirmed an AUC of 0.833 (95% CI, 0.800–0.865). @*Conclusion@#Commonly available clinical and demographic variables were used to develop a machine learning model for predicting pCR following NAC. External validation of the model demonstrated good discrimination power, indicating that routinely collected variables were sufficient to build a good prediction model.

2.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 447-456, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000108

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To develop an evidence-based guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia by adapting existing high-quality clinical guidelines with a view to improve the clinical symptoms and long-term quality of life of patients by providing appropriate management. @*Methods@#This guideline was developed according to the ADAPTE methodology. The adaptation process included determining key health questions, systematically searching and screening guidelines, evaluating the quality and contents of these guidelines, deriving recommendations for key questions, and performing a peer review. The selection criteria for the guideline search were (1) evidence-based guidelines, (2) published within the last 5 years, and (3) written in English or Korean. @*Results@#After evaluating the quality and content, we finally selected three guidelines for adaptation. The final output of the development process was 25 recommendations for 10 key questions. We adopted the Agency for Health Research Quality methodology and presented the level of evidence from levels I to IV. In addition, we defined the recommendation grades from grade A (strongly recommended) to D (no recommendation) based on the level of evidence and clinical significance of the recommendation. @*Conclusion@#The development and dissemination of the adapted guideline is expected to increase the certainty of medical decision making and improve the quality of medical care. Further studies on the effectiveness and applicability of the developed guideline are necessary.

3.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 170-174, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969086

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Fewer studies are available on geriatric patients’ gustatory dysfunction than on their olfactory dysfunction. Here we aimed to evaluate the relationship between subjective gustatory dysfunction and subjective or objective olfactory dysfunction according to cognitive function in geriatric patients.Subjects and Method We prospectively enrolled patients who underwent both cognitive function test and olfactory function test between August 2018 and May 2019. The correlation between subjective gustatory dysfunction and subjective olfactory dysfunction or conventional olfactory function scores was evaluated for geriatric patients with or withhout cognitive dysfunction. Participants with a threshold-discrimination-identification (TDI) score (<21) on the YSK olfactory function test were diagnosed with olfactory dysfunction. Subjective gustatory function and olfactory function were evaluated using the visual analog scale. The Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Packet and Mini-Mental State Examination were administered to all participants. Overall, 120 patients (27 male, 93 female; mean age, 73.00±7.50 years) were enrolled. @*Results@#We found that the subjective gustatory function score did not correlate with the threshold, discrimination, identification, or the summation of TDI scores of the olfactory function test but was significantly associated with the subjective olfactory function score (p<0.001). Further, there was no significant correlation between the subjective gustatory function score and cognitive function. @*Conclusion@#The subjective olfactory function score was the only factor significantly correlated with the subjective gustatory function score. Based on these results, we suggest evaluating gustatory function in geriatric patients with olfactory dysfunction.

4.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 18-26, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968554

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Menopause symptoms can vary in type, duration, and severity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the key factors predicting severe symptoms among Korean perimenopausal women with various demographic data, obstetric and psychiatric histories, and menopausal symptoms screening scale scores. @*Methods@#Data were collected from 1,060 women, and 4 latent classes were identified using latent profile analysis, with 6 major categories of menopausal complaints. Among the 4 classes, we selectively used data from the “all unimpaired” and “all impaired” groups. Menopause rating scale (MRS), sociodemographic, obstetric, and psychiatric factors were assessed, and hierarchical logistic regression analyses were conducted with the “all impaired” group as a dependent variable. @*Results@#Marital status and scores on the psychological and somatic subscales of the MRS were statistically related to being in the “all impaired” group. Otherwise, family history of menopausal symptoms, menarche age, and history of other psychiatric disorders were not statistically significant predictors of being in the “all impaired” group. @*Conclusion@#The psychological and somatic subscales of the MRS predict the severity of perimenopausal syndrome better than obstetric and psychiatric history do among Korean perimenopausal women. Psychological and somatic symptoms as well as genitourinary symptoms in menopausal patients should be closely evaluated.

5.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 27-34, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968553

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Aerobic exercise may be associated with changes in brain activity within the default mode network (DMN) and dorsal attention network (DAN). We hypothesized that changes in functional connectivity (FC) within the DMN and DAN might be most effectively activated by moderate-intensity exercise. @*Methods@#Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans and visuospatial attention tests after resting were performed before and after each of moderate- and high-intensity aerobic exercises (10 min each) in 15 healthy male volunteers. @*Results@#The reaction time during the attention test increased significantly, and the rate of correct responses decreased from moderate-intensity exercise condition to high-intensity exercise condition. FC within the DMN under high-intensity exercise condition was higher than that under pre-exercise and moderate-intensity exercise conditions. FC within the DAN under moderate-intensity exercise condition was the highest, whereas FC between the DMN and DAN under moderate-intensity exercise condition was the lowest. Changes in cognitive domain functions were associated with changes in FC between the DMN and DAN. @*Conclusion@#Our results support the inverted-U hypothesis of maximum arousal efficacy during moderate exercise. Both cognitive domains, namely, the attention system and brain activity domains, may be better under moderate-intensity exercise than under high-intensity exercise.

6.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e30-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967402

ABSTRACT

Background@#Emotion recognition is essential to the social adjustment and social interaction of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs). Given that music is a medium for expressing and conveying human emotion, we conducted this preliminary study to identify musical passages representing the basic human emotions of happiness, sadness, and anger, with the goal of developing a music-based emotion perception scale for IDDs. @*Methods@#To identify musical passages for emotion perception, 20 certified music therapists evaluated 100 selected musical passages and established 60 pieces that yielded the highest agreement for each emotion category. During the second phase of this study, 300 neurotypical participants rated 60 passages in terms of the perceived type and intensity of emotions expressed. @*Results@#The 60 passages showed high reliability and were statistically classified into three factors: happiness, sadness, and anger. The k-means cluster analysis yielded a cut-off score of 41 for the low emotion perception group (F = 1120.63, P < 0.001). The hierarchical logistic regression analysis revealed that only model 3 (musical passages) was significantly associated with low emotion perception (step χ 2 = 227.8, P < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#The selected musical passages demonstrated high reliability and established three factors for identifying perceptions of happiness, sadness, and anger. Neither psychological status nor individual demographic characteristics affected the emotion perception results.

7.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 148-160, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966418

ABSTRACT

Depression is a neuropsychiatric disorder associated with persistent stress and disruption of neuronal function. Persistent stress causes neuronal atrophy, including loss of synapses and reduced size of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. These alterations are associated with neural dysfunction, including mood disturbances, cognitive impairment, and behavioral changes. Synaptic plasticity is the fundamental function of neural networks in response to various stimuli and acts by reorganizing neuronal structure, function, and connections from the molecular to the behavioral level. In this review, we describe the alterations in synaptic plasticity as underlying pathological mechanisms for depression in animal models and humans. We further elaborate on the significance of phytochemicals as bioactive agents that can positively modulate stress-induced, aberrant synaptic activity. Bioactive agents, including flavonoids, terpenes, saponins, and lignans, have been reported to upregulate brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression and release, suppress neuronal loss, and activate the relevant signaling pathways, including TrkB, ERK, Akt, and mTOR pathways, resulting in increased spine maturation and synaptic numbers in the neuronal cells and in the brains of stressed animals. In clinical trials, phytochemical usage is regarded as safe and well-tolerated for suppressing stress-related parameters in patients with depression. Thus, intake of phytochemicals with safe and active effects on synaptic plasticity may be a strategy for preventing neuronal damage and alleviating depression in a stressful life.

8.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 866-877, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938777

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The optimal imaging approach for evaluating pathological nipple discharge remains unclear. We investigated the value of adding ductography to ultrasound (US) for evaluating pathologic nipple discharge in patients with negative mammography findings. @*Materials and Methods@#From July 2003 to December 2018, 101 women (mean age, 46.3 ± 12.2 years; range, 23–75 years) with pathologic nipple discharge were evaluated using pre-ductography (initial) US, ductography, and post-ductography US. The imaging findings were reviewed retrospectively. The standard reference was surgery (70 patients) or > 2 years of followup with US (31 patients). The diagnostic performances of initial US, ductography, and post-ductography US for detecting malignancy were compared using the McNemar’s test or a generalized estimating equation. @*Results@#In total, 47 papillomas, 30 other benign lesions, seven high-risk lesions, and 17 malignant lesions were identified as underlying causes of pathologic nipple discharge. Only eight of the 17 malignancies were detected on the initial US, while the remaining nine malignancies were detected by ductography. Among the nine malignancies detected by ductography, eight were detected on post-ductography US and could be localized for US-guided intervention. The sensitivities of ductography (94.1% [16/17]) and post-ductography US (94.1% [16/17]) were significantly higher than those of initial US (47.1% [8/17]; p = 0.027 and 0.013, respectively). The negative predictive value of post-ductography US (96.9% [31/32]) was significantly higher than that of the initial US (83.3% [45/54]; p = 0.006). Specificity was significantly higher for initial US than for ductography and post-ductography US (p = 0.001 for all). @*Conclusion@#The combined use of ductography and US has a high sensitivity for detecting malignancy in patients with pathologic nipple discharge and negative mammography. Ductography findings enable lesion localization on second-look post-ductography US, thus facilitating the selection of optimal treatment plans.

9.
Journal of Dental Hygiene Science ; (6): 67-74, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937853

ABSTRACT

Background@#Depression and cognitive function have a positive effect on the improvement of quality of life and extension of lifespan in the elderly. In addition, it appears as a major factor influencing oral health status. Therefore, this study looked at the relationship between the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI), depression, and cognitive function in the elderly using the Korea Longitudinal Study of Aging. @*Methods@#In this study, 4,535 elderly people aged 65 years and over were targeted using the 7th data of the 2018 Korea Longitudinal Study of Aging. A t-test and ANOVA analysis were performed to compare GOHAI, depression, and cognitive function by group. In addition, hierarchical multiple linear regression was performed to understand the effect of the elderly’s perceived depression scale and cognitive ability on GOHAI. @*Results@#As a result of adding the depression scale and cognitive function variables to Model 2, the explanatory power was 22%. Educational level, marital status, private health insurance subscription, average monthly allowance, subjective health status, use of dentures, smoking status, economic activity, depression scale, and cognitive function were found to have significant influence (p<0.05). In addition, when controlled and viewed with all factors, depression and cognitive function were found to have an effect on oral health-related quality of life. @*Conclusion@#The findings indicate that depression and cognitive function are associated with oral health-related quality of life in the Korean elderly. As the age increases, the quality of life declines due to depression and cognitive function problems, in addition to oral discomfort, eating disorders, and physical discomfort.

10.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 259-270, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924855

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to evaluate whether somatic symptoms in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with a dissociative pattern of functional connectivity (FC) within the default mode network (DMN) and whether methylphenidate administration can improve clinical and somatic symptoms. We also evaluated whether the improvement of somatic symptoms is associated with increased FC within the DMN in response to methylphenidate treatment. @*Methods@#Fifteen male adolescents with somatic symptoms of ADHD and 15 male adolescents with ADHD without somatic symptoms were included. At baseline and after 6 months of methylphenidate treatment, all adolescents were asked to complete questionnaires for the Korean version of the Dupaul’s ADHD rating scale, the symptom checklist-90-revised-somatization subscales, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Additionally, a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan was conducted. @*Results@#Methylphenidate treatment improved clinical and somatic symptoms in adolescents with ADHD. In addition, it increased brain FC within the DMN from the posterior cingulate cortex (posterior DMN) to the middle prefrontal cortex (anterior DMN). The improvement of somatic symptoms was associated with FC within the DMN from the posterior cingulate cortex to the middle prefrontal cortex in ADHD adolescents with somatic symptoms. @*Conclusion@#Methylphenidate increased brain FC between the anterior and posterior DMN. The improvement of somatic symptoms in adolescents with ADHD was associated with FC within the DMN. The DMN in adolescents with ADHD seems to be associated with the severity of the clinical and somatic symptoms of ADHD.

11.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 348-355, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926926

ABSTRACT

Objective@#During the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, several studies have found that Internet usage and gaming times have increased among adolescents. Parents’ Internet literacy and attitudes toward Internet gaming have been reported to affect children’s Internet gaming disorder (IGD). We hypothesized that parents’ attitudes toward Internet use and gaming would affect the prevalence of IGD among adolescents. @*Methods@#A total of 199 mothers of children who played Internet games were surveyed online to gather information regarding their demographic characteristics, children’s Internet use patterns, psychological factors, and Internet gaming literacy. @*Results@#Among adolescents, increased Internet usage or gaming time was not associated with IGD, but the presence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was. Among parents, anxiety, depression, and family togetherness were not related to IGD, but a positive perception of gaming protected against the development of IGD, whereas a negative perception was a risk factor for IGD. @*Conclusion@#Increased gaming time neither causes nor correlates with IGD in adolescents, even though ADHD may be a risk factor for IGD. Parents’ positive or negative perceptions of gaming can be protective or present a risk factor, respectively, for their children’s development of IGD.

12.
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine ; (6): 265-277, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904047

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Autophagy plays important roles in odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp cells (DPCs) in the developmental stage of tooth bud. Few studies have reported the role of autophagy during reparative dentin formation process. The objective of this study was to discover gene expression pattern correlated to autophagy and their role during odontogenic differentiation process in DPCs. @*METHODS@#After tooth cavities were prepared on the mesial surface of lower first molar crown of rats. Odontogenic differentiation and reparative dentin formation were assessed based on detection of morphology change with hematoxylin and eosin staining. @*RESULTS@#After tooth cavities were prepared on the mesial surface of lower first molar crown of rats, odontogenic differentiation and reparative dentin formation were assessed based on detection of morphology change with hematoxylin and eosin staining and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), whereas autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3MA) reversed. @*Results@#of quantitative polymerized chain reaction array of autophagosome formation related genes revealed that GABARAPL2 was prominently upregulated while expression of other ATG8 family members were moderately increased after tooth cavity preparation. In addition, human DPCs incubated in differentiation medium predominantly upregulated MAP1LC3C, which selectively decreased by 3MA but not by autophagy enhancer trehalose. Knock-down of MAP1LC3C using shRNA resulted in strong downregulation of dentin matrix protein 1 and DSPP as well-known odontogenic marker compared to knock-down of MAP1LC3B during odontogenic differentiation process of human DPCs. @*CONCLUSION@#Our results suggest that MAP1LC3C plays a crucial role in odontogenic differentiation of human DPCs via regulating autophagic flux.

13.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 361-366, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897905

ABSTRACT

Objective@#In somatic symptom disorder (SSD), cognitive dysfunction is related to perceptive distortion that excessively amplifies bodily sensations. The association between high body mass index (BMI) and cognitive dysfunction could be attributed to underlying systemic inflammation. We aimed to evaluate whether patients with SSD and high BMI exhibit increased somatic symptom severity and whether this is mediated by cognitive dysfunction. @*Methods@#This retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted on 54 patients with SSD (20 males/34 females, mean age ± standard deviation: 40.65 ± 13.23 years). Participants’ BMI, laboratory data including complete blood count and lipid profile, results from the Korean Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV, and scores of the Korean-Symptom Checklist 95-Somatization (SCL95-SOM) were analyzed. We performed a path analysis to evaluate BMI as a predictor of somatic symptoms. @*Results@#In a path analysis, the SCL95-SOM score was directly influenced by working memory (b = −0.326, p = 0.032), which was significantly influenced by BMI (b = −0.338, p = 0.009), although there was no direct effect of BMI on the SCL95-SOM score. The path analytic model showed a close fit to the data with the following values: χ2 (df) = 0.918 (1), p = 0.338, root mean square error of approximation = 0.000 (< 0.001), and comparative fit index = 1.00. @*Conclusion@#Patients with SSD and high BMI may exhibit increased somatic symptom severity, and this is mediated by working memory dysfunction. Weight management may help improve symptoms in patients with SSD and high BMI.

14.
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine ; (6): 265-277, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896343

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Autophagy plays important roles in odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp cells (DPCs) in the developmental stage of tooth bud. Few studies have reported the role of autophagy during reparative dentin formation process. The objective of this study was to discover gene expression pattern correlated to autophagy and their role during odontogenic differentiation process in DPCs. @*METHODS@#After tooth cavities were prepared on the mesial surface of lower first molar crown of rats. Odontogenic differentiation and reparative dentin formation were assessed based on detection of morphology change with hematoxylin and eosin staining. @*RESULTS@#After tooth cavities were prepared on the mesial surface of lower first molar crown of rats, odontogenic differentiation and reparative dentin formation were assessed based on detection of morphology change with hematoxylin and eosin staining and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), whereas autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3MA) reversed. @*Results@#of quantitative polymerized chain reaction array of autophagosome formation related genes revealed that GABARAPL2 was prominently upregulated while expression of other ATG8 family members were moderately increased after tooth cavity preparation. In addition, human DPCs incubated in differentiation medium predominantly upregulated MAP1LC3C, which selectively decreased by 3MA but not by autophagy enhancer trehalose. Knock-down of MAP1LC3C using shRNA resulted in strong downregulation of dentin matrix protein 1 and DSPP as well-known odontogenic marker compared to knock-down of MAP1LC3B during odontogenic differentiation process of human DPCs. @*CONCLUSION@#Our results suggest that MAP1LC3C plays a crucial role in odontogenic differentiation of human DPCs via regulating autophagic flux.

15.
Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing ; : 128-140, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894879

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to develop a self-transcendence enhancement program and examine its effect on self-transcendence, spiritual well-being, and psychological well-being in elderly women who lived alone. @*Methods@#A self-transcendence enhancement program was developed through theory, literature review, and in-depth interviews. The theoretical framework came from the Psychoeducational Approach to Transcendence and Health intervention model based on Reed’s mid-range theory of self-transcendence. The program consisted of multiple modalities in a structured, theory-based program lasting for eight weekly sessions. Using a single-group pretest-posttest design, the program was tested on a group of 40 elderly women aged 75 to 84 years who lived alone in Daejeon, South Korea. Participants completed self-reported study questionnaires before and after the program at the elderly welfare center. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 24.0, with significance level set at .05. Paired t-test was used to compare mean differences before and after the program. @*Results@#The mean age of the study participants was 79.1 years. After completing the program, the participants showed higher levels of self-transcendence (t=8.78, p<.001), overall spiritual well-being (t=8.30, p=.002), religious spiritual well-being (t=1.79, p=.040), existential spiritual well-being (t=6.75, p=.002), and positive affect (t=3.77, p=.001) than they did before the program. They also reported lower levels of depression (t=–7.59, p<.001) and negative affect (t=–6.15, p<.001). @*Conclusion@#The self-transcendence enhancement program developed in this study may be effective for improving the level of self-transcendence in elderly women living alone and helping them to attain spiritual and psychological well-being.

16.
Journal of Dental Hygiene Science ; (6): 70-78, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919696

ABSTRACT

Background@#The aim of this study was to analyze the public demand for information about the job of dental hygienists by mining text data collected from the online Q & A section on an Internet portal site. @*Methods@#Text data were collected from inquiries that were posted on the Naver Q & A section from January 2003 to July 2020 using “dental hygienist job recognition,” “role recognition,” “medical assistance,” and “scaling” as search keywords. Text mining techniques were used to identify significant Korean words and their frequency of occurrence. In addition, the association between words was analyzed. @*Results@#A total of 10,753 Korean words related to the job of dental hygienists were extracted from the text data. “Chi-lyo (treatment),” “chigwa (dental clinic),” “ske-illing (scaling),” “itmom (gum),” and “chia (tooth)” were the five most frequently used words. The words were classified into the following areas of job of the dental hygienist: periodontal disease treatment and prevention, medical assistance, patient care and consultation, and others. Among these areas, the number of words related to medical assistance was the largest, with sixty-six association rules found between the words, and “chi-lyo,” “chigwa,” and “ske-illing” as core words. @*Conclusion@#The public demand for information about the job of dental hygienists was mainly related to “chi-lyo,” “chigwa,” and “ske-illing” as core words, demonstrating that scaling is recognized by the public as the job of a dental hygienist. However, the high demand for information related to treatment and medical assistance in the context of dental hygienists indicates that the job of dental hygienists is recognized by the public as being more focused on medical assistance than preventive dental care that are provided with job autonomy.

17.
Journal of Dental Hygiene Science ; (6): 79-85, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919695

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study examines the relationship between the emotional labor and compassion competence of clinical dental hygienists. It attempted to provide basic data to establish a plan to increase the dental hygiene performance of clinical dental hygienists in the future by identifying the factors influencing the dental hygiene work performance. @*Methods@#This study is aimed at clinical dental hygienists working at the Jeollabuk-do Dental Clinic from April to June 2020 by the Convenience Sampling Method. An online survey site program was used to explain the purpose and purpose of the study on social media including the dental hygienist community, and distribute a URL that allows you to participate in the survey only if you agree to the study. @*Results@#In emotional labor, there was a significant difference in job satisfaction and marital status, and in compassion competence, there were significant differences in job satisfaction, final education, and marital status by group. In dental hygiene work performance, compassion competency showed a statistically significant positive correlation. In other words, it was found that the higher the compassion competence, the higher the dental hygiene work performance. It was found that the total number of years worked and the compassion competence that influenced dental hygiene work performance were statistically significant. @*Conclusion@#In summary, in order to improve the dental hygiene work performance of clinical dental hygienists, it is necessary to compassion competence with the subject. To this end, it is believed that various supports, measures, and systematic management should be implemented to compassion competence of clinical dental hygienists.

18.
Ultrasonography ; : 520-529, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919545

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to predict a heavy nodal burden (≥3 metastatic axillary lymph nodes [LNs]) using axillary ultrasonography (US) and US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in patients with early-stage breast cancer. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 403 women (404 cancers) who underwent US-guided FNAB for axillary LN staging from January 2006 to December 2015. US findings and US-guided FNAB results were reviewed and compared using pathology results as the reference. Diagnostic performance was analyzed, and clinicopathological and radiological findings were compared between patients with <3 metastatic LNs and ≥3 metastatic LNs. @*Results@#The final pathology results revealed that 20.5% of cancers had heavy nodal metastases. US-guided FNAB showed significantly higher sensitivity (79.0% vs. 63.0%, P=0.009) and specificity (84.8% vs. 79.3%, P=0.036) in predicting heavy nodal metastases than did US. The presence of a larger number of suspicious LNs (two or more) on axillary US and positive FNAB results were significantly correlated with a heavy nodal burden in the multivariate analysis. The odds ratios were 4.20 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.90 to 9.39) for two suspicious LNs, 9.40 (95% CI, 2.99 to 29.54) for three or more suspicious LNs, and 14.22 (95% CI, 6.78 to 29.82) for positive FNAB results. @*Conclusion@#The number of suspicious LNs detected on axillary US and FNAB results can help predict a heavy axillary nodal burden in patients with early-stage breast cancer.

19.
Ultrasonography ; : 83-92, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919514

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to measure the cancer detection rate of computer-aided detection (CAD) software in preoperative automated breast ultrasonography (ABUS) of breast cancer patients and to determine the characteristics associated with false-negative outcomes. @*Methods@#A total of 129 index lesions (median size, 1.7 cm; interquartile range, 1.2 to 2.4 cm) from 129 consecutive patients (mean age±standard deviation, 53.4±11.8 years) who underwent preoperative ABUS from December 2017 to February 2018 were assessed. An index lesion was defined as a breast cancer confirmed by ultrasonography (US)-guided core needle biopsy. The detection rate of the index lesions, positive predictive value (PPV), and false-positive rate (FPR) of the CAD software were measured. Subgroup analysis was performed to identify clinical and US findings associated with false-negative outcomes. @*Results@#The detection rate of the CAD software was 0.84 (109 of 129; 95% confidence interval, 0.77 to 0.90). The PPV and FPR were 0.41 (221 of 544; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.45) and 0.45 (174 of 387; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.50), respectively. False-negative outcomes were more frequent in asymptomatic patients (P<0.001) and were associated with the following US findings: smaller size (P=0.001), depth in the posterior third (P=0.002), angular or indistinct margin (P<0.001), and absence of architectural distortion (P<0.001). @*Conclusion@#The CAD software showed a promising detection rate of breast cancer. However, radiologists should judge whether CAD software-marked lesions are true- or false-positive lesions, considering its low PPV and high FPR. Moreover, it would be helpful for radiologists to consider the characteristics associated with false-negative outcomes when reading ABUS with CAD.

20.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1100-1108, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918722

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aims to empirically determine if indirect exposure to client violence has significant negative effects on social workers’ posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) the same way direct victimization does. @*Methods@#Using a sample of 1,359 social workers drawn from the data collected by the Seoul Association of Social Workers, this study employs descriptive statistics to examine the prevalence of indirect experiences with client violence, and utilizes a series of hierarchical regression analyses to demonstrate the potential impact of indirect exposure to client violence on PTSD. To assess the severity of PTSD symptoms in participants, the Korean version of the Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R-K) was employed. @*Results@#A descriptive analysis shows that 12.4% of the sample indirectly experienced client violence by witnessing it or hearing about a violent incident, whereas 6.0% were directly victimized. Hierarchical regression analyses indicate that direct experience (B=4.548, p<0.05) and indirect experience (B=7.297, p<0.001) of client violence have a significant association with the scores on IES-R-K. An investigation of the interaction terms between experiences of client violence and violence-prevention training illustrates that such training significantly moderates the influence on the scores on IES-R-K from indirect exposure to client violence (B=-8.639, p<0.01). @*Conclusion@#Social workers who are indirectly exposed to client violence experience PTSD symptoms comparable to their colleagues who were directly victimized. Further, violence-prevention training has greater ameliorative effects with regard to indirect experience of client violence than for direct victimization.

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