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1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 42-55, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919614

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Agonists of the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) play a key role in activating the STING pathway by promoting the production of cytokines. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effects and activation of the systemic immune response of treatment with DMXAA (5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid), a STING agonist, in EML4-ALK lung cancer and CT26 colon cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#The abscopal effects of DMXAA in the treatment of metastatic skin nodules were assessed. EML4-ALK lung cancer and CT26 colon cancer models were used to evaluate these effects after DMXAA treatment. To evaluate the expression of macrophages and T cells, we sacrificed the tumor-bearing mice after DMXAA treatment and obtained the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue and tumor cells. Immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry were performed to analyze the expression of each FFPE and tumor cell. @*Results@#We observed that highly infiltrating immune cells downstream of the STING pathway had increased levels of chemokines after DMXAA treatment. In addition, the levels of CD80 and CD86 in antigen-presenting cells were significantly increased after STING activation. Furthermore, innate immune activation altered the systemic T cell-mediated immune responses, induced proliferation of macrophages, inhibited tumor growth, and increased numbers of cytotoxic memory T cells. Tumor-specific lymphocytes also increased in number after treatment with DMXAA. @*Conclusion@#The abscopal effect of DMXAA treatment on the skin strongly reduced the spread of EML4-ALK lung cancer and CT26 colon cancer through the STING pathway and induced the presentation of antigens.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913817

ABSTRACT

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is becoming essential in the fields of precision oncology. With implementation of NGS in daily clinic, the needs for continued education, facilitated interpretation of NGS results and optimal treatment delivery based on NGS results have been addressed. Molecular tumor board (MTB) is multidisciplinary approach to keep pace with the growing knowledge of complex molecular alterations in patients with advanced solid cancer. Although guidelines for NGS use and MTB have been developed in western countries, there is limitation for reflection of Korea’s public health environment and daily clinical practice. These recommendations provide a critical guidance from NGS panel testing to final treatment decision based on MTB discussion.

3.
Immune Network ; : 10-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811172

ABSTRACT

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have shown remarkable benefit in the treatment of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and have emerged as an effective treatment option even in the first-line setting. ICIs can block inhibitory pathways that restrain the immune response against cancer, restoring and sustaining antitumor immunity. Currently, there are 4 PD-1/PD-L1 blocking agents available in clinics, and immunotherapy-based regimen alone or in combination with chemotherapy is now preferred option. Combination trials assessing combination of ICIs with chemotherapy, targeted therapy and other immunotherapy are ongoing. Controversies remain regarding the use of ICIs in targetable oncogene-addicted subpopulations, but their initial treatment recommendations remained unchanged, with specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors as the choice. For the majority of patients without targetable driver oncogenes, deciding between therapeutic options can be difficult due to lack of direct cross-comparison studies. There are continuous efforts to find predictive biomarkers to find those who respond better to ICIs. PD-L1 protein expressions by immunohistochemistry and tumor mutational burden have emerged as most well-validated biomarkers in multiple clinical trials. However, there still is a need to improve patient selection, and to establish the most effective concurrent or sequential combination therapies in different NSCLC clinical settings. In this review, we will introduce currently used ICIs in NSCLC and analyze most recent trials, and finally discuss how, when and for whom ICIs can be used to provide promising avenues for lung cancer treatment.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Drug Therapy , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms , Oncogenes , Patient Selection , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
4.
Immune Network ; : e10-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898556

ABSTRACT

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have shown remarkable benefit in the treatment of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and have emerged as an effective treatment option even in the first-line setting. ICIs can block inhibitory pathways that restrain the immune response against cancer, restoring and sustaining antitumor immunity. Currently, there are 4 PD-1/PD-L1 blocking agents available in clinics, and immunotherapy-based regimen alone or in combination with chemotherapy is now preferred option. Combination trials assessing combination of ICIs with chemotherapy, targeted therapy and other immunotherapy are ongoing. Controversies remain regarding the use of ICIs in targetable oncogene-addicted subpopulations, but their initial treatment recommendations remained unchanged, with specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors as the choice. For the majority of patients without targetable driver oncogenes, deciding between therapeutic options can be difficult due to lack of direct cross-comparison studies. There are continuous efforts to find predictive biomarkers to find those who respond better to ICIs. PD-L1 protein expressions by immunohistochemistry and tumor mutational burden have emerged as most well-validated biomarkers in multiple clinical trials. However, there still is a need to improve patient selection, and to establish the most effective concurrent or sequential combination therapies in different NSCLC clinical settings. In this review, we will introduce currently used ICIs in NSCLC and analyze most recent trials, and finally discuss how, when and for whom ICIs can be used to provide promising avenues for lung cancer treatment.

5.
Immune Network ; : e10-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890852

ABSTRACT

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have shown remarkable benefit in the treatment of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and have emerged as an effective treatment option even in the first-line setting. ICIs can block inhibitory pathways that restrain the immune response against cancer, restoring and sustaining antitumor immunity. Currently, there are 4 PD-1/PD-L1 blocking agents available in clinics, and immunotherapy-based regimen alone or in combination with chemotherapy is now preferred option. Combination trials assessing combination of ICIs with chemotherapy, targeted therapy and other immunotherapy are ongoing. Controversies remain regarding the use of ICIs in targetable oncogene-addicted subpopulations, but their initial treatment recommendations remained unchanged, with specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors as the choice. For the majority of patients without targetable driver oncogenes, deciding between therapeutic options can be difficult due to lack of direct cross-comparison studies. There are continuous efforts to find predictive biomarkers to find those who respond better to ICIs. PD-L1 protein expressions by immunohistochemistry and tumor mutational burden have emerged as most well-validated biomarkers in multiple clinical trials. However, there still is a need to improve patient selection, and to establish the most effective concurrent or sequential combination therapies in different NSCLC clinical settings. In this review, we will introduce currently used ICIs in NSCLC and analyze most recent trials, and finally discuss how, when and for whom ICIs can be used to provide promising avenues for lung cancer treatment.

6.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1112-1119, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831143

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors represents a major advance in the treatment of lung cancer, allowing sustained recovery in a significant proportion of patients. Nivolumab is a monoclonal anti–programmed death cell protein 1 antibody licensed for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after prior chemotherapy. In this study, we describe the demographic and clinical outcomes of patients with advanced NSCLC treated with nivolumab in the Korean expanded access program. @*Materials and Methods@#Previously treated patients with advanced non-squamous and squamous NSCLC patients received nivolumab at 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks up to 36 months. Efficacy data including investigator-assessed tumor response, progression data, survival, and safety data were collected. @*Results@#Two hundred ninety-nine patients were treated across 36 Korean centers. The objective response rate and disease control rate were 18% and 49%, respectively; the median progression-free survival was 2.1 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.87 to 3.45), and the overall survival (OS) was 13.2 months (95% CI, 10.6 to 18.9). Patients with smoking history and patients who experienced immune-related adverse events showed a prolonged OS. Cox regression analysis identified smoking history, presence of immune-related adverse events as positive factors associated with OS, while liver metastasis was a negative factor associated with OS. The safety profile was generally comparable to previously reported data. @*Conclusion@#This real-world analysis supports the use of nivolumab for pretreated NSCLC patients, including those with an older age.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719422

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a deadly disease in which precision medicine needs to be incorporated. We aimed to implement next-generation sequencing (NGS) in determining actionable targets to guide appropriate molecular targeted therapy in HNSCC patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-three tumors and matched blood samples underwent targeted sequencing of 244 genes using the Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform with an average depth of coverage of greater than 1,000×. Clinicopathological data from patients were obtained from 17 centers in Korea, and were analyzed in correlation with NGS data. RESULTS: Ninety-two of the 93 tumors were amenable to data analysis. TP53 was the most common mutation, occurring in 47 (51%) patients, followed by CDKN2A (n=23, 25%), CCND1 (n=22, 24%), and PIK3CA (n=19, 21%). The total mutational burden was similar between human papillomavirus (HPV)–negative vs. positive tumors, although TP53, CDKN2A and CCND1 gene alterations occurred more frequently in HPV-negative tumors. HPV-positive tumors were significantly associated with immune signature-related genes compared to HPV-negative tumors. Mutations of NOTCH1 (p=0.027), CDKN2A (p < 0.001), and TP53 (p=0.038) were significantly associated with poorer overall survival. FAT1 mutations were highly enriched in cisplatin responders, and potentially targetable alterations such as PIK3CA E545K and CDKN2A R58X were noted in 14 patients (15%). CONCLUSION: We found several targetable genetic alterations, and our findings suggest that implementation of precision medicine in HNSCC is feasible. The predictive value of each targetable alteration should be assessed in a future umbrella trial using matched molecular targeted agents.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cisplatin , Epithelial Cells , Head , Humans , Korea , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Neck , Precision Medicine , Statistics as Topic
8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 898-904, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762043

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway is known to play a crucial role in carcinogenesis in various malignancies, including lung cancer regarding tumorigenesis, angiogenesis, and cellular differentiation. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of components of Shh pathway as a prognostic marker in extensive stage small cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data of 36 patients who were diagnosed with ES-SCLC between 2008 and 2012 at a single center. We performed immuo-histochemistry for glioma-associated oncogene homolog zinc finger protein 1 (Gli1), patched, Shh, and Ptch-mediated repression of smoothened (Smo) proteins using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue derived from primary tumors. We then conducted survival analysis to evaluate the prognostic impact of these markers. RESULTS: All 36 patients received platinum-based doublet chemotherapy. The median progression free survival and median overall survival were 6.9 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 6.5–7.3] and 11.7 months (95% CI, 9.1–14.3), respectively. The overall response rate was 84%. Of the 36 tissue specimens examined, over-expression of Gli1, Patched, Shh, and Smo was found in 12 (33.3%), five (13.9%), five (13.9%), and six (16.7%) cases, respectively. We found that high expression of Shh was associated with worse progression free survival (6.3 vs. 7.6 months, p=0.005) and overall survival (9.2 vs. 12.0 months, p=0.039) by both univariate and multivariate analyses, whereas other markers were not related to patient prognosis. CONCLUSION: A high proportion of small cell lung cancer tumors express proteins related to Shh pathway, and over-expression of Shh is correlated with poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
Carcinogenesis , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Hedgehog Proteins , Hedgehogs , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Multivariate Analysis , Oncogenes , Prognosis , Repression, Psychology , Retrospective Studies , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma , Zinc Fingers
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-6982

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The recent discovery and characterization of an oncogenic ROS1 gene rearrangement has raised significant interest because small molecule inhibitors are effective in these tumors. The aim of this study was to determine frequency and clinicopathological features associated with ROS1 rearrangement in patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 261 patients who underwent surgery for CCA between October 1997 and August 2013 were identified from an international, multi-institutional database. ROS1 rearrangement was evaluated by break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization using tissue microarrays of these patients. RESULTS: Of 261 CCA evaluated, three cases (1.1%) showed ROS1 rearrangement by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), all of which were derived from intrahepatic origin. ROS1 protein expression was observed in 38 samples (19.1%). Significantly larger tumor size was observed in ROS1 immunohistochemistry (IHC)–negative patients compared with ROS1 IHC–positive patients. ROS1 FISH–positive patients had a single tumor with a median size of 4 cm and well-to-moderate differentiation. Overall, there was no difference in terms of baseline characteristics, overall survival, and recurrence-free survival between ROS1-positive and -negative patients. CONCLUSION: ROS1 rearrangement was detected in 1.1% of CCA patients. Although rare, conduct of clinical trials using ROS1 inhibitors in these genetically unique patients is warranted.


Subject(s)
Cholangiocarcinoma , Fluorescence , Gene Rearrangement , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Incidence
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-20381

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Pediatric-type sarcomas such as rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), Ewing sarcoma (EWS), primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), and desmoplastic small round-cell tumor (DSRCT) are rare in adults, with limited studies on their prognosis and optimal treatment strategies. We aimed to examine the outcome of children and adult patients with RMS, EWS, PNET, and DSRCT and relevant prognostic factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 220 pediatric-type sarcoma patients at a single institution between 1985 and 2011. Comparisons were made in order to examine differences in demographics, disease characteristics, and survival. Survival analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank tests and Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: A total of 220 consecutive patients were identified at our institute. Median age was 15.6 years (range, 0 to 81 years) and there were 108 children (49%) and 112 adult patients (51%). According to histological classification, 106 patients (48.2%) had RMS, 60 (27.3%) had EWS, 50 (22.7%) had PNET, and 4 (1.8%) had DSRCT. With a median follow-up period of 6.6 years, the estimated median overall survival (OS) of all patients was 75 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 27.2 to 122.8 months) and median event-free survival (EFS) for all patients was 11 months (95% CI, 8.8 to 13.2 months). No significant difference in OS and EFS was observed between adults and children. In multivariate analysis, distant metastasis (hazard ratio [HR], 1.617; 95% CI, 1.022 to 2.557; p=0.040) and no debulking surgery (HR, 1.443; 95% CI, 1.104 to 1.812; p=0.012) showed independent association with worse OS. CONCLUSION: Metastatic disease and no surgical treatment are poor prognostic factors for OS among pediatric-type sarcomas for both adults and children.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Classification , Demography , Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Rhabdomyosarcoma , Sarcoma , Sarcoma, Ewing
11.
Gut and Liver ; : 329-334, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-158232

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To investigate pre-existing hepatitis B virus (HBV) quasispecies and the genotypic evolution of several variants. METHODS: From six patients with lamivudine (LAM) failure, serum samples at pretreatment, 6 months of LAM therapy, and virologic breakthrough were obtained. One hundred clones with HBV inserts in each patient were sequenced at each time point. Pretreatment serum samples were also analyzed from six patients who achieved good responses to LAM therapy. RESULTS: Among the six patients with LAM failure, the analysis of 100 clones from patient 1 revealed the substitutions L180M in 1% of clones and V173L in 2% of clones. Patient 2 had substitutions of L80V, W153Q, and L180M. In patient 3, mutations conferring resistance to adefovir at V84I (5%), I169L (1%), and N236H (7%) and entecavir at S202G (2%) were detected. Patient 4 had mutations at T128N (1%), I169L (1%), V173L (2%), A181V (1%), and Q215H (1%). In patient 5, M204V/I was detected in 1% and 2% of clones, respectively. L80I and V173L were also identified in patient 6. In the six patients who responded to LAM, the degree of overall quasispecies was less than those with LAM failure. CONCLUSIONS: Various HBV quasispecies associated with drug resistance existed before treatment, and the quasispecies dynamically changed through LAM therapy.


Subject(s)
Adenine , Clone Cells , Drug Resistance , Guanine , Hepatitis , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis, Chronic , Humans , Lamivudine , Lipopolysaccharides , Organophosphonates
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-196073

ABSTRACT

Transglutaminase 2 (TG2), a cross-linking enzyme, is involved in drug resistance and in the constitutive activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB). We investigated the association of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment efficacy with TG2 and NF-kappaB expression in 120 patients: 102 with adenocarcinoma and 18 with other histologic types. All patients underwent surgery; 88 received adjuvant chemotherapy, with 28 receiving platinum-based doublet chemotherapy as first-line treatment and 29 receiving epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy. Patients' TG2 and NF-kappaB expression values were calculated semiquantitatively. The median TG2 value was 50 (range, 0-300) and the median NF-kappaB value was 20 (range, 0-240). Disease-free survival did not differ between the low- and high-TG2 groups. Among patients who received palliative platinum-based doublet chemotherapy, progression free survival (PFS) was longer in the low-TG2 group than in the high-TG2 group (11.0 vs. 7.0 months; P=0.330). Among those who received EGFR-TKI therapy, PFS was also longer in the low-TG2 group than in the high-TG 2 group (11.0 vs. 2.0 months; P=0.013). Similarly, in EGFR wild-type patients treated with EGFR-TKI, PFS was longer in patients with low TG2 expression (9.0 vs. 2.0 months; P=0.013). TG2 expression levels can predict PFS in patients with NSCLC treated with EGFR-TKI.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Disease-Free Survival , Female , GTP-Binding Proteins/biosynthesis , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , NF-kappa B/biosynthesis , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , ErbB Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , Transglutaminases/biosynthesis , Treatment Outcome
13.
Gut and Liver ; : 51-57, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-214011

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) fluctuate considerably over time. However, it has not been determined whether these symptoms are affected by the menstrual cycle in female IBD patients. This study analyzed the effects of the menstrual cycle on IBD symptom variation. METHODS: This was a prospective study of 91 study subjects (47 IBD patients and 44 healthy controls) who reported daily symptoms and signs throughout their menstrual cycles. RESULTS: IBD patients had significantly more frequent gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea (30% vs 7%, p=0.006), flatulence (53% vs 22%, p=0.003), and abdominal pain as compared to controls (68% vs 38%, p=0.006). The IBD patients also experienced more frequent systemic premenstrual symptoms than the controls (79% vs 50%, p=0.003). More severe abdominal pain (p=0.002) and lower mean general condition scores (p=0.001) were noted during the menstrual phase as compared to the pre- or post-menstrual phase in both groups. IBD patients experienced more frequent premenstrual gastrointestinal symptoms than controls, but their IBD symptoms did not change significantly during the menstrual cycle. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of the cyclic alterations in gastrointestinal and systemic symptoms may be helpful in determining the true exacerbation of disease in female IBD patients.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Female , Flatulence , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Menstrual Cycle , Nausea , Prospective Studies
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-54658

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: A population-based study was conducted in order to examine the characteristics of family members of cancer patients in comparison with the general population and also to evaluate the psychosocial impact of cancer patients on their family members. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES IV) (2007-2009) dataset, we identified 460 cancer patients and then selected family members of these patients who were aged 20 years or older (n=565). The control group was sampled from members of families without a cancer patient with matching for sex and age (n=2,260). Serial conditional logistic regression models were used for comparison of characteristics between family members of cancer patients and subjects in the control group. RESULTS: Family members of cancer patients were less employed (57.9% vs. 63.0%, p<0.001), more functionally limited (20.2% vs. 16.5%, p=0.032), and had lower self-rated health (p=0.023) compared with sex and age-matched control subjects. They also had a significantly higher level of stress (79.7% vs. 76.1%, p=0.008), history of depression (12.9% vs. 10.2%, p=0.035), and current depressive symptoms (5.5% vs. 3.5%, p=0.038). However, higher physical activity was reported in family members of cancer patients (13.6% vs. 9.6%, p=0.003) than in control subjects. The presence of a cancer patient in the family showed an association with current depressive symptoms (odds ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 2.48; p=0.028), however, the association was no longer significant after adjustment for household income, education level, and employment status (p=0.304). CONCLUSION: Family members of cancer patients are more susceptible to depression, probably due to adverse change in socioeconomic status. Use of multidisciplinary approaches for promotion of psychological health and well-being is essential.


Subject(s)
Aged , Depression , Employment , Family Characteristics , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Motor Activity , Social Class
15.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 352-357, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-154808

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Anaplastic thyroid cancer is known to have a poor prognosis due to its aggressive and rapid metastasis with median survival of less than 6 months. Multimodal treatment involving surgery and chemoradiotherapy has been used to improve the survival of patients. Here, we retrospectively review of treatment outcome of 13 consecutive patients who were treated at a single center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 13 anaplastic thyroid cancer patients who received multidisciplinary treatment between 2006 and 2010. Kaplan-Meier survival curve was used to analyze progression-free survival and overall survival of patients. RESULTS: The median patient age at diagnosis was 69 years, and six patients had stage IVc diseases. Eight patients received primary surgery followed by radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Five patients received weekly doxorubicin-based definitive CCRT, but only one patient's condition remained stable, while the rest experienced rapid disease progression. The median progression-free survival was 2.8 months (95% CI, 1.2-4.4 months), and the median overall survival was 3.8 months (95% CI, 3.0-4.6 months). CONCLUSION: Patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer showed poor prognosis despite multimodality treatment. Therefore, identification of novel therapeutic targets is warranted to take an effective mode of treatment.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Combined Modality Therapy , Disease-Free Survival , Doxorubicin/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Neoplasms/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
16.
Gut and Liver ; : 118-121, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-196145

ABSTRACT

Synchronous esophageal and gastric cancers with the pathologic features of a squamous cell carcinoma are extremely rare. A 57-year-old male visited our hospital with a history of hematemesis and was diagnosed with a synchronous cancer. He underwent a staging work-up, and the resectable lesion in the stomach was operated on following radiologic and endoscopic evaluations. The pathologic examination revealed a synchronous cancer consisting of squamous cell carcinoma in the distal esophagus and the cardia of the stomach. We report a case of a synchronous cancer that was successfully treated by surgical resection followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy. We also discuss the hypothesis regarding the origin and presentation of the synchronous cancer and highlight the importance of careful surveillance by physicians at the time of diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cardia , Chemoradiotherapy , Esophageal Neoplasms , Esophagus , Hematemesis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Stomach , Stomach Neoplasms
17.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1025-1027, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-116321

ABSTRACT

Long QT syndrome is associated with lethal tachyarrhythmia that can lead to syncope, seizure, and sudden death. Congenital long QT syndrome is a genetic disorder, characterized by delayed cardiac repolarization and prolongation of the QT interval on the electrocardiogram (ECG). Type 2 congenital long QT is linked to mutations in the human ether a go-go-related gene (HERG). There are environmental triggers of adverse cardiac events such as emotional and acoustic stimuli, but fever can also be a potential trigger of life-threatening arrhythmias in long QT syndrome type 2 patients. Herein, we report a healthy young man who experienced fever-induced polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and QT interval prolongation.


Subject(s)
Adult , Electrocardiography , Fever/complications , Humans , Long QT Syndrome/diagnosis , Male , Ventricular Fibrillation/diagnosis
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