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1.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 69-74, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925708

ABSTRACT

End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on hemodialysis have poor nutritional status and associated problems such as inflammation and sarcopenia. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) is an important measure of uremic toxins, and urea reduction is a marker of hemodialysis efficacy. However, a low protein diet for lower BUN could aggravate malnutrition in patients, and optimal pre-dialysis BUN is not defined. We investigated the association of pre-dialysis BUN with patients’ comorbidities and the relationship between pre-dialysis BUN and serum albumin as a nutrient marker. Among the 67 patients, the average pre- and post-dialysis BUN were 59.2 and 15.0 mg/dL, respectively, serum creatinine was 10.1 mg/dL, and the average serum albumin was 4.0 g/dL. Patients’ age was negatively correlated with serum creatinine (r=−0.277, p<0.05) and albumin (r=−0.453, p<0.001). Predialysis BUN showed a significant positive correlation with serum albumin (r=0.287, p<0.05) and creatinine (r=0.454, p<0.001). However, the predialysis BUN was not significantly related to diabetes, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, or cerebrovascular disease. Hemodialysis patients with high pre-dialysis BUN and high serum creatinine could be regarded as having good nutritional status. The significance of this study lies in the potential utility of pre-dialysis blood urea nitrogen as an indicator of the nutritional status of patients. Liberal protein intake might be recommended to adequately dialyzed patients.

2.
Gut and Liver ; : 225-231, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874587

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Some cases of gastric low-grade dysplasia (LGD) and high-grade dysplasia (HGD) on forceps biopsy (FB) are diagnosed as gastric cancer (GC) after endoscopic resection (ER). This study aims to evaluate the clinical outcomes of ER for gastric LGD and HGD on pretreatment FB and to identify the factors that predict pathologic upstaging to GC. @*Methods@#Patients who underwent ER for LGD and HGD on pretreatment FB from March 2005 to February 2018 in 14 hospitals in South Korea were enrolled, and the patients’ medical records were reviewed retrospectively. @*Results@#This study included 2,150 cases of LGD and 1,534 cases of HGD diagnosed by pretreatment FB. In total, 589 of 2,150 LGDs (27.4%) were diagnosed as GC after ER. Helicobacter pylori infection, smoking history, tumor location in the lower third of the stomach, tumor size >10 mm, depressed lesion, and ulceration significantly predicted GC. A total of 1,115 out of 1,534 HGDs (72.7%) were diagnosed with GC after ER. Previous history of GC, H. pylori infection, smoking history, tumor location in the lower third of the stomach, tumor size >10 mm, depressed lesion, and ulceration were significantly associated with GC. As the number of risk factors predicting GC increased in both LGD and HGD on pretreatment FB, the rate of upstaging to GC after ER increased. @*Conclusions@#A substantial proportion of LGDs and HGDs on pretreatment FB were diagnosed as GC after ER. Accurate ER procedures such as endoscopic submucosal dissection should be recommended in cases of LGD and HGD with factors predicting pathologic upstaging to GC.

3.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 872-880, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913985

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The utility of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for differentiating gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and leiomyomas of the stomach is not well known. We aimed to evaluate the ability of EUS for differentiating gastric GISTs and leiomyomas. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with histopathologically proven GISTs (n=274) and leiomyomas (n=87). In two consensus meetings, the inter-observer variability in the EUS image analysis was reduced. Using logistic regression analyses, we selected predictive factors and constructed a predictive model and nomogram for differentiating GISTs from leiomyomas. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to measure the discrimination performance in the development and internal validation sets. @*Results@#Multivariate analysis identified heterogeneity (odds ratio [OR], 9.48), non-cardia (OR, 19.11), and older age (OR, 1.06) as independent predictors of GISTs. The areas under the ROC curve of the predictive model using age, sex, and four EUS factors (homogeneity, location, anechoic spaces, and dimpling or ulcer) were 0.916 (sensitivity, 0.908; specificity, 0.793) and 0.904 (sensitivity, 0.908; specificity, 0.782) in the development and internal validation sets, respectively. @*Conclusions@#The predictive model and nomogram using age, sex and homogeneity, tumor location, presence of anechoic spaces, and presence of dimpling or ulcer on EUS may facilitate differentiation between GISTs and leiomyomas.

4.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 452-457, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832146

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Frequent bleeding after endoscopic resection (ER) has been reported in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We aimed to evaluate the association and clinical significance of bleeding with ER in ESRD patients on dialysis. @*Methods@#Between February 2008 and December 2018, 7,571 patients, including 47 ESRD patients on dialysis who underwent ER for gastric neoplasia, were enrolled. A total of 47 ESRDpatients on dialysis were propensity score-matched 1:10 to 470 non-ESRD patients, to adjust for between-group differences in variables such as age, sex, comorbidities, anticoagulation use, tumor characteristics, and ER method. Matching was performed using an optimal matching algorithm. For the matched data, clustered comparisons were performed using the generalized estimating equation method. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Frequency and outcomes of post-ER bleeding were evaluated. @*Results@#Bleeding was more frequent in the ESRD with dialysis group than in the non-ESRD group. ESRD with dialysis conferred a significant risk of post-ER bleeding (odds ratio, 6.1; 95% confidence interval, 2.7–13.6; p<0.0001). All post-ER bleeding events were controlled using endoscopic hemostasis except in 1 non-ESRD case that needed surgery. @*Conclusions@#ESRD with dialysis confers a bleeding risk after ER. However, all bleeding events could be managed endoscopically without sequelae. Concern about bleeding should not stop endoscopists from performing ER in ESRD patients on dialysis.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831877

ABSTRACT

The global prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing with the aging of populations worldwide. As kidney function declines, the accumulation of metabolic waste products and excessive electrolytes can significantly impair the health of patients with CKD. As nutritional management of patients with CKD is thought to control uremic symptoms and provide beneficial effects on the progression of kidney dysfunction, the diet of patients with CKD should be an important consideration in their care. Many guidelines recommend limiting protein intake in these patients, as high-protein diets aggravate kidney dysfunction. Excess sodium may be associated with CKD progression and all-cause mortality and, therefore, limiting salt intake is generally recommended. Low potassium is associated with muscle weakness and hypertension, whereas high potassium is associated with cardiac arrhythmia. Therefore, recent guidelines recommend adjusting dietary potassium intake on an individual basis to maintain serum potassium levels within the normal range. Appropriate dietary calcium intake is recommended to maintain calcium balance in patients with CKD G3, G4. Given the many dietary considerations for patients with CKD, effective nutritional management is challenging. Individualized strategies are needed to ensure the best outcome for patients with CKD.

6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816686

ABSTRACT

Phlegmonous gastritis is a disease caused by a bacterial infection of the gastric wall. This condition is rare, but when it does occur, its prognosis appears to be poor. The underlying etiology is largely unknown, but an immunocompromised state is considered an important risk factor. An 85-year-old woman presented with a confused mentality, fever, epigastric pain, and melena. There was no history of alcohol drinking or smoking, nor of previous gastric surgery. On the other hand, there was a history of senile dementia and cognitive impairment. Initial contrast-enhanced abdominal CT revealed gastric wall edema at the antrum with mucosal hyper-enhancement and an abscess in the thickened antrum. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy on the fourth hospital day showed dark-colored fluid retention in the stomach. The gastric mucosa was inflamed and friable, with several ulcerative lesions showing purulent discharge. A toothpick was found in the process of identifying the base of the ulcerative lesion and was removed. Eventually, phlegmonous gastritis due to the penetration of a toothpick was diagnosed. After endoscopic toothpick removal, the patient's symptoms improved dramatically. Serial endoscopy revealed improvement in the gastric mucosa. This case is an example of phlegmonous gastritis caused by a foreign substance in the gastric wall of a patient with senile dementia. During upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in this case, identification of the base of ulcerative lesion played a critical role in the diagnosis.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715367

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between family history of gastrointestinal (GI) cancers and incidence of any GI cancer in the Korean population. METHODS: Between January 2015 and July 2016, 711 GI cancer patients and 849 controls in 16 hospitals in Korea were enrolled. Personal medical histories, life styles, and family history of GI cancers were collected via questionnaire. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in the incidence of family history of GI cancer between GI cancer patients and controls (p=0.002). Patients with family history of GI cancer tended to be diagnosed as GI cancer at younger age than those without family history (p=0.016). The family members of GI cancer patients who were diagnosed before 50 years of age were more frequently diagnosed as GI cancer before the age of 50 years (p=0.017). After adjusting for major confounding factors, age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.065, 95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.053–1.076), male gender (AOR 2.270, 95% CI; 1.618–3.184), smoking (AOR 1.570, 95% CI; 1.130–2.182), and sibling's history of GI cancer (AOR 1.973, 95% CI; 1.246–3.126) remained independently associated with GI cancers. CONCLUSIONS: GI cancer patients tended to have a first relative with a history of concordant GI cancer. Personal factors (old age and male) and lifestyle (smoking) contribute to the development of GI cancer, independently. Individuals with high risk for GI cancers may be advised to undergo screening at an earlier age.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Life Style , Male , Mass Screening , Medical History Taking , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714850

ABSTRACT

Severe eating disorders characterized by repetitive episodes of purging and vomiting can occasionally trigger acute kidney injury. However, interstitial nephritis induced by episodes of repeated vomiting has rarely been reported, and the pathophysiology of this entity remains unknown. A 26-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of known hypokalemia. His serum electrolyte profile showed: sodium 133 mEq/L, potassium 2.6 mEq/L, chloride 72 mEq/L, total carbon dioxide 50 mEq/L, blood urea nitrogen/creatinine ratio (BUN/Cr) 21.9/1.98 mg/dL, and magnesium 2.0 mg/dL. Arterial blood gas analysis showed: pH 7.557, partial pressure of carbon dioxide 65.8 mmHg, and bicarbonate 58.5 mEq/L. His urinary potassium concentration was 73.2 mEq/L, and Cr was 111 mg/dL. Renal biopsy revealed acute tubular necrosis and tubulointerstitial nephritis with a few shrunken glomeruli. Repeated psychogenic vomiting may precipitate acute kidney injury and interstitial nephritis secondary to volume depletion and hypokalemia. Serum electrolyte levels and renal function should be carefully monitored in patients diagnosed with eating disorders to prevent tubular ischemia and interstitial nephritis.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Adult , Anorexia Nervosa , Anorexia , Biopsy , Blood Gas Analysis , Carbon Dioxide , Eating , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hypokalemia , Ischemia , Magnesium , Male , Necrosis , Nephritis, Interstitial , Partial Pressure , Potassium , Sodium , Urea , Vomiting
9.
Gut and Liver ; : 271-277, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714614

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Rebleeding is associated with mortality in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB), and risk stratification is important for the management of these patients. The purpose of our study was to examine the risk factors associated with rebleeding in patients with PUB. METHODS: The Korean Peptic Ulcer Bleeding registry is a large prospectively collected database of patients with PUB who were hospitalized between 2014 and 2015 at 28 medical centers in Korea. We examined the basic characteristics and clinical outcomes of patients in this registry. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the factors associated with rebleeding. RESULTS: In total, 904 patients with PUB were registered, and 897 patients were analyzed. Rebleeding occurred in 7.1% of the patients (64), and the 30-day mortality was 1.0% (nine patients). According to the multivariate analysis, the risk factors for rebleeding were the presence of co-morbidities, use of multiple drugs, albumin levels, and hematemesis/hematochezia as initial presentations. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of co-morbidities, use of multiple drugs, albumin levels, and initial presentations with hematemesis/hematochezia can be indicators of rebleeding in patients with PUB. The wide use of proton pump inhibitors and prompt endoscopic interventions may explain the low incidence of rebleeding and low mortality rates in Korea.


Subject(s)
Hemorrhage , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Mortality , Multivariate Analysis , Peptic Ulcer Hemorrhage , Peptic Ulcer , Prospective Studies , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Risk Factors
10.
Gut and Liver ; : 226-231, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194966

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The resistance rate of Helicobacter pylori is gradually increasing. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of levofloxacin-based third-line H. pylori eradication in peptic ulcer disease. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2014, 110 patients in 14 medical centers received levofloxacin-based third-line H. pylori eradication therapy for peptic ulcer disease. Of these, 88 were included in the study; 21 were excluded because of lack of follow-up and one was excluded for poor compliance. Their eradication rates, treatment regimens and durations, and types of peptic ulcers were analyzed. RESULTS: The overall eradiation rate was 71.6%. The adherence rate was 80.0%. All except one received a proton-pump inhibitor, amoxicillin, and levofloxacin. One received a proton-pump inhibitor, amoxicillin, levofloxacin, and clarithromycin, and the eradication was successful. Thirty-one were administered the therapy for 7 days, 25 for 10 days, and 32 for 14 days. No significant differences were observed in the eradication rates between the three groups (7-days, 80.6% vs 10-days, 64.0% vs 14-days, 68.8%, p=0.353). Additionally, no differences were found in the eradiation rates according to the type of peptic ulcer (gastric ulcer, 73.2% vs duodenal/gastroduodenal ulcer, 68.8%, p=0.655). CONCLUSIONS: Levofloxacin-based third-line H. pylori eradication showed efficacy similar to that of previously reported first/second-line therapies.


Subject(s)
Amoxicillin , Clarithromycin , Compliance , Follow-Up Studies , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Humans , Levofloxacin , Peptic Ulcer , Ulcer
11.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 162-170, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-193487

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: An incomplete virological response has been observed to tenofovir dipivoxil fumarate (TDF) in nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA)-experienced chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. This study investigated the efficacy of TDF in NA-naïve CHB patients 96 weeks after treatment. METHODS: CHB patients treated with TDF were enrolled retrospectively between November 2012 and January 2016. We assessed virological and biochemical parameters. RESULTS: The study enrolled 179 NA-naïve patients with a median follow-up duration of 59.6 weeks. The serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA level decreased significantly during treatment. The complete virological response (CVR) rate was 83.21% at week 96. In univariate analyses, the predictors of a CVR at 96 weeks were the baseline HBV DNA level (CVR vs. no-CVR, HBV DNA log10 mean value 7.34 vs. 7.86, 95% confidential interval [CI]: -7.89 to -7.37; p < 0.001) and male sex (CVR vs. no-CVR, 49.1% vs. 81.3%, odds ratio [OR] 0.22, 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.87; p = 0.025). In the multivariate analysis, male sex predicted a CVR at week 96. The CVR was significantly lower in males than in females (OR 0.12, 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.96; p = 0.046). CONCLUSIONS: TDF was effective for treating CHB for more than 2 years in NA-naïve patients.


Subject(s)
DNA , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis, Chronic , Humans , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Odds Ratio , Retrospective Studies , Tenofovir
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-143626

ABSTRACT

Eradication of Helicobacter pylori using first-line therapy is becoming less effective. Subjects who had been treated for H. pylori infection were prospectively enrolled through an on-line database registry from October 2010 to December 2012. Demographic data, detection methods, treatment indication, regimens, durations, compliance, adverse events, and eradication results for H. pylori infection were collected. Data of 3,700 patients from 34 hospitals were analyzed. The overall eradication rate of the first-line therapy was 73.0%. Eradication failure was significantly associated with old age, concomitant medication, and comorbidity. Regional differences in eradication rates were observed. The most common first-line therapy was proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapy (standard triple therapy, STT) for 7 days (86.8%). The eradication rates varied with regimens, being 73% in STT, 81.8% in bismuth-based quadruple therapy, 100% in sequential therapy, and 90.3% in concomitant therapy. The eradication rate in treatment-naïve patients was higher than that in patients previously treated for H. pylori infection (73.8% vs. 58.5%, P < 0.001). The overall eradication rate for second-line therapy was 84.3%. There was no statistical difference in eradication rates among various regimens. H. pylori eradication rate using STT is decreasing in Korea and has become sub-optimal, suggesting the need for alternative regimens to improve the efficacy of first-line therapy for H. pylori infection.


Subject(s)
Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Databases, Factual , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Helicobacter Infections/drug therapy , Helicobacter pylori/isolation & purification , Humans , Internet , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Registries , Republic of Korea , Treatment Outcome
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-28304

ABSTRACT

Anemia is common in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). Though erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) have been strongly endorsed in guidelines, it is of particular financial interest. Recently, the reimbursement of ESAs in non-dialytic patients was started by the Korean National Health Insurance System. Thus, we investigated the impact of the reimbursement of ESAs on the anemia care in non-dialytic CKD patients. Medical records of patients with advanced CKD (estimated GFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m2) were reviewed. Use of ESAs, blood transfusion, and hemoglobin concentrations were analyzed from one year prior to reimbursement to three years following. We used multivariable modified Poisson regression to estimate the utilization prevalence ratio (PRs). A total of 1,791 medical records were analyzed. The proportion of patients receiving ESAs increased from 14.8% before reimbursement to a peak 33.6% in 1 yr after reimbursement; thereafter, ESA use decreased to 22.4% in 3 yr after reimbursement (compared with baseline; PR, 2.19 [95% CI, 1.40-3.42]). In patients with Hb <10 g/dL, the proportion of receiving ESAs increased from 32.1% before reimbursement to 66.7% in 3 yr after reimbursement (compared with baseline; PR, 2.04 [95% CI, 1.25-3.32]). Mean hemoglobin concentrations were 10.06±1.54 g/dL before reimbursement and increased to 10.78±1.51 g/dL in 3 yr after the reimbursement change (P=0.001). However, the requirement of blood transfusion was not changed over time. With the reimbursement of ESAs, the advanced CKD patients were more likely to be treated with ESAs, and the hemoglobin concentrations increased.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anemia/complications , Blood Transfusion , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Hematinics/therapeutic use , Hematocrit , Hemoglobins/analysis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , National Health Programs , Poisson Distribution , Prevalence , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-143636

ABSTRACT

Eradication of Helicobacter pylori using first-line therapy is becoming less effective. Subjects who had been treated for H. pylori infection were prospectively enrolled through an on-line database registry from October 2010 to December 2012. Demographic data, detection methods, treatment indication, regimens, durations, compliance, adverse events, and eradication results for H. pylori infection were collected. Data of 3,700 patients from 34 hospitals were analyzed. The overall eradication rate of the first-line therapy was 73.0%. Eradication failure was significantly associated with old age, concomitant medication, and comorbidity. Regional differences in eradication rates were observed. The most common first-line therapy was proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapy (standard triple therapy, STT) for 7 days (86.8%). The eradication rates varied with regimens, being 73% in STT, 81.8% in bismuth-based quadruple therapy, 100% in sequential therapy, and 90.3% in concomitant therapy. The eradication rate in treatment-naïve patients was higher than that in patients previously treated for H. pylori infection (73.8% vs. 58.5%, P < 0.001). The overall eradication rate for second-line therapy was 84.3%. There was no statistical difference in eradication rates among various regimens. H. pylori eradication rate using STT is decreasing in Korea and has become sub-optimal, suggesting the need for alternative regimens to improve the efficacy of first-line therapy for H. pylori infection.


Subject(s)
Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Databases, Factual , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Helicobacter Infections/drug therapy , Helicobacter pylori/isolation & purification , Humans , Internet , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Registries , Republic of Korea , Treatment Outcome
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-81478

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) is a life-threatening condition, despite advances in diagnostic technology and strategies for treatment. A strong predictor of mortality in this condition is septic shock. This study describes clinical, biochemical, and radiologic features in patients with PLA with or without septic shock, with the intent of describing risk factors for septic shock. METHODS: Of 358 patients with PLA enrolled, 30 suffered septic shock and the remaining 328 did not. We reviewed the medical records including etiologies, underlying diseases, laboratory, radiologic and microbiologic findings, methods of treatment and treatment outcomes. RESULTS: The case fatality rate was 6.1%. In univariate analysis, the presence of general weakness, mental change, low platelet level, prolonged PT, high BUN level, high creatinine level, low albumin level, high AST level, high CRP level, abscess size >6 cm, the presence of gas-forming abscess, APACHE II score ≥20, and the presence of Klebsiella pneumoniae infection were significantly associated with septic shock. Multivariate analysis showed the presence of mental change (p=0.004), gas-forming abscess (p=0.012), and K. pneumoniae infection (p=0.027) were independent predictors for septic shock. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of mental change, gas-forming abscess, and K. pneumoniae infection were independent predictors for septic shock in patients with PLA.


Subject(s)
Abscess , APACHE , Blood Platelets , Creatinine , Humans , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Liver Abscess, Pyogenic , Medical Records , Mortality , Multivariate Analysis , Pneumonia , Risk Factors , Shock, Septic
16.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 663-671, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-155273

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: A pyogenic liver abscess is an acute bacterial infection that can potentially lead to life-threatening sepsis. This study examined the clinical features and changing trends of pyogenic liver abscess over the last 10 years. METHODS: We investigated patient characteristics, laboratory findings, blood and abscess culture results, location and characteristics of the abscess, and treatment modality in the medical records of 146 patients. We divided them into three groups by period: period 1, 23 patients in 2002-2003; period 2, 46 patients in 2007-2008; and period 3, 77 patients in 2012-2013. RESULTS: The mean patient age was 64.3 +/- 15.1 years and 87 of the 146 patients were male (59.6%). Period 2 had a higher prevalence of chronic alcoholics (30.4% vs. 10.4%) and lower prevalence of fever and chills (73.9% vs. 92.2%) compared with period 3. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most commonly cultured bacteria and the microbiological findings did not differ among the three periods. Pyogenic liver abscesses were more common in the right liver. The lengths of hospital stay and treatment modalities were similar in all three periods. CONCLUSIONS: Although there were slight differences in symptoms among the periods, there were no changes in the liver abscess characteristics, i.e., location, size, and culture results. As there were no changes, the treatment strategy also did not change. We should continue to investigate the clinical features of liver abscess.


Subject(s)
Abscess , Alcoholics , Bacteria , Bacterial Infections , Chills , Drainage , Fever , Humans , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Length of Stay , Liver , Liver Abscess , Liver Abscess, Pyogenic , Male , Medical Records , Prevalence , Sepsis
17.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 444-452, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192839

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Urinary tract obstruction induces a form of renal tubular acidosis with a urinary acidification defect caused by decreasing net acid excretion, which is predominantly due to a decrease in urinary ammonia excretion. The present study examined whether this decrease is associated with changes in the renal expression of an ammonia transporter family member, Rh C glycoprotein (Rhcg), in rats with a unilateral ureteral obstruction. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a 24-h unilateral ureteral obstruction. Rhcg expression was then evaluated by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Cell height, total cellular expression, expression in the apical 25% of the cell, and % of total expression in the apical region were quantified by immunohistochemistry with quantitative morphometric analysis. RESULTS: After 24 h of unilateral ureteral obstruction, the serum bicarbonate level and total urinary ammonia excretion were decreased. Both light microscopy and immunohistochemistry with quantitative morphometric analysis demonstrated that the total intensity of Rhcg expression was decreased in the obstructed kidneys, whereas Rhcg expression did not change in the cortical collecting duct (CCD) and outer medullary collecting duct (OMCD) of nonobstructed kidneys in rats with a 24-h unilateral ureteral obstruction. CONCLUSIONS: The rats with a unilateral ureteral obstruction showed decreased urinary ammonia excretion associated with decreased Rhcg expression in the CCD and OMCD. These changes suggest that the ammonia transporter Rhcg mediates a urinary acidification defect associated with unilateral ureteral obstruction.


Subject(s)
Acidosis , Acidosis, Renal Tubular , Ammonia , Animals , Glycoproteins , Humans , Immunoblotting , Immunohistochemistry , Kidney , Kidney Tubules , Male , Microscopy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Ureter , Ureteral Obstruction , Urinary Tract
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-190507

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: It is well-known that patients with chronic liver disease commonly have nutritional deficiency. In the present study, we investigated the differences in malnutrition risk between patients with liver cirrhosis and viral hepatitis carrier. METHODS: Patients with chronic liver disease who have been hospitalized at Konyang University Hospital from May 2012 to April 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. The malnutrition risk was divided into three categories (low, intermediate, and high) according to Konyang University Hospital Malnutrition Screening, which include BMI, serum albumin, total lymphocyte count (TLC), hemoglobin, weight change, appetite, and dysphagia, within 24 hours of hospitalization. RESULTS: Among a total of 460 patients, 313 had liver cirrhosis (LC), and 147 were viral hepatitis carriers. Age (p<0.001), serum albumin level (p<0.001), TLC (p=0.011), hemoglobin (p<0.001) and serum cholesterol level (p=0.005) were significant different between the two groups. However, there were no difference in height, weight, and BMI. The malnutrition risk of the patients with viral hepatitis carrier was significantly lower than that of the patients with LC (p<0.001). In addition, among 313 patients with LC, malnutrition risk of the patients with Child-Pugh class A (n=150) was significantly lower than that of the patients with class B (n=90) or C (n=73) (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Viral hepatitis carrier group had significantly lower malnutrition risk than LC group. The risk of malnutrition in Child-Pugh class A group was significantly lower than that in class B or C group.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Body Mass Index , Cholesterol/blood , Female , Hemoglobins/analysis , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/pathology , Hospitals, University , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Malnutrition , Middle Aged , Nutritional Status , Retrospective Studies , Risk , Serum Albumin/analysis , Severity of Illness Index
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-62912

ABSTRACT

Various adverse events have been reported during combination therapy with pegylated (PEG)-interferon-alpha and ribavirin, although opportunistic infections, especially cryptococcal meningitis, are very rare. A 61-year-old woman complained of headaches and a fever during treatment of a chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. She had been treated for 7 months. Her headaches were refractory to analgesics, and she developed subtle nuchal rigidity. The cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) revealed a white blood cell count of 205/mm3, 51 mg/dL protein, 35 mg/dL glucose, and negative Cryptococcus antigen. The CSF culture resulted in no growth. Five days later, the CSF was positive for Cryptococcus antigen. We administered amphotericin B and flucytosine, followed by fluconazole. Approximately 2 months later, she was discharged. For the first time, we report a case of cryptococcal meningitis during the treatment of chronic HCV with PEG-interferon-alpha and ribavirin.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Cryptococcus neoformans/immunology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hepatitis C, Chronic/diagnosis , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Interferon-alpha/adverse effects , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Polyethylene Glycols/adverse effects , Recombinant Proteins/adverse effects , Ribavirin/adverse effects , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
20.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 447-451, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-81985

ABSTRACT

Esophageal thermal injury caused by food has been reported to occur mostly after drinking hot liquid food, and is known to produce alternating white and red linear mucosal bands. In addition, thermal injury caused by ingestion of hot solid foods is documented to be a cause of esophageal ulcers or pseudomembranes. From January 2006 to August 2012, five patients with suspected esophageal thermal injury underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy with biopsy. A "candy-cane" appearance was observed in one case, pseudomembrane was observed in two cases, an esophageal ulcer was observed in one case, and a friable and edematous mucosa was noted in one case. We believe that the endoscopic findings of esophageal thermal injury depend on the following factors: causative materials, amount of food consumed, exposure period, and time to endoscopy after the incident. Therefore, physicians who encounter patients with suspected esophageal thermal injury should carefully take the patient's history considering these factors.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Drinking , Eating , Endoscopy , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Humans , Mucous Membrane , Ulcer
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