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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763794

ABSTRACT

In previous studies, we demonstrated that some sites in the first intron likely regulate gene expression. In the present work, we sought to further confirm the functional relevance of first intron sites by estimating the quantity of rare alleles in the first intron. A basic hypothesis posited herein is that genomic regions carrying more functionally important sites will have a higher proportion of rare alleles. We estimated the proportions of rare single nucleotide polymorphisms with a minor allele frequency < 0.01 located in several histone marks in the first introns of various genes, and compared them with those in other introns and those in 2-kb upstream regions. As expected, rare alleles were found to be significantly enriched in most of the regulatory sites located in the first introns. Meanwhile, transcription factor binding sites were significantly more enriched in the 2-kb upstream regions (i.e., the regions of putative promoters of genes) than in the first introns. These results strongly support our proposal that the first intron sites of genes may have important regulatory functions in gene expression independent of promoters.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Binding Sites , Chromatin , Epigenomics , Gene Expression , Gene Frequency , Histone Code , Introns , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Transcription Factors
2.
Genomics & Informatics ; : 123-127, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192021

ABSTRACT

Synonymous sites are generally considered to be functionally neutral. However, there are recent contradictory findings suggesting that synonymous alleles might have functional roles in various molecular aspects. For instance, a recent study demonstrated that synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms have a similar effect size as nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in human disease association studies. Researchers have recognized synonymous codon usage bias (SCUB) in the genomes of almost all species and have investigated whether SCUB is due to random nucleotide compositional bias or to natural selection of any functional exposure generated by synonymous mutations. One of the most prominent observations on the non-neutrality of synonymous codons is the correlation between SCUB and levels of gene expression, such that highly expressed genes tend to have a higher preference toward so-called optimal codons than lowly expressed genes. In relation, it is known that amounts of cognate tRNAs that bind to optimal codons are significantly higher than the amounts of cognate tRNAs that bind to non-optimal codons in genomes. In the present paper, we review various functions that synonymous codons might have other than regulating expression levels.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Bias , Codon , Gene Expression , Genome , Humans , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , RNA, Transfer , Selection, Genetic , Silent Mutation
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-112716

ABSTRACT

Glucokinase maturity-onset diabetes of the young (GCK-MODY) represents a distinct subgroup of MODY that does not require hyperglycemia-lowering treatment and has very few diabetes-related complications. Three patients from two families who presented with clinical signs of GCK-MODY were evaluated. Whole-exome sequencing was performed and the effects of the identified mutations were assessed using bioinformatics tools, such as PolyPhen-2, SIFT, and in silico modeling. We identified two mutations: p.Leu30Pro and p.Ser383Leu. In silico analyses predicted that these mutations result in structural conformational changes, protein destabilization, and thermal instability. Our findings may inform future GCK-MODY diagnosis; furthermore, the two mutations detected in two Korean families with GCK-MODY improve our understanding of the genetic basis of the disease.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology , Computer Simulation , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diagnosis , Glucokinase , Humans
4.
Genomics & Informatics ; : 112-118, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-42764

ABSTRACT

The intron has been a big biological mystery since it was first discovered in several aspects. First, all of the completely sequenced eukaryotes harbor introns in the genomic structure, whereas no prokaryotes identified so far carry introns. Second, the amount of total introns varies in different species. Third, the length and number of introns vary in different genes, even within the same species genome. Fourth, all introns are copied into RNAs by transcription and DNAs by replication processes, but intron sequences do not participate in protein-coding sequences. The existence of introns in the genome should be a burden to some cells, because cells have to consume a great deal of energy to copy and excise them exactly at the correct positions with the help of complicated spliceosomal machineries. The existence throughout the long evolutionary history is explained, only if selective advantages of carrying introns are assumed to be given to cells to overcome the negative effect of introns. In that regard, we summarize previous research about the functional roles or benefits of introns. Additionally, several other studies strongly suggesting that introns should not be junk will be introduced.


Subject(s)
DNA , Eukaryota , Genome , Introns , RNA
5.
Genomics & Informatics ; : 132-136, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-42761

ABSTRACT

Studies of cancer heterogeneity have received considerable attention recently, because the presence or absence of resistant sub-clones may determine whether or not certain therapeutic treatments are effective. Previously, we have reported G64, a co-regulated gene module composed of 64 different genes, can differentiate tumor intra- or inter-subpopulations in lung adenocarcinomas (LADCs). Here, we investigated whether the G64 module genes were also expressed distinctively in different subpopulations of other cancers. RNA sequencing-based transcriptome data derived from 22 cancers, except LADC, were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Interestingly, the 22 cancers also expressed the G64 genes in a correlated manner, as observed previously in an LADC study. Considering that gene expression levels were continuous among different tumor samples, tumor subpopulations were investigated using extreme expressional ranges of G64-i.e., tumor subpopulation with the lowest 15% of G64 expression, tumor subpopulation with the highest 15% of G64 expression, and tumor subpopulation with intermediate expression. In each of the 22 cancers, we examined whether patient survival was different among the three different subgroups and found that G64 could differentiate tumor subpopulations in six other cancers, including sarcoma, kidney, brain, liver, and esophageal cancers.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Brain , Esophageal Neoplasms , Gene Expression , Gene Regulatory Networks , Genome , Humans , Kidney , Liver , Lung , Population Characteristics , RNA , Sarcoma , Single-Cell Analysis , Survival Analysis , Transcriptome
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-211933

ABSTRACT

It has been proposed that the pro-inflammatory catalytic activity of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays a key role in the aging process. However, it remains unclear whether the COX-2 activity is a causal factor for aging and whether COX-2 inhibitors could prevent aging. We here examined the effect of COX-2 inhibitors on aging in the intrinsic skin aging model of hairless mice. We observed that among two selective COX-2 inhibitors and one non-selective COX inhibitor studied, only NS-398 inhibited skin aging, while celecoxib and aspirin accelerated skin aging. In addition, NS-398 reduced the expression of p53 and p16, whereas celecoxib and aspirin enhanced their expression. We also found that the aging-modulating effect of the inhibitors is closely associated with the expression of type I procollagen and caveolin-1. These results suggest that pro-inflammatory catalytic activity of COX-2 is not a causal factor for aging at least in skin and that COX-2 inhibitors might modulate skin aging by regulating the expression of type I procollagen and caveolin-1.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Catalysis , Caveolin 1/genetics , Collagen Type I/genetics , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Gene Expression Regulation , Mice , Nitrobenzenes/administration & dosage , Pyrazoles/administration & dosage , Skin Aging/drug effects , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-68318

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to assess the biological effects of TNF-alpha in Caco-2 well-differentiated colon adenocarcinoma cells and to determine radiation sensitivity in order to develop TNF-alpha into a cancer therapeutic agent. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cell viability test was conducted via a colorimetric and colony forming assay after 1 day and 3 days of incubation with TNF-alpha. Western blotting analysis and immunofluorescence staining were conducted to explore TNF-alpha-induced morphological and molecular changes in the adhesion molecules, E-cadherin and claudin-4. The effects of gamma-irradiation at a dose of 2 Gy on cell survival were evaluated by a clonogenic assay. The molecular changes in apoptosis-regulatory proteins were assessed by Western blotting. RESULTS: Caco-2 cells were highly resistant to TNF alpha-induced cell death and 2 Gy of gamma-irradiation. However, we observed the downregulation of the adherens junctional protein, E-cadherin and translocation of tight junctional protein, claudin-4 from the membrane to the cytosol induced by TNF-alpha treatment which would indicate cell-cell junction disruptions. These alterations of junctional proteins influenced the regulation of cell death in response to 2 Gy of gamma-irradiation. The combined treatment of TNF-alpha with 2 Gy of gamma-irradiation reduced the survival of Caco-2 cells by down-regulating bcl-xl and activating JNK pathways. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that TNF-alpha might be potentially applied as a therapeutic agent in order to enhance sensitivity to 2 Gy of gamma-irradiation administered in radiotherapy for the treatment of human colon cancer.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Blotting, Western , Caco-2 Cells , Cadherins , Cell Death , Cell Survival , Claudin-4 , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Cytosol , Down-Regulation , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Humans , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Membranes , Proteins , Radiation Tolerance , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
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