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1.
Immune Network ; : e24-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890872

ABSTRACT

Due to the inconsistent fluctuation of blood supply for transfusion, much attention has been paid to the development of artificial blood using other animals. Although mini-pigs are candidate animals, contamination of mini-pig T cells in artificial blood may cause a major safety concern. Therefore, it is important to analyze the cross-reactivity of IL-7, the major survival factor for T lymphocytes, between human, mouse, and mini-pig. Thus, we compared the protein sequences of IL-7 and found that porcine IL-7 was evolutionarily different from human IL-7. We also observed that when porcine T cells were cultured with either human or mouse IL-7, these cells did not increase the survival or proliferation compared to negative controls. These results suggest that porcine T cells do not recognize human or mouse IL-7 as their survival factor.

2.
Immune Network ; : e24-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898576

ABSTRACT

Due to the inconsistent fluctuation of blood supply for transfusion, much attention has been paid to the development of artificial blood using other animals. Although mini-pigs are candidate animals, contamination of mini-pig T cells in artificial blood may cause a major safety concern. Therefore, it is important to analyze the cross-reactivity of IL-7, the major survival factor for T lymphocytes, between human, mouse, and mini-pig. Thus, we compared the protein sequences of IL-7 and found that porcine IL-7 was evolutionarily different from human IL-7. We also observed that when porcine T cells were cultured with either human or mouse IL-7, these cells did not increase the survival or proliferation compared to negative controls. These results suggest that porcine T cells do not recognize human or mouse IL-7 as their survival factor.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764979

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have worse clinical outcomes than those with stable coronary artery disease despite revascularization. Non-culprit lesions of AMI also involve more adverse cardiovascular events. This study aimed to investigate the influence of AMI on endothelial function, neointimal progression, and inflammation in target and non-target vessels. METHODS: In castrated male pigs, AMI was induced by balloon occlusion and reperfusion into the left anterior descending artery (LAD). Everolimus-eluting stents (EES) were implanted in the LAD and left circumflex (LCX) artery 2 days after AMI induction. In the control group, EES were implanted in the LAD and LCX in a similar fashion without AMI induction. Endothelial function was assessed using acetylcholine infusion before enrollment, after the AMI or sham operation, and at 1 month follow-up. A histological examination was conducted 1 month after stenting. RESULTS: A total of 10 pigs implanted with 20 EES in the LAD and LCX were included. Significant paradoxical vasoconstriction was assessed after acetylcholine challenge in the AMI group compared with the control group. In the histologic analysis, the AMI group showed a larger neointimal area and larger area of stenosis than the control group after EES implantation. Peri-strut inflammation and fibrin formation were significant in the AMI group without differences in injury score. The non-target vessel of the AMI also showed similar findings to the target vessel compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: In the pig model, AMI events induced endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and neointimal progression in the target and non-target vessels.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Arteries , Balloon Occlusion , Constriction, Pathologic , Coronary Artery Disease , Drug-Eluting Stents , Endothelium , Fibrin , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Inflammation , Male , Myocardial Infarction , Reperfusion , Stents , Swine , Vasoconstriction
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764078

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Proficient differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into specific lineages is required for applications in regenerative medicine. A growing amount of evidences had implicated hormones and hormone-like molecules as critical regulators of proliferation and lineage specification during in vivo development. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the hormones and hormone-like molecules involved in cell fate decisions is critical for efficient and controlled differentiation of hPSCs into specific lineages. Thus, we functionally and quantitatively compared the effects of diverse hormones (estradiol 17-β (E2), progesterone (P4), and dexamethasone (DM)) and a hormone-like molecule (retinoic acid (RA)) on the regulation of hematopoietic and neural lineage specification. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used 10 nM E2, 3 μM P4, 10 nM DM, and 10 nM RA based on their functional in vivo developmental potential. The sex hormone E2 enhanced functional activity of hematopoietic progenitors compared to P4 and DM, whereas RA impaired hematopoietic differentiation. In addition, E2 increased CD34⁺CD45⁺ cells with progenitor functions, even in the CD43⁻ population, a well-known hemogenic marker. RA exhibited lineage-biased potential, preferentially committing hPSCs toward the neural lineage while restricting the hematopoietic fate decision. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal unique cell fate potentials of E2 and RA treatment and provide valuable differentiation information that is essential for hPSC applications.


Subject(s)
Dexamethasone , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Pluripotent Stem Cells , Progesterone , Regenerative Medicine , Tretinoin
5.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 458-473, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763781

ABSTRACT

The function of microglia/macrophages after ischemic stroke is poorly understood. This study examines the role of microglia/macrophages in the focal infarct area after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rhesus monkeys. We measured infarct volume and neurological function by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and non-human primate stroke scale (NHPSS), respectively, to assess temporal changes following MCAO. Activated phagocytic microglia/macrophages were examined by immunohistochemistry in post-mortem brains (n=6 MCAO, n=2 controls) at 3 and 24 hours (acute stage), 2 and 4 weeks (subacute stage), and 4, and 20 months (chronic stage) following MCAO. We found that the infarct volume progressively decreased between 1 and 4 weeks following MCAO, in parallel with the neurological recovery. Greater presence of cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68)-expressing microglia/macrophages was detected in the infarct lesion in the subacute and chronic stage, compared to the acute stage. Surprisingly, 98~99% of transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) was found colocalized with CD68-expressing cells. CD68-expressing microglia/macrophages, rather than CD206⁺ cells, may exert anti-inflammatory effects by secreting TGFβ after the subacute stage of ischemic stroke. CD68⁺ microglia/macrophages can therefore be used as a potential therapeutic target.


Subject(s)
Brain , Haplorhini , Immunohistochemistry , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Inflammation , Macaca mulatta , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Microglia , Middle Cerebral Artery , Primates , Stroke , Transforming Growth Factor beta
6.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 414-424, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763764

ABSTRACT

Mitochondria continuously fuse and divide to maintain homeostasis. An impairment in the balance between the fusion and fission processes can trigger mitochondrial dysfunction. Accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction is related to neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), with excessive mitochondrial fission in dopaminergic neurons being one of the pathological mechanisms of PD. Here, we investigated the balance between mitochondrial fusion and fission in the substantia nigra of a non-human primate model of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD. We found that MPTP induced shorter and abnormally distributed mitochondria. This phenomenon was accompanied by the activation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a mitochondrial fission protein, through increased phosphorylation at S616. Thereafter, we assessed for activation of the components of the cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling cascades, which are known regulators of Drp1(S616) phosphorylation. MPTP induced an increase in p25 and p35, which are required for CDK5 activation. Together, these findings suggest that the phosphorylation of Drp1(S616) by CDK5 is involved in mitochondrial fission in the substantia nigra of a non-human primate model of MPTP-induced PD.


Subject(s)
1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases , Dopaminergic Neurons , Homeostasis , Mitochondria , Mitochondrial Dynamics , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Parkinson Disease , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Primates , Substantia Nigra
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758919

ABSTRACT

Microorganisms play important roles in obesity; however, the role of the gut microbiomes in obesity is controversial because of the inconsistent findings. This study investigated the gut microbiome communities in obese and lean groups of captive healthy cynomolgus monkeys reared under strict identical environmental conditions, including their diet. No significant differences in the relative abundance of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Prevotella were observed between the obese and lean groups, but a significant difference in Spirochetes (p < 0.05) was noted. Microbial diversity and richness were similar, but highly variable results in microbial composition, diversity, and richness were observed in individuals, irrespective of their state of obesity. Distinct clustering between the groups was not observed by principal coordinate analysis using an unweighted pair group method. Higher sharedness values (95.81% ± 2.28% at the genus level, and 79.54% ± 5.88% at the species level) were identified among individual monkeys. This paper reports the association between the gut microbiome and obesity in captive non-human primate models reared under controlled environments. The relative proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes as well as the microbial diversity known to affect obesity were similar in the obese and lean groups of monkeys reared under identical conditions. Therefore, obesity-associated microbial changes reported previously appear to be associated directly with environmental factors, particularly diet, rather than obesity.


Subject(s)
Bacteroidetes , Diet , Environment, Controlled , Firmicutes , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Haplorhini , Macaca fascicularis , Methods , Microbiota , Obesity , Prevotella , Primates , Spirochaetales
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918400

ABSTRACT

Nonhuman primate models are valuable in biomedical research. However, reference data for clinical pathology parameters in cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys are limited. In the present study, we established hematologic and biochemical reference intervals for healthy cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys anesthetized with ketamine hydrochloride. A total of 142 cynomolgus monkeys (28 males and 114 females) and 42 rhesus monkeys (22 males and 20 females) were selected and analyzed in order to examine reference intervals of 20 hematological and 16 biochemical parameters. The effects of sex were also investigated. Reference intervals for hematological and biochemical parameters were separately established by species (cynomolgus and rhesus) and sex (male and female). No sex-related differences were determined in erythrocyte-related parameters for cynomolgus and rhesus monkey housed in indoor laboratory conditions. Alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamyltransferase were significantly lower in females than males in both cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys aged 48–96 months. The reference values for hematological and biochemical parameters established herein might provide valuable information for researchers using cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys in experimental conditions for biomedical studies.

9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-655355

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Snoring is the vibration sound of respiratory structures when air stream flows through the narrowed airway during sleep. In this study, we aimed to determine the clinical meaning of snoring time (%) of patients who have simple snoring or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 240 cases of clinical data and polysomnography, which were diagnosed with either simple snoring (n=53) or OSA (n=187). Clinical data included anthropometric measurements such as body mass index, neck and waist circumference (WC), and wasit-hip ratio (WHR). Snoring time (%) was calculated as the total time of snoring per hour of sleep. RESULTS: In the female group, snoring time (%) increased in OSA compared to simple snoring, which showed a negative correlation with N3 (r=-0.395, p=0.002) and a positive correlation with the arousal index (r=0.39, p=0.003). Moreover, in females, snoring time (%) showed significant correlations with respiratory indexes: hypopnea index (p=0.008), apnea-hypopnea index (p=0.049), and lowest SpO₂ (p=0.003). WC and WHR showed significant correlations with snoring time (%) in both male and female. CONCLUSION: Snoring time (%) of females showed important clinical associations with sleep quality and respiratory index. Therefore, snoring may have an important role in the pathogenesis of OSA in females.


Subject(s)
Arousal , Body Mass Index , Female , Humans , Male , Neck , Polysomnography , Retrospective Studies , Rivers , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Snoring , Vibration , Waist Circumference , Waist-Hip Ratio
10.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 255-263, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192523

ABSTRACT

Gangliosides are ubiquitous components of the membranes of mammalian cells that are thought to play important roles in various cell functions such as cell-cell interaction, cell adhesion, cell differentiation, growth control, and signaling. However, the role that gangliosides play in the immune rejection response after xenotransplantation is not yet clearly understood. In this study, the regulatory effects of human leukocytes on ganglioside expression in primary cultured micro-pig aortic endothelial cells (PAECs) were investigated. To determine the impact of human leukocytes on the expression of gangliosides in PAECs, we performed high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) in PAECs incubated with FBS, FBS containing human leukocytes, human serum containing human leukocytes, and FBS containing TNF-alpha. Both HPTLC and immunohistochemistry analyses revealed that PAECs incubated with FBS predominantly express the gangliosides GM3, GM1, and GD3. However, the expression of GM1 significantly decreased in PAECs incubated for 5 h with TNF-alpha (10 ng/mL), 10% human serum containing human leukocytes, and 10% FBS containing human leukocytes. Taken together, these results suggest that human leukocytes induced changes in the expression profile of ganglioside GM1 similar to those seen upon treatment of PAECs with TNF-alpha. This finding may be relevant for designing future therapeutic strategies intended to prolong xenograft survival.


Subject(s)
Cell Adhesion , Cell Communication , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Endothelial Cells , Gangliosides , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Leukocytes , Membranes , Rejection, Psychology , Transplantation, Heterologous , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
11.
Korean Journal of Anatomy ; : 345-351, 2001.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-657089

ABSTRACT

P19, murine embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells can be induced to differentiate into neurons in the presence of retinoic acid (RA). To investigate neuronal differentiation of P19 cells in details, P19 aggregates were obtained in the presence or absence of RA, ascorbic acid (AA) and 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) in bacteriological Petri dishes. When the aggregates were transferred into the serum depleted medium, P19 cells exhibited dramatic morphological changes. Cells contained long and thin processes as detected in differentiated neurons. Western blot analysis showed that treatment of RA and AA induced expression of neuron-specific markers such as NCAM, NSE and Tuj1. Expression of GFAP was not detected, suggesting that P19 cells differentiate into neurons under our experimental condition. Immunocytochemical studies also revealed that treatment of RA and AA increased expression of NCAM and Tuj1. On the contrary, 2-ME was ineffective in the neuronal differentiation of P19 cells, which is consistent the results from the western blot analysis. These results suggest that differentiated P19 cells have similar characteristics to those of typically differentiated neurons. This study also suggests that P19 cells may provide useful tools to study neuronal differentiation in vitro.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid , Blotting, Western , Carcinoma, Embryonal , Mercaptoethanol , Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules , Neurons , Tretinoin
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