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1.
Korean Journal of Clinical Oncology ; (2): 83-88, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968002

ABSTRACT

Appendiceal mucocele is a rare mucin-producing neoplasm of appendiceal origin. Due to its location and imaging findings, appendiceal mucocele is easily confused with tumors of the right adnexa. We present a rare case of a patient initially misdiagnosed with an ovarian tumor intraoperatively diagnosed as an appendiceal mucocele and successfully treated. A 66-year-old postmenopausal woman was admitted to the gynecology department for an asymptomatic pelvic mass. Preoperative pelvic imaging showed an 8-cm cystic mass. Exploratory laparoscopy for the suspected epithelial borderline tumor from the right ovary revealed a cystic mass in the right pelvic area and normal uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. Intraoperative consultation with the general surgery department confirmed the appendiceal origin. Laparoscopic appendectomy was performed. Histopathological examination confirmed a low-grade mucinous neoplasm of appendiceal origin. The patient was discharged on a postoperative day 5 without complications. The outpatient follow-up performed 1 month later showed no evidence of disease progression. Despite the use of advanced diagnostic tools, appendiceal mucocele may be confused for ovarian malignancies. Because the clinical features of appendiceal mucocele are nonspecific, clinicians and radiologists know the specific imaging findings. A multidisciplinary approach including general surgery, gynecology, and radiology is required for preoperative diagnosis and treatment.

2.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 1-11, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937789

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to determine the correlation between various clinical results, including recurrence in patients with breast cancer, and preoperative blood composition ratio and postoperative pathological results. @*Methods@#A total of 444 patients who underwent surgery were included, and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), and postoperative pathological results were classified into postoperative cancer stages to confirm the association with various clinical results, including recurrence. @*Results@#The median age of the patients was 51 years. The stages were divided into 1, 2, 3, and 4. Additionally, stages 1 and 2 comprised one group and stages 3 and 4 comprised another group. The cut-off values of the NLR, PLR, and MLR were confirmed to be 1.43, 158.84, and 0.21, respectively. It was noted that the association with recurrence was higher in the group with hormone receptor negative (p<0.001), higher stage (p<0.001), and underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy (p<0.001). In the association with blood composition ratio and recurrence, survival was high in the PLR group with a high cut-off value (p=0.004). There was no significant relationship in the NLR and MLR groups. In the disease-free survival and overall-survival curves, only the PLR group showed a significant association of 0.003 and 0.001, respectively. The NLR and MLR groups did not show any significant result. @*Conclusion@#No significant association with recurrence and mortality was confirmed in the NLR and MLR groups. However, the preoperative blood test in the high PLR group showed recurrence and mortality rate were high.

3.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 12-17, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937788

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#As breast-conserving surgery has become a standard treatment for patients with breast cancer, several approaches have been devised to achieve desirable cosmetic results, including a method using a patient’s own tissues or organs or a mesh to resolve defects. However, its application has been limited due to the associated complications. Accordingly, breast reconstruction using an acellular dermal matrix (ADM) has been introduced to improve patients’ cosmetic satisfaction. However, the comparison of reconstruction and primary sutures using this method has not been well-studied. Therefore, this study surveyed patients who underwent breast cancer surgery based on cosmetic indicators to study the efficacy of ADM after breast-conserving surgery. @*Methods@#This retrospective study included 68 patients diagnosed with breast cancer who underwent breast-conserving surgery at a single institution by a single surgeon from April 2019 to December 2020. @*Results@#This study included 68 patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery. Among them, 22 patients underwent breast-conserving surgery using ADM, while 46 patients received only primary sutures without ADM. Among the items of the Breast Cancer Treatment Outcome Scale-12 (BCTOS-12), patient satisfaction was significantly higher in the group using ADM, than that in the control group in terms of breast shape (1.86±0.89 vs. 2.39±0.80, p=0.017). Regarding breast tenderness, the result also confirmed the group treated using ADM experienced less tenderness than the control group not treated with ADM (1.68±0.78 vs. 2.22±1.03, p=0.035). The two groups exhibited no significant differences in breast texture, arm heaviness, nipple appearance, shoulder discomfort, arm discomfort, scar tissue, arm swelling, breast swelling, fit of the bra, and breast sensitivity. @*Conclusion@#Breast reconstruction using ADM in patients with breast cancer was effective from a cosmetic perspective. Prospective multicenter studies should be conducted to provide clear guidelines.

4.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 280-288, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899007

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), and raloxifene treatment for osteoporosis is reimbursable under the Korean National Health Insurance.Evidence suggests that SERMs use reduces the risk of breast cancer in Asian population.Herein, we retrospectively investigated the protective effect of raloxifene on breast cancer rates in Korean population. @*Methods@#Using the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database, we selected women with osteoporosis aged 50 years and above. Patients treated for at least 2 years with raloxifene were assigned to the user group, whereas the remaining patients were assigned to the non-user group. The effect on breast cancer risk was assessed using the Cox proportionalhazards model with a time-dependent covariate to adjust for immortal time bias. @*Results@#A total of 322,870 women who were registered between 2010 and 2011 were included.The user group comprised 0.7% (n = 2,307) of the total population. The mean age was 65.7 ± 8.0 years and 67.2 ± 8.6 years in the user and non-user groups, respectively (p < 0.001). There was no difference in the previous use of estrogen replacement between the 2 groups (p = 0.087). The incidence of breast cancer per 1,000 person-years was 0.49 (n = 8) and 0.68 (n = 1,714) in the user and non-user groups, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32–1.27). HR decreased with increase in the treatment duration, but this change was not statistically significant (HR, 1.00, 95% CI, 0.32–3.11 in 2–3 years; HR, 0.63, 95% CI, 0.20–1.94 in 3–4 years; and HR, 0.41, 95% CI, 0.10–1.65 in 4–5 years). @*Conclusion@#Long-term treatment with raloxifene in women with osteoporosis was not significantly associated with a reduction in breast cancer rates. However, further investigation is required for a conclusive proof.

5.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 280-288, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891303

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), and raloxifene treatment for osteoporosis is reimbursable under the Korean National Health Insurance.Evidence suggests that SERMs use reduces the risk of breast cancer in Asian population.Herein, we retrospectively investigated the protective effect of raloxifene on breast cancer rates in Korean population. @*Methods@#Using the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database, we selected women with osteoporosis aged 50 years and above. Patients treated for at least 2 years with raloxifene were assigned to the user group, whereas the remaining patients were assigned to the non-user group. The effect on breast cancer risk was assessed using the Cox proportionalhazards model with a time-dependent covariate to adjust for immortal time bias. @*Results@#A total of 322,870 women who were registered between 2010 and 2011 were included.The user group comprised 0.7% (n = 2,307) of the total population. The mean age was 65.7 ± 8.0 years and 67.2 ± 8.6 years in the user and non-user groups, respectively (p < 0.001). There was no difference in the previous use of estrogen replacement between the 2 groups (p = 0.087). The incidence of breast cancer per 1,000 person-years was 0.49 (n = 8) and 0.68 (n = 1,714) in the user and non-user groups, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32–1.27). HR decreased with increase in the treatment duration, but this change was not statistically significant (HR, 1.00, 95% CI, 0.32–3.11 in 2–3 years; HR, 0.63, 95% CI, 0.20–1.94 in 3–4 years; and HR, 0.41, 95% CI, 0.10–1.65 in 4–5 years). @*Conclusion@#Long-term treatment with raloxifene in women with osteoporosis was not significantly associated with a reduction in breast cancer rates. However, further investigation is required for a conclusive proof.

6.
Korean Journal of Clinical Oncology ; (2): 39-45, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836498

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#High incidence of osteoporosis has been reported in breast cancer patients due to early menopause triggered by adjuvant treatment and temporary ovarian function suppression. In this study, we sought to determine whether long-term breast cancer survivors had an elevated risk of low bone density compared to the general population. @*Methods@#Long-term breast cancer survivors who had been treated for more than 5 years were selected for this study. Data were obtained from medical records and using a questionnaire from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). An agematched non-cancer control group was selected from the KNHANES records. Incidence of fracture and bone mineral density (BMD) were compared between the two groups. @*Results@#In total, 74 long-term breast cancer survivors and 296 non-cancer controls were evaluated. The incidence of fracture did not differ between the two groups (P=0.130). No differences were detected in lumbar BMD (P=0.051) following adjustment for body mass index, while hip BMD was significantly lower in breast cancer survivors (P=0.028). Chemotherapy and endocrine treatment were not related to low BMD in breast cancer survivors. In more than half of the survivors, the 10-year risk of osteoporotic fracture was less than 1%. @*Conclusion@#Long-term breast cancer survivors had low bone density but a comparable risk of fracture compared to non-cancer agematched controls. Further studies on the factors related to low bone density in long-term breast cancer survivors are required.

7.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 9-13, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835619

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Korean women and the number of cases is increasing. We have found various histopathological differences in breast cancer and are using this knowledge for treatment. Various factors may help determine the progression of cancer in patients. The expression of lymphovascular invasion, a pathologic factor, denotes a poor prognosis. We analyzed the characteristics of patients showing lymphatic invasion. @*Methods@#Data from 606 patients with breast cancer who underwent surgery between 2006 and 2016 were collected. We analyzed various pathologic factors in patients with or without lymphatic invasion expression. @*Results@#Mean age was 52.0±11.2 years (range 29-83 years) and mean follow-up duration was 57.3 months (range 3−125 months). Pathologically, breast cancer types were invasive ductal carcinoma (552, 91.2%), invasive lobular carcinoma (21, 3.4%), and other pathologies (33, 5.4%). Number of patients in stages I, II, III, and IV were 299 (49.3%), 223 (36.8%), 82 (13.7%), and 2 (0.02%), respectively. Immunohistochemistry revealed 396 (65.3%) estrogen receptor (ER)-positive cases, 287 (47.3%) progesterone receptor (PR)-positive cases, and 139 (22.9%) human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive cases. Seven patients had local recurrence and 41 patients had distant metastasis, which included 14 bone, 7 lung, 5 liver, and 15 multiple metastases. Seventeen patients showed lymphatic invasion, while 24 patients were without lymphatic invasion. Significant association was observed between T and N stages and lymphatic invasion (p<0.001). No significant correlation was observed between lymphatic invasion and ER (p=0.073), HER2 (p=0.553). However, there was a significant correlation between lymphatic invasion and PR (p=0.044). Overall survival and disease free survival rates were significantly worse in the presence of lymphatic invasion (p<0.01, 0.011, respectively). @*Conclusion@#Lymphatic invasion was associated with T and N stages, overall survival and disease free survival. More careful observation and treatment strategy is needed, especially in locally advanced breast cancer.

8.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 223-228, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714540

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Primary prophylaxis with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor can effectively prevent febrile neutropenia (FN) during breast cancer treatment. The aims of this study were to evaluate the incidence of FN and the ANC profile in patients undergoing chemotherapy and pegfilgrastim primary prophylaxis. METHODS: Patients receiving 6 cycles of adjuvant docetaxel, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (TAC) chemotherapy were included in this study. Pegfilgrastim was administered with analgesics 24 hours after treatment. Laboratory tests were performed on day 0 (before chemotherapy) and ANC was measured daily starting day 5 until it were restored to 1,000/mm3. Bone pain was checked via the numeral rating scale (NRS). RESULTS: A total of 61 patients and 366 cycles were evaluated. Mean age was 49.2 ± 7.1 years. FN was seen in 5 patients (16.4%) and 12 cycles (3.3%) with pegfilgrastim. Grades 3 and 4 neutropenia was seen in 91.5% of cycles with FN. The ANC nadir was most commonly seen at day 7 and the mean ANC nadir depth was 265.7/m3. Age was negatively correlated with nadir depth (r = −0.137, P = 0.009). Severe pain higher than NRS 7 occurred in less than 20% of patients after the administration of pegfilgrastim. CONCLUSION: Incidence of FN was low during the chemotherapy by primary prophylaxis with pegfilgrastim. The ANC nadir was seen on day 7 after chemotherapy. Bone pain with pegfilgrastim was well tolerated during TAC chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Analgesics , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Cyclophosphamide , Doxorubicin , Drug Therapy , Febrile Neutropenia , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor , Incidence , Neutropenia
9.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 45-53, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-148357

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Transducin-like enhancer of split 1 (TLE1) is a member of the TLE family of transcriptional co-repressors that control the transcription of a wide range of genes. We investigated the prognostic significance of TLE1 protein expression in breast cancers by using immunohistochemistry and explored the relationship of TLE1 with clinicopathological parameters. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed on 456 cases of breast cancer tiled on tissue microarrays. The relationship between TLE1 expression in normal breast specimens and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) was also analyzed. RESULTS: TLE1 was highly expressed in 57 of 456 (12.5%) carcinoma samples. TLE1 was more frequently expressed in DCIS and invasive breast cancers than in normal breast tissue (p=0.002). High expression of TLE1 significantly correlated with negative lymph node (LN) metastasis (p=0.007), high histologic grade (p<0.001), estrogen receptor negativity (p<0.001), progesterone receptor negativity (p<0.001), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positivity (p<0.001), and high Ki-67 proliferation index (p<0.001). Based on intrinsic subtypes, high TLE1 expression was strongly associated with HER2+ and triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) (p<0.001). Survival analysis demonstrated no significant association between TLE1 expression and disease-free survival (DFS) (p=0.167) or overall survival (OS) (p=0.286). In subgroup analyses, no correlation was found between TLE1 expression and DFS or OS according to LN status or intrinsic subtype. CONCLUSION: High TLE1 expression is significantly associated with the HER2+ and TNBC subtypes. This is the first study documenting immunohistochemical expression of TLE1 in invasive breast cancer and its association with clinicopathological parameters, prognosis, and intrinsic subtype.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating , Co-Repressor Proteins , Disease-Free Survival , Estrogens , Immunohistochemistry , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , ErbB Receptors , Receptors, Progesterone , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
10.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 287-292, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-134103

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Breast cancer survivors have slightly increased the risk of second primary cancers. Breast, colon, uterine, and ovarian cancers are common secondary cancers in breast cancer survivors. In this study, we assessed the development of second primary cancers of breast cancer survivors in Korea. METHODS: Medical records of patients with breast cancer in 3 tertiary medical institutions were reviewed retrospectively. We evaluated secondary malignancy diagnosed at least 2 months after the breast cancer diagnosis. Based on the International Classification of Disease-9 codes of malignancies, secondary primary breast cancer records were evaluated with person-year adjustment. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was assessed using national cancer incidence. RESULTS: A total of 3,444 treatment records were included from 3 medical centers. The cumulative incidence of overall second primary cancers was 2.8% (n = 93). The SIR was significantly higher in all sites (1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26–1.91), endometrial cancer (5.65; 95% CI, 2.06–12.31), biliary tract cancer (3.96; 95% CI, 1.19–8.60), and thyroid cancer (2.29; 95% CI, 1.67–3.08). CONCLUSION: The incidence of cancer was higher in breast cancer survivors compared to general population. Surveillance of secondary cancer in this group should be recommended individually considering the benefit related to the prognosis of primary breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Biliary Tract Neoplasms , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Classification , Colon , Diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer , Endometrial Neoplasms , Incidence , Korea , Medical Records , Neoplasms, Second Primary , Ovarian Neoplasms , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Survivors , Thyroid Neoplasms
11.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 287-292, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-134102

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Breast cancer survivors have slightly increased the risk of second primary cancers. Breast, colon, uterine, and ovarian cancers are common secondary cancers in breast cancer survivors. In this study, we assessed the development of second primary cancers of breast cancer survivors in Korea. METHODS: Medical records of patients with breast cancer in 3 tertiary medical institutions were reviewed retrospectively. We evaluated secondary malignancy diagnosed at least 2 months after the breast cancer diagnosis. Based on the International Classification of Disease-9 codes of malignancies, secondary primary breast cancer records were evaluated with person-year adjustment. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was assessed using national cancer incidence. RESULTS: A total of 3,444 treatment records were included from 3 medical centers. The cumulative incidence of overall second primary cancers was 2.8% (n = 93). The SIR was significantly higher in all sites (1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26–1.91), endometrial cancer (5.65; 95% CI, 2.06–12.31), biliary tract cancer (3.96; 95% CI, 1.19–8.60), and thyroid cancer (2.29; 95% CI, 1.67–3.08). CONCLUSION: The incidence of cancer was higher in breast cancer survivors compared to general population. Surveillance of secondary cancer in this group should be recommended individually considering the benefit related to the prognosis of primary breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Biliary Tract Neoplasms , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Classification , Colon , Diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer , Endometrial Neoplasms , Incidence , Korea , Medical Records , Neoplasms, Second Primary , Ovarian Neoplasms , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Survivors , Thyroid Neoplasms
12.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 85-92, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-164775

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: PIK3CA is often mutated in a variety of malignancies, including colon, gastric, ovary, breast, and brain tumors. We investigated PIK3CA expression in gastric cancer and explored the relationships between the PIK3CA expression level and clinicopathological features as well as survival of the patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined PIK3CA expression in a tissue microarray of 178 gastric adenocarcinomas by immunohisto-chemistry and reviewed patients' medical records. RESULTS: In our study, 112 of the 178 gastric cancer patients displayed positive PIK3CA expression. Overexpression of PIK3CA was correlated with low grade differentiation (P=0.001), frequent lymphatic invasion (P=0.032), and high T stage (P=0.040). Patients with positive PIK3CA staining were more likely to display worse overall survival rate than those with negative PIK3CA staining, as determined by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with log-rank test (P=0.047) and a univariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazard model (hazard ratio=1.832, P=0.051). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated PIK3CA expression was significantly correlated with tumor invasiveness, tumor phenotypes, and poor patient survival.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Adenocarcinoma , Brain Neoplasms , Breast , Colon , Immunohistochemistry , Medical Records , Ovary , Phenotype , Proportional Hazards Models , Stomach Neoplasms , Survival Rate
13.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 53-60, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-159286

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2) is a catalytic subunit of the polycomb repressive complex 2, a highly conserved histone methyltransferase. EZH2 overexpression has been implicated in various malignancies, including breast cancer, where is associated with poor outcomes. This study aims to clarify nuclear EZH2 expression levels in breast cancers using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and correlate these findings with clinicopathologic variables, including prognostic significance. METHODS: IHC was performed on tissue microarrays of 432 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) tumors. Associations between EZH2 expression, clinicopathologic characteristics, and molecular subtype were retrospectively analyzed. The relationship between EZH2 protein expression in normal breast tissue and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) was also assessed. RESULTS: High EZH2 expression was demonstrated in 215 of 432 tumors (49.8%). EZH2 was more frequently expressed in DCIS and IDC than in normal breast tissue (p=0.001). High EZH2 expression significantly correlated with high histologic grade (p<0.001), large tumor size (p=0.014), advanced pathologic stage (p=0.006), negative estrogen receptor status (p<0.001), positive human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status (p<0.001), high Ki-67 staining index (p<0.001), positive cytokeratin 5/6 status (p=0.003), positive epidermal growth factor receptor status (p<0.001), and positive p53 status (p<0.001). Based on molecular subtypes, high EZH2 expression was significantly associated with HER2-negative luminal B, HER2-positive luminal B, and HER2 type and triple-negative basal cancers (p<0.001). In patients with luminal A, there was a significant trend toward shorter overall survival for those with tumors having high EZH2 expression compared to those with tumors having low EZH2 expression (p=0.045). CONCLUSION: EZH2 is frequently upregulated in breast malignancies, and it may play an important role in cancer development and progression. Furthermore, EZH2 may be a prognostic marker, especially in patients with luminal A cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinoma, Ductal , Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating , Catalytic Domain , Estrogens , Histones , Immunohistochemistry , Keratins , Phenobarbital , Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 , Prognosis , ErbB Receptors , Retrospective Studies
14.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 242-251, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126246

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The interaction of programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1) and its ligand, programmed death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1), negatively regulates immune responses. This study aimed to clarify PD-L1 expression levels in breast cancer through immunohistochemistry (IHC) and to evaluate associations between these findings and clinicopathologic variables, including prognosis. METHODS: PD-L1 expression was analyzed using IHC on tissue microarrays of 465 invasive breast carcinomas. RESULTS: High PD-L1 expression was demonstrated in 63 of 465 tumors (13.5%). High PD-L1 expression was significantly associated with high histologic grade (p<0.001), negative lymph nodes (p=0.011), early pathologic stage (p=0.025), high tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) (p<0.001) counts, negative estrogen receptor (p<0.001) and progesterone receptor (p=0.002) expression, positive human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) (p=0.003), cytokeratin 5/6 (p=0.011), epidermal growth factor receptor (p<0.001), and p53 (p<0.001) expression, and high Ki-67 proliferating index (p<0.001). Based on intrinsic subtypes, high PD-L1 expression and high TIL counts were significantly associated with the HER2 and triple-negative basal type (p<0.001). PD-L1 expression was significantly associated with better disease-free survival (DFS) (p=0.041) and overall survival (OS) (p=0.026) in the univariate analysis, but not in the multivariate analysis. Higher TIL levels was an independent prognostic factor for decreased disease progression (hazard ratio [HR], 2.389; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.284–4.445; p=0.006) and overall death (HR, 3.666; 95% CI, 1.561–8.607; p=0.003). CONCLUSION: PD-L1 protein expression in breast cancer is associated with better DFS and OS, but is not an independent prognostic factor. High PD-L1 expression was significantly associated with high TIL levels. This finding has important implications for antibody therapies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 signaling mechanism in breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Disease Progression , Disease-Free Survival , Estrogens , Immunohistochemistry , Keratins , Lymph Nodes , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , ErbB Receptors , Receptors, Progesterone
15.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 339-346, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-77783

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Somatic mutations of the chromatin remodeling AT-rich interactive domain 1A (SWI-like) gene (ARID1A) have been identified in many human cancers, including breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nuclear expression of ARID1A in breast cancers by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and to correlate the findings to clinicopathologic variables including prognostic significance. METHODS: IHC was performed on tissue microarrays of 476 cases of breast cancer. Associations between ARID1A expression and clinicopathologic characteristics and molecular subtype were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Low expression of ARID1A was found in 339 of 476 (71.2%) cases. Low expression of ARID1A significantly correlated with positive lymph node metastasis (p=0.027), advanced pathologic stage (p=0.001), low Ki-67 labeling index (p=0.003), and negative p53 expression (p=0.017). The ARID1A low expression group had significantly shorter disease-free and overall survival than the ARID1A high expression group (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that low expression of ARID1A was a significant independent predictive factor for poor disease-free and overall survival in patients with breast cancer (disease-free survival: hazard ratio, 0.38, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.20-0.73, p=0.004; overall survival: hazard ratio, 0.11, 95% CI, 0.03-0.46, p=0.003). In patients with luminal A type disease, patients with low ARID1A expression had significantly shorter disease-free and overall survival rates than patients with high ARID1A expression (p=0.022 and p=0.018, respectively). CONCLUSION: Low expression of ARID1A is an independent prognostic factor for disease-free and overall survival in breast cancer patients and may be associated with luminal A type disease. Although the biologic function of ARID1A in breast cancer remains unknown, low expression of ARID1A can provide valuable prognostic information.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Immunohistochemistry , Lymph Nodes , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Phenobarbital , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
16.
Korean Journal of Endocrine Surgery ; : 60-66, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-7557

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Total thyroidectomy with central lymph node dissection (CLND) is a treatment modality of choice for thyroid cancer. Hypocalcemia is the most common complication after total thyroidectomy. The aim of the current study was to determine the association between surgery-related clinical factors and postoperative hypocalcemia. METHODS: A prospective analysis was performed for 101 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy with CLND for papillary cancer from June 2013 to June 2014. Correlation between clinicopathologic factors and postoperative hypocalcemia was analyzed. RESULTS: Based on the postoperative day-2 calcium, 56 patients (55%) developed hypocalcemia and 45 patients (45%) were normal. No significant differences in histopathologic (tumor size, tumor focality, histologic type, number of retrieved lymph nodes, metastatic lymph node, thyroiditis, retrieved parathyroid gland) findings were observed between the hypocalcemia group and normal calcium group. Mean value of the postoperative day-0 parathyroid hormone (PTH) was significantly lower in the hypocalcemia group (hypoca1cemia group: 14.3+/-9.4 pg/mL; normal group: 25.0+/-16.4 pg/mL; P<0.001). In logistic regression analysis, postoperative PTH was a factor significantly affecting postoperative hypocalcemia (OR 0.93; CI: 0.90-0.97; P<0.001). In ROC analysis, the cut-off value of PTH was 19.965 (sensitivity 79%, specificity 58%), and area under the curve (AUC) was 0.709 (95% CI: 0.607-0.811). CONCLUSION: Postoperative PTH was a factor predicting hypocalcemia after total thyroidectomy with CLND. Use of postoperative PTH as a screening tool for prediction of postoperative hypocalcemia would be useful in management of patients with hypocalcemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Calcium , Hypocalcemia , Logistic Models , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes , Mass Screening , Parathyroid Hormone , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy , Thyroiditis
17.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 83-87, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-70430

ABSTRACT

Whole-body bone scans and whole body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomographic/computed tomographic scans are sensitive for detecting bone metastasis in patients with breast cancer. However, it is often difficult to discriminate between bone metastasis and other nonmalignant bone lesions. Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia is a rare disorder characterized by the osteoid medullary cavity filling with fibrous tissue causing bony expansion. We report the case of a 42-year-old female patient with ductal carcinoma in situ, which appeared to have multiple bone metastases on initial work-up images. Subsequently, the bone metastases were identified as polyostotic fibrous dysplasia. The patient underwent modified radical mastectomy and subsequently visited for a second opinion regarding the bony metastases. She underwent right ilium computed tomography-guided biopsy. Pathology was consistent with fibrous dysplasia. This patient received only adjuvant tamoxifen, and 1.5 years later, there was no evidence of recurrence.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Biopsy , Breast Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Ductal , Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating , Electrons , Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone , Fibrous Dysplasia, Polyostotic , Ilium , Mastectomy, Modified Radical , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pathology , Positron-Emission Tomography , Recurrence , Referral and Consultation , Tamoxifen , Whole Body Imaging
18.
Journal of the Korean Society of Medical Ultrasound ; : 270-278, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-725520

ABSTRACT

Most men referred for breast imaging have palpable lumps. Most lesions that are evaluated are benign, and malignancy is less common. Although there are characteristic imaging features of malignancy, substantial overlap is presented between benign and malignancy. Therefore, other imaging modalities are increasingly being used for accurate evaluation. We report on various male breast lesions using ultrasonography, mammography, computed tomography, and positron emission tomography-computed tomography. Pathognomonic histologic findings of each case are also provided.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Breast , Electrons , Mammography , Ultrasonography
19.
Korean Journal of Endocrine Surgery ; : 222-226, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-169065

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The causal association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) remains controversial. This research attempted to analyze clinicopathological relationships between HT and PTC, and to determine what influence the former has on the latter. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 773 patients who underwent thyroid surgery with PTC. These patients were divided into two groups, coexistent HT group and PTC alone group, and the clinicopathologic data were analyzed. RESULTS: Out of 773 patients, the coexistent HT group included 269/773 (34.8%) patients and the control group included 504/773 (65.2%) patients. In comparison of these two groups, there were no significant differences in age, extent of surgery, serum T3, Free T4, number of tumors, multifocality, tumor size, extrathyroidal extension, and lymph node metastasis. In sex, women were at the higher rate in coexistent HT group than in the control group (P=0.008). Serum TSH level was higher in the coexistent HT group (P<0.001). In addition, using the AMES scoring system, the coexistent HT group showed a significantly higher rate of low risk than the control group (P=0.048). Multivariate analysis showed no significant association between HT and lymph node metastasis (P=0.081, odds ratio=1.335; 95% CI, 0.965~1.847). CONCLUSION: The rate of women and serum TSH level were higher in the coexistent HT group. In addition, the low-risk group showed the higher rate in the case of accompanying HT, and though the HT does not affect the lymph node metastasis but much more researches would be needed on that.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroiditis
20.
Korean Journal of Endocrine Surgery ; : 112-114, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-54890

ABSTRACT

A Hyalinizing Trabecular Tumor (HTT) is a very rare tumor. We report one case that was confirmed to be HTT after an operation. A 44-year-old female visited our hospital with about a 1.3-cm-sized mass on the left thyroid. Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy (FNAB) indicated papillary thyroid cancer. After a left hemithyroidectomy, a frozen section biopsy reported the possibility of HTT. Therefore, we did not proceed with the surgery. According to the final report, she was diagnosed with HTT. Five lymph nodes were dissected and were found to be benign. Thyroid transcription factor-1 and neuron specific enolase were positive, and in addition calcitonin was negative. Ki-67 was recorded to be less than 5%. She was discharged without any complication. HTT is benign in most cases, but the possibility of malignancy should be considered. Because it is hard to differentiate between it and PTC or MTC, an accurate diagnosis through histologic examination of specimens and surgical resection is necessary.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Biopsy , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Calcitonin , Diagnosis , Frozen Sections , Hyalin , Lymph Nodes , Phosphopyruvate Hydratase , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms
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