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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875117

ABSTRACT

Diffuse-type tenosynovial giant cell tumor (D-TSGCT), previously known as pigmented villonodular synovitis, is a locally aggressive neoplasm that may arise from the synovium, bursa, or tendon sheath. D-TSGCT is usually monoarticular and can be classified into intra- and extra-articular forms, the latter of which is rarer. Here, we report a case of D-TSGCT in a 64-year-old female that involved the entire flexor and extensor tendon sheaths of both wrists. We describe the ultrasonography and MRI findings, as well as review the relevant literature.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897306

ABSTRACT

In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of 8 weeks of treatment with a combination of evogliptin and leucine, a branchedchain amino acid, in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetes. Treatment with evogliptin alone or in combination with leucine reduced the body weight of the mice, compared to the case for those from the HFD control group. Long-term treatment with evogliptin alone or in combination with leucine resulted in a significant reduction in glucose intolerance; however, leucine alone did not affect postprandial glucose control, compared to the case for the mice from the HFD control group. Furthermore, the combination of evogliptin and leucine prevented HFD-induced insulin resistance, which was associated with improved homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, accompanied by markedly reduced liver fat deposition, hepatic triglyceride content, and plasma alanine aminotransferase levels. The combination of evogliptin and leucine increased the gene expression levels of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, whereas those of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 were not altered, compared to the case in the HFD-fed mice (p<0.05). Thus, our results suggest that the combination of evogliptin and leucine may be beneficial for treating patients with type 2 diabetes and hepatic steatosis; however, further studies are needed to delineate the molecular mechanisms underlying the action of this combination.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889602

ABSTRACT

In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of 8 weeks of treatment with a combination of evogliptin and leucine, a branchedchain amino acid, in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetes. Treatment with evogliptin alone or in combination with leucine reduced the body weight of the mice, compared to the case for those from the HFD control group. Long-term treatment with evogliptin alone or in combination with leucine resulted in a significant reduction in glucose intolerance; however, leucine alone did not affect postprandial glucose control, compared to the case for the mice from the HFD control group. Furthermore, the combination of evogliptin and leucine prevented HFD-induced insulin resistance, which was associated with improved homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, accompanied by markedly reduced liver fat deposition, hepatic triglyceride content, and plasma alanine aminotransferase levels. The combination of evogliptin and leucine increased the gene expression levels of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, whereas those of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 were not altered, compared to the case in the HFD-fed mice (p<0.05). Thus, our results suggest that the combination of evogliptin and leucine may be beneficial for treating patients with type 2 diabetes and hepatic steatosis; however, further studies are needed to delineate the molecular mechanisms underlying the action of this combination.

4.
Ultrasonography ; : 602-616, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919543

ABSTRACT

Ultrasonography is a useful technique to detect soft tissue changes of rheumatoid arthritisnot only synovitis, but also tenosynovitis, bursitis, and enthesitis-even at a subclinical stage. However, radiologists tend to focus on synovitis in daily practice, and unusual peri- or extraarticular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis are difficult to detect at the initial presentation. This pictorial essay describes a broad spectrum of ultrasonographic findings in tendons, bursae, ligaments, subcutaneous tissues, bones, and nerves to assist in the accurate diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis.

5.
Ultrasonography ; : 318-332, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919518

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study was undertaken to compare the diagnostic performance and biopsy reduction rate of combined shear-wave elastography (SWE) and B-mode ultrasonography (US) versus B-mode US alone for breast lesions and to determine the most discriminatory parameter in SWE. @*Methods@#A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted. The resources for the study were obtained from MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed on August 17, 2018. The quality of the articles was evaluated using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) tool. @*Results@#Twenty-five articles with 5,147 breast lesions were selected. The meta-analysis showed pooled sensitivities of 0.94 and 0.97 (P=0.087), pooled specificities of 0.85 and 0.61 (P=0.009), and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.96 and 0.96 (P=0.095) for combined SWE and B-mode US versus B-mode US alone. When SWE was combined with B-mode US, the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System category changed from 4 to 3 in 71.3% of the tests, decreasing the frequency of unnecessary biopsies by 41.1%. All four parameters of SWE (the color grade of lesion stiffness, maximum elasticity, mean elasticity, and color grade of lesion stiffness/homogeneity of the lesion) improved the specificity when they were added to B-mode US. The AUC for each SWE parameter was 0.99, 0.96, 0.96, and 0.93, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Adding SWE to B-mode US not only provides additional diagnostic information for differentiating between benign and malignant breast lesions, but also decreases the likelihood of unnecessary biopsies.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918821

ABSTRACT

Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) after solid organ transplantation is infrequent and its etiology remains still unclear. Nevertheless, if early diagnosis and early therapies are not performed, it can lead to severe life-threatening complications and even death. A 54-year-old female (a Jehovah’s Witness) was diagnosed with drug-induced toxic hepatitis and was decided to undergo bloodless living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). After the successful LDLT, the patient’s condition deteriorated, and she was diagnosed with TMA during further evaluation. We tried to proceed with plasma exchange-based treatment, but she and her family declined according to their religious beliefs. The patient expired 4 days after the diagnosis. Physicians should maintain a high level of suspicion for TMA after liver transplantation when clinical manifestations are observed.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894873

ABSTRACT

This systematic review aims to identify factors associated with risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO), including the uptake rate and decision timing, among women at high risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). We found 4,935 relevant studies using MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO on July 6, 2020. Two authors screened the articles and extracted data. Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Quality assessment of articles was conducted using the Risk of Bias for Nonrandomized Studies tool. Five types of factors were identified (demographic factors, clinical factors, family history of cancer, psychological factors, and objective cancer risk). The specific significant factors were older age, having child(ren), being a BRCA1/2 carrier, mastectomy history, perceived risk for ovarian cancer, and perceived advantages of RRSO, whereas objective cancer risk was not significant. The uptake rate of RRSO was 23.4% to 87.2% (mean, 45.2%) among high-risk women for HBOC. The mean time to decide whether to undergo RRSO after BRCA testing was 4 to 34 months. RRSO decisions are affected by demographic, clinical, and psychological factors, rather than objective cancer risk. Nonetheless, women seeking RRSO should be offered information about objective cancer risk. Even though decision-making for RRSO is a complex and multifaceted process, the psychosocial factors that may influence decisions have not been comprehensively examined, including family attitudes toward RRSO, cultural norms, social values, and health care providers’ attitudes.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835812

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study is to identifying factors influencing organizational commitment of nurses in Korean Red Cross Blood Center (KRCBC). @*Methods@#A cross sectional survey was conducted for 224 nurses who worked for more than three months in KRCBC. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire from August 28 to September 20, 2018. Data were analyzed using independent t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and hierarchical multiple regression analysis with SPSS (ver. 23.0). @*Results@#The mean score of organizational commitment was 3.37±0.52 on a scale of 5 points, the mean of positive psychological capital was 3.51±0.51, communication ability score was 3.60±0.48, and social support score was 3.68±0.57. The factors influencing organizational commitment of nurses in KRCBC were social support (β=.41, p<.001), job satisfaction (β= .27, p<.001), and total length of employment in KRCBC (β=.19, p=.016). The model explained 36.1% of the organizational commitment of the nurses. @*Conclusion@#It is necessary to develop an organizational commitment program for strengthening social support and job satisfaction to improve organizational commitment of nurses in KRCBC. Such a program is eventually expected to improve the quality of nursing care of nurses with a short career in KRCBC.

9.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830315

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of 10-min pre-warming in preventing inadvertent perioperative hypothermia, which is defined as a reduction in body temperature to less than 36.0℃ during the perioperative period in intraoperative warming patients. @*Methods@#In this prospective randomized study, 60 patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia lasting less than 120 min were divided into two groups: the 10-min pre-warming group (n = 30) and the control group (n = 30). Patients in the 10-min pre-warming group were pre-warmed for 10 min in the pre-anesthetic area using a forced-air warmer set at 47ºC. Intraoperatively, we warmed all patients with a forced-air warmer. Body temperature was measured using a tympanic membrane thermometer pre- or postoperatively and a nasopharyngeal temperature probe intraoperatively. Patients were evaluated on the shivering and thermal comfort scale in the pre-anesthetic area and post-anesthesia care unit. @*Results@#The incidences of intraoperative hypothermia and postoperative hypothermia were similar in both groups (10.7% vs. 28.6%, P = 0.177; 10.7% vs. 10.7%, P = 1.000 respectively). Body temperature was higher in the 10-min pre-warming group (P = 0.003). Thermal comfort during the pre-warming period was higher in the 10-min pre-warming group (P < 0.001). However, postoperative thermal comfort and shivering grades of both groups were similar. @*Conclusions@#Ten minutes of pre-warming has no additional effect on the prevention of inadvertent perioperative hypothermia in intraoperative warming patients.

10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830286

ABSTRACT

Coagulation and transfusion management in patients undergoing liver transplantation is challenging. Proper perioperative monitoring of hemostasis is essential to predict the risk of bleeding during surgery, to detect potential causes of hemorrhage in time, and to guide hemostatic therapy. The value of conventional coagulation test is questionable in the acute perioperative setting due to their long turnaround time and the inability to adequately reflect the complex changes in hemostasis in patients with liver disease. Viscoelastic coagulation tests provide simultaneous measurement of multiple aspects of whole-blood coagulation including plasmatic coagulation and fibrinolytic factors and inhibitors that reflect most aspects of hemostasis. Coagulation initiation, mechanical clot stability, and fibrinolysis can be estimated immediately using point-of-care techniques. Therefore, viscoelastic coagulation tests including ROTEM & TEG would be useful to guide patient blood management strategy during liver transplantation.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902577

ABSTRACT

This systematic review aims to identify factors associated with risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO), including the uptake rate and decision timing, among women at high risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). We found 4,935 relevant studies using MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO on July 6, 2020. Two authors screened the articles and extracted data. Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Quality assessment of articles was conducted using the Risk of Bias for Nonrandomized Studies tool. Five types of factors were identified (demographic factors, clinical factors, family history of cancer, psychological factors, and objective cancer risk). The specific significant factors were older age, having child(ren), being a BRCA1/2 carrier, mastectomy history, perceived risk for ovarian cancer, and perceived advantages of RRSO, whereas objective cancer risk was not significant. The uptake rate of RRSO was 23.4% to 87.2% (mean, 45.2%) among high-risk women for HBOC. The mean time to decide whether to undergo RRSO after BRCA testing was 4 to 34 months. RRSO decisions are affected by demographic, clinical, and psychological factors, rather than objective cancer risk. Nonetheless, women seeking RRSO should be offered information about objective cancer risk. Even though decision-making for RRSO is a complex and multifaceted process, the psychosocial factors that may influence decisions have not been comprehensively examined, including family attitudes toward RRSO, cultural norms, social values, and health care providers’ attitudes.

12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832802

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in 10 cases of Toxocara canis myelitis and to analyze these findings to aid in the diagnosis of this condition.@*MATERIALS AND METHODS@#From June 2015 to March 2018, we retrospectively analyzed the electronic medical records and MR images of patients who were diagnosed with Toxocara canis myelitis. The analysis of the MR images was based on a discussion between an experienced spinal radiologist and a radiology resident.@*RESULTS@#This study classified MRI findings into the following two types. Type 1 was defined as central and diffuse T2 high signal intensity on the axial plane, which was observed in 50% of all cases. All lesions showed avid enhancement, mostly in the posterolateral or posterior region (4 cases, 80%). Type 2 was defined as wedge-shaped or focal T2 high signal intensity in the posterolateral or posterior region and corresponded to the remaining 50% of the cases. In this case, the extent of the lesion was relatively small and contrast enhancement was observed in only one case.@*CONCLUSION@#This study revealed that various imaging findings could be observed in cases of Toxocara canis myelitis, and the findings were classified into two types.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832789

ABSTRACT

Giant cell fibroblastoma (GCF) is a rare soft-tissue sarcoma of fibroblastic origin. To the best of our knowledge, only one brief description of the MRI findings of GCF exists in the pathologic literature. Herein, we report a case of histologically proven GCF in a 3-year-old boy who underwent ultrasonography and MRI of a superficial mass in the abdominal wall.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759549

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Phase-lag entropy (PLE) was recently described as a measurement of temporal pattern diversity in the phase relationship between two electroencephalographic signals from prefrontal and frontal montages. This study was performed to evaluate the performance of PLE for assessing the depth of sedation. METHODS: Thirty adult patients undergoing upper limb surgery with a brachial plexus block were administered propofol by target-controlled infusion. The depth of sedation was assessed using the Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (OAA/S) scale. The effect-site concentration (Ce) of propofol was initially started at 0.5 μg/ml and was increased in increments of 0.2 μg/ml until an OAA/S score of 1 was reached. Three minutes after the target Ce was reached, the PLE, bispectral index (BIS), and level of sedation were assessed. Correlations between the OAA/S score and PLE or BIS were determined. The prediction probabilities (P(k)) of PLE and BIS were also analyzed. RESULTS: The PLE values were closely correlated with the OAA/S scores (Spearman's Rho = 0.755; P < 0.001) to an extent comparable with the correlation between the BIS and OAA/S score (Spearman's Rho = 0.788; P < 0.001). The P(k) values of PLE and BIS were 0.731 and 0.718, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: PLE is a new and reliable consciousness monitoring system for assessing the depth of sedation induced by propofol, which is comparable with the BIS.


Subject(s)
Adult , Brachial Plexus Block , Consciousness Monitors , Electroencephalography , Entropy , Humans , Propofol , Upper Extremity
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759547

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The facilitator effects of steroids on neuromuscular transmission may cause resistance to neuromuscular blocking agents. Additionally, steroids may hinder sugammadex reversal of neuromuscular blockade, but these findings remain controversial. Therefore, we explored the effect of dexamethasone and hydrocortisone on rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade and their inhibitory effect on sugammadex. METHODS: We explored the effects of steroids, dexamethasone and hydrocortisone, in vitro using a phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm rat model. In the first phase, an effective dose of rocuronium was calculated, and in the second phase, following sugammadex administration, the recovery of the train-of-four (TOF) ratio and T1 was evaluated for 30 minutes, and the recovery index was calculated in dexamethasone 0, 0.5, 5, and 50 μg/ml, or hydrocortisone 0, 1, 10, or 100 μg/ml. RESULTS: No significant effect of steroids on the effective dose of rocuronium was observed. The TOF ratios at 30 minutes after sugammadex administration were decreased significantly only at high experimental concentrations of steroids: dexamethasone 50 μg/ml and hydrocortisone 100 μg/ml (P < 0.001 and P = 0.042, respectively). There were no statistical significances in other concentrations. No differences were observed in T1. Recovery index was significantly different only in 100 μg/ml of hydrocortisone (P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Acute exposure to steroids did not resist the neuromuscular blockade caused by rocuronium. And inhibition of sugammadex reversal on rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade is unlikely at typical clinical doses of dexamethasone and also hydrocortisone. Conclusively, we can expect proper effects of rocuronium and sugammadex when dexamethasone or hydrocortisone is used during general anesthesia.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Animals , Dexamethasone , Hydrocortisone , In Vitro Techniques , Models, Animal , Neuromuscular Blockade , Neuromuscular Blocking Agents , Neuromuscular Monitoring , Rats , Steroids
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759521

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Considering the functional role of red blood cells (RBC) in maintaining oxygen supply to tissues, RBC transfusion can be a life-saving intervention in situations of severe bleeding or anemia. RBC transfusion is often inevitable to address intraoperative massive bleeding; it is a key component in safe perioperative patient management. Unlike general medical resources, packed RBCs (pRBCs) have limited availability because their supply relies entirely on voluntary donations. Additionally, excessive utilization of pRBCs may aggravate prognosis or increase the risk of developing infectious diseases. Appropriate perioperative RBC transfusion is, therefore, crucial for the management of patient safety and medical resource conservation. These concerns motivated us to develop the present clinical practice guideline for evidence-based efficient and safe perioperative RBC transfusion management considering the current clinical landscape. METHODS: This guideline was obtained after the revision and refinement of exemplary clinical practice guidelines developed in advanced countries. This was followed by rigorous evidence-based reassessment considering the healthcare environment of the country. RESULTS: This guideline covers all important aspects of perioperative RBC transfusion, such as preoperative anemia management, appropriate RBC storage period, and leukoreduction (removal of white blood cells using filters), reversal of perioperative bleeding tendency, strategies for perioperative RBC transfusion, appropriate blood management protocols, efforts to reduce blood transfusion requirements, and patient monitoring during a perioperative transfusion. CONCLUSIONS: This guideline will aid decisions related to RBC transfusion in healthcare settings and minimize patient risk associated with unnecessary pRBC transfusion.


Subject(s)
Anemia , Blood Transfusion , Communicable Diseases , Delivery of Health Care , Erythrocyte Transfusion , Erythrocytes , Hemorrhage , Humans , Leukocytes , Monitoring, Physiologic , Oxygen , Patient Safety , Prognosis
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787456

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance syndrome is recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Even though early management and prevention during the pre-DM stage is emphasized, few studies have investigated the risk of insulin resistance and CVD in individuals with normal blood glucose. This study investigates the effectiveness of the high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) test as a preventative measure by examining the relationship between hs-CRP and a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in adult men without DM.METHODS: Our study included 1,924 men who were ≥20 years of age, from the 2015 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Based on fasting glucose levels, subjects were divided into two categories: normal and impaired fasting glucose (IFG).RESULTS: Student's t-test was used to compare the means of the normal and IFG categories, and hs-CRP and HOMA-IR showed significantly lower values for all variations, except height and smoking, at a significance level of 0.001. All subjects were classified into quadrant groups according to hs-CRP values, and ANCOVA was performed to compare the HOMA-IR average of each group. The mean IR did not significantly differ between cohorts, except for in the IFG category of one group.CONCLUSION: In adult men without DM, hs-CRP did not significantly correlate with HOMA-IR, except in the IFG category. This indicates that the risk of CVD increases continuously in the normal blood sugar range. Further studies are needed to improve the usefulness of the high sensitivity hs-CRP test.


Subject(s)
Adult , Blood Glucose , C-Reactive Protein , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Fasting , Glucose , Homeostasis , Humans , Insulin Resistance , Insulin , Male , Nutrition Surveys , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787435

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although less frequent activity might be fit into patients, little is known about the benefits of the low frequency physical activity. With the increasing prevalence of diabetes, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of physical activity patterns on glycemic control in Korean adult men with diabetes and prediabetes.METHODS: We obtained data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI (2014 to 2015), which included 14,930 participants. We analyzed the data for 1,297 male individuals aged 40–80 years, with diabetes or prediabetes. Physical activity patterns were classified into physical activity (Metabolic Equivalents [MET]·minutes) and frequency.RESULTS: Among the 1,297 respondents, 846 were in the “Inactive”, 98 were in the “Insufficiently Active 1” ( < 600 MET·minutes, 1 or 2 sessions/wk), 54 were in the “Insufficiently Active 2” ( < 600 MET·minutes, 3 or more sessions/wk), and 299 were in the “Sufficiently Active” (≥600 MET·minutes). Those in the “Insufficiently Active 1” had a significantly lower HbA1c than “inactive” (0.27%; 5.98±0.07 vs. 6.25±0.05). In contrast, those in the “Insufficiently Active 2” (6.66±0.28) exhibited higher HbA1c as compared to “inactive”. Finally, those in the “Sufficiently Active” (6.21±0.06) exhibited lower HbA1c as compared to “inactive” (0.04%) (all P-values < 0.05). A similar trend was observed in the relationship between physical activity and fasting blood glucose levels.CONCLUSION: Though engaging in physical activity once or twice a week does not meet the World Health Organization-recommended frequency, it has a significant positive effect on glycemic control in patients with diabetes and prediabetes.


Subject(s)
Adult , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus , Fasting , Global Health , Humans , Leisure Activities , Male , Motor Activity , Nutrition Surveys , Prediabetic State , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741451

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic value of combining diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for differentiating between pathologic and traumatic fractures at extremities from metastasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Institutional Review Board approved this retrospective study and informed consent was waived. This study included 49 patients each with pathologic and traumatic fractures at extremities. The patients underwent conventional MRI combined with DWI. For qualitative analysis, two radiologists (R1 and R2) independently reviewed three imaging sets with a crossover design using a 5-point scale and a 3-scale confidence level: DWI plus non-enhanced MRI (NEMR; DW set), NEMR plus contrast-enhanced fat-saturated T1-weighted imaging (CEFST1; CE set), and DWI plus NEMR plus CEFST1 (combined set). McNemar's test was used to compare the diagnostic performances among three sets and perform subgroup analyses (single vs. multiple bone abnormality, absence/presence of extra-osseous mass, and bone enhancement at fracture margin). RESULTS: Compared to the CE set, the combined set showed improved diagnostic accuracy (R1, 84.7 vs. 95.9%; R2, 91.8 vs. 95.9%, p 0.05). In cases of absent extra-osseous soft tissue mass and present fracture site enhancement, the combined set showed improved accuracy (R1, 82.9–84.4% vs. 95.6–96.3%, p < 0.05; R2, 90.2–91.1% vs. 95.1–95.6%, p < 0.05) and specificity (R1, 68.3–72.9% vs. 92.7–95.8%, p < 0.005; R2, 83.0–85.4% vs. 97.6–98.0%, p = 0.07). CONCLUSION: Combining DWI with conventional MRI improved the diagnostic accuracy and specificity while retaining sensitivity for differentiating between pathologic and traumatic fractures from metastasis at extremities.


Subject(s)
Cross-Over Studies , Diffusion , Ethics Committees, Research , Extremities , Fractures, Spontaneous , Humans , Informed Consent , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neoplasm Metastasis , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917436

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Phase-lag entropy (PLE) was recently described as a measurement of temporal pattern diversity in the phase relationship between two electroencephalographic signals from prefrontal and frontal montages. This study was performed to evaluate the performance of PLE for assessing the depth of sedation.@*METHODS@#Thirty adult patients undergoing upper limb surgery with a brachial plexus block were administered propofol by target-controlled infusion. The depth of sedation was assessed using the Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (OAA/S) scale. The effect-site concentration (Ce) of propofol was initially started at 0.5 μg/ml and was increased in increments of 0.2 μg/ml until an OAA/S score of 1 was reached. Three minutes after the target Ce was reached, the PLE, bispectral index (BIS), and level of sedation were assessed. Correlations between the OAA/S score and PLE or BIS were determined. The prediction probabilities (P(k)) of PLE and BIS were also analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The PLE values were closely correlated with the OAA/S scores (Spearman's Rho = 0.755; P < 0.001) to an extent comparable with the correlation between the BIS and OAA/S score (Spearman's Rho = 0.788; P < 0.001). The P(k) values of PLE and BIS were 0.731 and 0.718, respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#PLE is a new and reliable consciousness monitoring system for assessing the depth of sedation induced by propofol, which is comparable with the BIS.

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