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1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 531-540, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003251

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#For precision medicine, exploration and monitoring of molecular biomarkers are essential. However, in advanced gastric cancer (GC) with visceral lesions, an invasive procedure cannot be performed repeatedly for the follow-up of molecular biomarkers. @*Materials and Methods@#To verify the clinical implication of serial liquid biopsies targeting circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) on treatment response, we conducted targeted deep sequencing for serially collected ctDNA of 15 HER2-positive metastatic GC patients treated with anti-PD-1 inhibitor in combination with standard systemic treatment. @*Results@#In the baseline ctDNAs, 14 patients (93%) harbored more than one genetic alteration. A number of mutations in wellknown cancer-related genes, such as KRAS and PIK3CA, were identified. Copy number alterations were identified in eight GCs (53.3%), and amplification of the ERBB2 gene (6/15, 40.0%) was the most recurrent. When we calculated the mean variant allele frequency (VAF) of mutations in each ctDNA as the molecular tumor burden index (mTBI), the mTBI trend was largely consistent with the VAF profiles in both responder and non-responder groups. Notably, in the longitudinal analysis of ctDNA, mTBI provided 2–42 weeks (mean 13.4 weeks) lead time in the detection of disease progression compared to conventional follow-up with CT imaging. @*Conclusion@#Our data indicate that the serial genetic alteration profiling of ctDNA is feasible to predict treatment response in HER2-positive GC patients in a minimally invasive manner. Practically, ctDNA profiles are useful not only for the molecular diagnosis of GC but also for the selection of GC patients with poor prognosis for systemic treatment (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier:NCT02901301).

2.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 574-583, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000922

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Gastric cancer (GC) is among the most prevalent and fatal cancers worldwide.National cancer screening programs in countries with high incidences of this disease provide medical aid beneficiaries with free-of-charge screening involving upper endoscopy to detect early-stage GC. However, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused major disruptions to routine healthcare access. Thus, this study aimed to assess the impact of COVID-19 on the diagnosis, overall incidence, and stage distribution of GC. @*Materials and Methods@#We identified patients in our hospital cancer registry who were diagnosed with GC between January 2018 and December 2021 and compared the cancer stage at diagnosis before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to age and sex. The years 2018 and 2019 were defined as the “before COVID” period, and the years 2020 and 2021 as the “during COVID” period. @*Results@#Overall, 10,875 patients were evaluated; 6,535 and 4,340 patients were diagnosed before and during the COVID-19 period, respectively. The number of diagnoses was lower during the COVID-19 pandemic (189 patients/month vs. 264 patients/month) than before it.Notably, the proportion of patients with stages 3 or 4 GC in 2021 was higher among men and patients aged ≥40 years. @*Conclusions@#During the COVID-19 pandemic, the overall number of GC diagnoses decreased significantly in a single institute. Moreover, GCs were in more advanced stages at the time of diagnosis. Further studies are required to elucidate the relationship between the COVID-19 pandemic and the delay in the detection of GC worldwide.

3.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 224-249, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967165

ABSTRACT

Gastric cancer is heterogeneous in morphology, biology, genomics, and treatment response. Alterations in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression, microsatellite instability (MSI) status, programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) levels, and fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) can be used as biomarkers. Since the combination of fluoropyrimidine/platinum plus trastuzumab that was investigated in the ToGA trial was approved as a standard of care in HER2-positive patients in 2010, no other agents showed efficacy in the first- (HELOISE, LOGiC, JACOB trials) and second- (TyTAN, GATSBY, T-ACT trials) line treatments. Despite the success in treating breast cancer, various anti-HER2 agents, including a monoclonal antibody (pertuzumab), an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC; trastuzumab emtansine [T-DM1]), and a small molecule (lapatinib) failed to translate into clinical benefits until the KEYNOTE-811 (first-line) and DESTINY-Gastri01 (≥second-line) trials were conducted. The incorporation of HER2-directed treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors in the form of a monoclonal antibody or ADC is now approved as a standard treatment. Despite the promising results of new agents (engineered monoclonal antibodies, bi-specific antibodies, fusion proteins, and small molecules) in the early phase of development, the management of HER2-positive gastric cancer requires further optimization to achieve precision medicine with a chemotherapeutic backbone.Treatment resistance is a complex process that can be overcome using a combination of chemotherapy, targeted agents, and immune checkpoint inhibitors, including novel agents.HER2 status must be reassessed in patients undergoing anti-HER2 treatment with disease progression after the first-line treatment. As a general guideline, patients who need systemic treatment should receive chemotherapy plus targeted agents, anti-angiogenic agents, immune checkpoint inhibitors, or their combinations.

4.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 746-757, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999788

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to assess the humoral response to and reactogenicity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination according to the vaccine type and to analyze factors associated with immunogenicity in actively treated solid cancer patients (CPs). @*Materials and Methods@#Prospective cohorts of CPs, undergoing anticancer treatment, and healthcare workers (HCWs) were established. The participants had no history of previous COVID-19 and received either mRNA-based or adenovirus vector–based (AdV) vaccines as the primary series. Blood samples were collected before the first vaccination and after 2 weeks for each dose vaccination. Spike-specific binding antibodies (bAbs) in all participants and neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) wild-type, Delta, and Omicron variants in CPs were analyzed and presented as the geometric mean titer. @*Results@#Age-matched 20 HCWs and 118 CPs were included in the analysis. The bAb seroconversion rate and antibody concentrations after the first vaccination were significantly lower in CPs than in HCWs. After the third vaccination, antibody levels in CPs with a primary series of AdV were comparable to those in HCWs, but nAb titers against the Omicron variant did not quantitatively increase in CPs with AdV vaccine as the primary series. The incidence and severity of adverse reactions post-vaccination were similar between CPs and HCWs. @*Conclusion@#CPs displayed delayed humoral immune response after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. The booster dose elicited comparable bAb concentrations between CPs and HCWs, regardless of the primary vaccine type. Neutralization against the Omicron variant was not robustly elicited following the booster dose in some CPs, implying the need for additional interventions to protect them from COVID-19.

5.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 442-451, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976719

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#An increasing number of patients with cancers are interested in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), which lacks scientific evidence. This study aimed to determine how CAM was used and how media affected patients in online cancer support groups (OCSG). @*Materials and Methods@#Between August 18 and September 12, 2021, an online survey was conducted among the members of OCSG. The survey consisted of five parts: baseline characteristics, attitudes toward and experience with CAM, source of information and reliabilities, experience with anthelmintics, and online health information literacy and usage. @*Results@#Among the 644 responders, a total of 221 patients with cancer completed the survey, and 78.2% (173/221) used CAM. The users’ median age was 52 years; 46.8% were males, and 43.9% had metastatic disease. Fifty-three CAM users (30.6%) discussed their physicians about CAM. In addition, 16.2% (28/173) of CAM users had the experience of anthelmintics. The use of anthelmintics in patients with cancers was associated with younger age (odds ratio [OR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84 to 0.95), metastatic disease (OR, 10.88; 95% CI, 3.39 to 34.86), previous exposure to CAM information (OR, 5.57; 95% CI, 1.01 to 30.72), experience with more types of CAM (OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.29 to 3.05), and side effects (OR, 5.10; 95% CI 1.46 to 17.75). @*Conclusion@#Use of anthelmintics, a CAM of which information is widespread online, is affected by several factors. This study will provide essential information for developing a CAM management strategy in this digital age.

6.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 323-329, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889712

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, the cause of pneumonia outbreaks in Wuhan, China, was identified as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In February 2020, the World Health Organization named the disease cause by SARS-CoV-2 as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In response to the pandemic, the Korean Cancer Association formed the COVID-19 task force to develop practice guidelines. This special article introduces the clinical practice guidelines for cancer patients which will help oncologists best manage cancer patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.

7.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 323-329, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897416

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, the cause of pneumonia outbreaks in Wuhan, China, was identified as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In February 2020, the World Health Organization named the disease cause by SARS-CoV-2 as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In response to the pandemic, the Korean Cancer Association formed the COVID-19 task force to develop practice guidelines. This special article introduces the clinical practice guidelines for cancer patients which will help oncologists best manage cancer patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.

8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 587-596, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833348

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The current study aimed to investigate the synergistic antitumor effect of combined treatment with 17-DMAG (HSP90 inhibitor) and NVP-BEZ235 (PI3K/mTOR dual inhibitor) on cisplatin-resistant human bladder cancer cells. @*Materials and Methods@#Human bladder cancer cells exhibiting cisplatin resistance (T24R2) were exposed to escalating doses of 17-DMAG (2.5–20 nM) with or without NVP-BEZ236 (0.5–4 μM) in combination with cisplatin. Antitumor effects were assessed by CCK-8 analysis. Based on the dose-response study, synergistic interactions between the two regimens were evaluated using clonogenic assay and combination index values. Flow cytometry and Western blot were conducted to analyze mechanisms of synergism. @*Results@#Dose- and time-dependent antitumor effects for 17-DMAG were observed in both cisplatin-sensitive (T24) and cisplatin- resistant cells (T24R2). The antitumor effect of NVP-BEZ235, however, was found to be self-limiting. The combination of 17- DMAG and NVP-BEZ235 in a 1:200 fixed ratio showed a significant antitumor effect in cisplatin-resistant bladder cancer cells over a wide dose range, and clonogenic assay showed compatible results with synergy tests. Three-dimensional analysis revealed strong synergy between the two drugs with a synergy volume of 201.84 μM/mL2%. The combination therapy resulted in G1-phase cell cycle arrest and caspase-dependent apoptosis confirmed by the Western blot. @*Conclusion@#HSP90 inhibitor monotherapy and in combination with the PI3K/mTOR survival pathway inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 shows a synergistic antitumor effect in cisplatin-resistant bladder cancers, eliciting cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase and induction of caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway.

9.
Genomics & Informatics ; : e37-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898369

ABSTRACT

BET inhibitor, as an epigenetic regulator inhibitor, reduces the expression of oncogenes such as Myc and Bcl-2, which affects cancer growth and development. However, it has modest activity because of the narrow therapeutic index. Therefore, combination therapy is necessary to increase the anti-tumor effect. Paclitaxel, an anti-mitotic inhibitor, is used as second-line therapy for gastric cancer (GC) as a monotherapy or combination. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing of GC cells treated with iBET-151 and/or paclitaxel to identify the differentially expressed genes associated with possible mechanisms of synergistic effect. We also performed Gene Ontology enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses to determine the most enriched terms and pathways of upregulated and downregulated genes. We found 460 genes in which iBET-151 and paclitaxel combination treatment changed more than single-treatment or no-treatment. Thus, additional functional studies are needed, but our results provide the first evidence of the synergistic effect between iBET-151 and paclitaxel in regulating the transcriptome of GC cells.

10.
Genomics & Informatics ; : e37-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890665

ABSTRACT

BET inhibitor, as an epigenetic regulator inhibitor, reduces the expression of oncogenes such as Myc and Bcl-2, which affects cancer growth and development. However, it has modest activity because of the narrow therapeutic index. Therefore, combination therapy is necessary to increase the anti-tumor effect. Paclitaxel, an anti-mitotic inhibitor, is used as second-line therapy for gastric cancer (GC) as a monotherapy or combination. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing of GC cells treated with iBET-151 and/or paclitaxel to identify the differentially expressed genes associated with possible mechanisms of synergistic effect. We also performed Gene Ontology enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses to determine the most enriched terms and pathways of upregulated and downregulated genes. We found 460 genes in which iBET-151 and paclitaxel combination treatment changed more than single-treatment or no-treatment. Thus, additional functional studies are needed, but our results provide the first evidence of the synergistic effect between iBET-151 and paclitaxel in regulating the transcriptome of GC cells.

11.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 604-610, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762101

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the prognostic value of new quantitative parameters of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT), including metabolic tumor volume (MTV), in patients with locally advanced and metastatic gallbladder cancer (GBC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 83 patients initially diagnosed with locally advanced and metastatic GBC and who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT at the time of initial diagnosis were retrospectively reviewed. The metabolic volume-based PET parameters of primary tumors and metastatic lesions were measured, including maximum and average standardized uptake values (SUV), MTV, and total lesion glycolysis. An overall survival (OS) analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method with PET and clinical parameters. A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to determine independent prognostic factors. RESULTS: In univariate analysis, pathologic differentiation (p<0.001), performance status (PS; p=0.003), C-reactive protein (CRP) level (p=0.009), and PET-related SUVmt max (the highest SUV among the metastatic lesions) (p=0.040) and MTVtotal (the sum of the MTVs of both the primary and metastatic lesions) (p=0.031), were significant for OS. In multivariate analysis, MTVtotal (hazard ratio: 2.07; 95% confidence interval: 1.23–3.48; p=0.006) remained significant for the prediction of OS, as did differentiation (p=0.001), PS (p=0.001), and CRP (p=0.039). CONCLUSION: In locally advanced and metastatic GBC, volume-based PET/CT parameters of the total tumor burden of malignancy, such as MTVtotal, were found to be useful for the identification of patients with poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , C-Reactive Protein , Diagnosis , Electrons , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Gallbladder Neoplasms , Gallbladder , Glycolysis , Methods , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Tumor Burden
12.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1380-1391, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763222

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: A soft tissue sarcoma (STS) is a rare type of cancer, accounting for 1% of adult solid cancers. The aim of the present study is to determine the incidence of localized and advanced STS in Korean patients, their treatment patterns, and the survival of patients by disease status. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The STS patient cohort was defined using National Health Insurance Service medical data from 2002 to 2015. Incidence, distribution, anatomical location of tumors, survival rates (Kaplan-Meyer survival function) and treatment patterns were analyzed by applying different algorithms to the STS cohort containing localized and advanced STS cases. RESULTS: A total of 7,813 patients were diagnosed with STS from 2007 to 2014, 4,307 were localized STS and 3,506 advanced STS cases. The total incidence of STS was 2.49 per 100,000 person- years: 1.37 per 100,000 person-years for localized STS and 1.12 per 100,000 person-years for advanced STS. The 5-year survival rate after diagnosis was 56.4% for all STS, 82.4% for localized, and 27.2% for advanced STS. Half of the advanced STS patients (49.98%) received anthracycline-containing chemotherapy as initial treatment after diagnosis. CONCLUSION: This study provides insights into localized and advanced STS epidemiology, treatment patterns and outcomes in Korea, which could be used as fundamental data in improving clinical outcomes of STS patients in the future.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Cohort Studies , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Epidemiology , Incidence , Korea , National Health Programs , Sarcoma , Survival Rate
13.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1578-1588, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763203

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Temsirolimus is effective in the treatment for metastatic non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma (nccRCC) with poor prognosis. We aim to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of temsirolimus in treatment of naïve Asian patients with metastatic/recurrent nccRCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2008 to July 2017, data of treatment-naïve, metastatic/recurrent nccRCC patients, who were treated with temsirolimus according to the standard protocol, were collected. The primary end-point was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end points were overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), and tolerability of temsirolimus. RESULTS: Forty-four metastatic/recurrent nccRCC patients, 10 from prospective and 34 from retrospective groups, were enrolled; 24 patients (54%) were papillary type, and other histology subtypes included 11 chromophobes (25%), two collecting ducts (5%), one Xp11.2 translocation (2%), and six others (14%). The median PFS and OS were 7.6 months and 17.6 months, res-pectively. ORR was 11% and disease control rate was 83%. Patients with prior nephrectomy had longer PFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.06 to 0.42; p < 0.001) and OS (HR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.45; p < 0.001). Compared to favorable/intermediate prognosis group, poor prognosis group had shorter median PFS (4.7 months vs. 7.6 months [HR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.39 to 6.12; p=0.005]) and median OS (9.2 months vs. 17.6 months [HR, 2.84; 95% CI, 1.23 to 6.56; p=0.015]). CONCLUSION: Temsirolimus not only benefits poor-risk nccRCC patients, but it is also effective in favorable or intermediate-risk group in Asians. Temsirolimus was well-tolerated with manageable adverse events.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asian People , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Disease-Free Survival , Nephrectomy , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
14.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 851-860, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763193

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to explore the current awareness and use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), as well as attitudes toward CAM, in patients with cancer and their family members in South Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between September 21 and October 31, 2017, a 25-item questionnaire regarding CAM experiences among cancer patients and their family members was conducted in 10 oncology clinics in South Korea after institutional review board approval at each institution. RESULTS: In total, 283/310 patients were analyzed. The median age was 60 years, and 60% were male. Most of the patients were actively receiving anticancer treatment at the time of the survey. A total of 106 patients (37%) had experienced a median of two types (interquartile range, 1 to 3) of CAM. Belief in CAM (odds ratio [OR], 3.015; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.611 to 5.640) and duration of disease (OR, 1.012; 95% CI, 1.004 to 1.020) were independent factors for using CAM in multivariable analysis. Belief in CAM was significantly associated with current use of CAM (OR, 3.633; 95% CI, 1.567 to 8.424). Lay referral was the most common reason for deciding to use CAM, and only 25% of patients (72/283) discussed CAM with their physicians. CONCLUSION: Patient attitudes toward and confidence in CAM modalities were strongly associated with their CAM experiences, and only a small number of patients had an open discussion about CAM with their physicians. A patient education program for CAM is needed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Complementary Therapies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethics Committees, Research , Korea , Patient Education as Topic , Referral and Consultation
15.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 819-831, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763114

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Identification of biomarkers to predict recurrence risk is essential to improve adjuvant treatment strategies in stage II/III gastric cancer patients. This study evaluated biomarkers for predicting survival after surgical resection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This post-hoc analysis evaluated patients from the CLASSIC trial who underwent D2 gastrectomywith orwithout adjuvant chemotherapy (capecitabine plus oxaliplatin) at the Yonsei Cancer Center. Tumor expressions of thymidylate synthase (TS), excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1), and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) were evaluated by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining to determine their predictive values. RESULTS: Among 139 patients, IHC analysis revealed high tumor expression of TS (n=22, 15.8%), ERCC1 (n=23, 16.5%), and PD-L1 (n=42, 30.2%) in the subset of patients. Among all patients, high TS expression tended to predict poor disease-free survival (DFS; hazard ratio [HR], 1.80; p=0.053), whereas PD-L1 positivity was associated with favorable DFS (HR, 0.33; p=0.001) and overall survival (OS; HR, 0.38; p=0.009) in multivariate Cox analysis. In the subgroup analysis, poor DFS was independently predicted by high TS expression (HR, 2.51; p=0.022) in the adjuvant chemotherapy subgroup (n=66). High PD-L1 expression was associated with favorable DFS (HR, 0.25; p=0.011) and OS (HR, 0.22; p=0.015) only in the surgery-alone subgroup (n=73). The prognostic impact of high ERCC1 expression was not significant in the multivariate Cox analysis. CONCLUSION: This study shows that high TS expression is a predictive factor for worse outcomes on capecitabine plus oxaliplatin adjuvant chemotherapy, whereas PD-L1 expression is a favorable prognostic factor in locally advanced gastric cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers , Capecitabine , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Disease-Free Survival , DNA Repair , Immunohistochemistry , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Recurrence , Stomach Neoplasms , Thymidylate Synthase
16.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1-11, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719724

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We conducted a randomized, multicenter, phase III trial to compare S-1 plus docetaxel (DS) with S-1 plus cisplatin (SP) as adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III gastric cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stage III gastric cancer patients who had received curative gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy were randomized into equal groups to receive adjuvant chemotherapy of eight cycles of DS (S-1 70 mg/m2/day on days 1-14 plus docetaxel 35 mg/m2on days 1 and 8) every 3 weeks or SP (S-1 70 mg/m2/day on days 1-14 plus cisplatin 60 mg/m2on day 1) every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate. RESULTS: Between November 2010 and July 2013, 153 patients (75 patients to DS and 78 patients to SP) were enrolled from 8 institutions in Korea. After the capecitabine plus oxaliplatin was approved based on the CLASSIC study, itwas decided to close the study early. With a median follow-up duration of 56.9 months, the 3-year DFS rate between two groups was not significantly different (49.14% in DS group vs. 52.5% in SP group). The most common grade 3-4 adverse event was neutropenia (42.7% in DS and 38.5% in SP, p=0.351). SP group had more grade 3-4 anemia (1.3% vs. 11.5%, p=0.037), whereas grade 3-4 hand-foot syndrome (4.1% vs. 0%, p=0.025) and mucositis (10.7% vs. 2.6%, p=0.001) were more common in DS group. Fifty-one patients (68%) in DS group and 52 (66.7%) in SP group finished planned treatment. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that SP or DS is an effective and tolerable option for patients with curatively resected stage III gastric cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anemia , Capecitabine , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Cisplatin , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Gastrectomy , Hand-Foot Syndrome , Korea , Lymph Node Excision , Mucositis , Neutropenia , Stomach Neoplasms
17.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 211-222, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719428

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: With the emergence of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, profiling a wide range of genomic alterations has become a possibility resulting in improved implementation of targeted cancer therapy. In Asian populations, the prevalence and spectrum of clinically actionable genetic alterations has not yet been determined because of a lack of studies examining high-throughput cancer genomic data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To address this issue, 1,071 tumor samples were collected from five major cancer institutes in Korea and analyzed using targeted NGS at a centralized laboratory. Samples were either fresh frozen or formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) and the quality and yield of extracted genomic DNA was assessed. In order to estimate the effect of sample condition on the quality of sequencing results, tissue preparation method, specimen type (resected or biopsied) and tissue storage time were compared. RESULTS: We detected 7,360 non-synonymous point mutations, 1,164 small insertions and deletions, 3,173 copy number alterations, and 462 structural variants. Fifty-four percent of tumors had one or more clinically relevant genetic mutation. The distribution of actionable variants was variable among different genes. Fresh frozen tissues, surgically resected specimens, and recently obtained specimens generated superior sequencing results over FFPE tissues, biopsied specimens, and tissues with long storage duration. CONCLUSION: In order to overcome, challenges involved in bringing NGS testing into routine clinical use, a centralized laboratory model was designed that could improve the NGS workflows, provide appropriate turnaround times and control costs with goal of enabling precision medicine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Academies and Institutes , Asian People , DNA , Korea , Methods , Paraffin , Point Mutation , Precision Medicine , Prevalence
18.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 383-390, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713534

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Because of rarity, role of chemotherapy of bladder adenocarcinoma are still unidentified. Therefore, we performed a retrospective analysis of the clinical features and chemotherapy outcomes of bladder adenocarcinoma. METHODS: Eligible patients for this retrospective analysis were initially diagnosed with bladder adenocarcinoma and presented with a clinically no other primary site of origin. The collected data included age, gender, performance status, stage, hemoglobin, albumin, initial date of diagnosis, treatment modality utilized, response to treatment, presence of relapse, last status of patient, and last date of follow-up. RESULTS: We retrospectively reviewed 29 patients, who were treated with chemotherapy for bladder adenocarcinoma at 10 Korean medical institutions from 2004 to 2014. The median age of patients was 58 years (range, 17 to 78) and 51.7% of the patients were female. Urachal adenocarcinoma was identified in 15 patients. Of 27 symptomatic patients, 22 experienced gross hematuria. Twelve patients were treated with 5-f luorouracil based chemotherapy, five were gemcitabine based, three were taxane and others. Thirteen of them achieved complete response (10.3%) or partial response (34.5%). Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for all patients were 10.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.5 to 11.6) and 24.5 months (95% CI, 1.2 to 47.8), respectively. The cases of urachal adenocarcinoma exhibited worse tendency in PFS and OS (p = 0.024 and p = 0.046, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Even though bladder adenocarcinoma had been observed moderate effectiveness to chemotherapy, bladder adenocarcinoma is a highly aggressive form of bladder cancer. PFS and OS were short especially in urachal carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Adenocarcinoma , Diagnosis , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Gynecology , Hematuria , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms , Urinary Bladder
19.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 588-594, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715904

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Dysregulation of the Wnt pathway is a crucial step in the tumorigenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aimed to determine whether DNA methylation of Wnt pathway genes helps predict treatment response and survival in patients with metastatic or recurrent CRC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively collected primary tumor tissues from 194 patients with metastatic or recurrent CRC. Pyrosequencing was used to examine the methylation of 10 CpG island loci in DNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens. To elucidate the predictive role of DNA methylation markers, Kaplan-Meier survival estimation and Cox regression were performed for progression-free survival and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: The methylation frequencies of the 10 genes analyzed (p16, p14, MINT1, MINT2, MINT31, hMLH1, DKK3, WNT5A, AXIN2, and TFAP2E) were 47.9%, 10.8%, 21.1%, 16.0%, 20.6%, 0.5%, 53.1%, 32.0%, 2.6%, and 2.1%, respectively. We divided patients into three groups based on the number of methylated genes (group 1, no methylation n=38; group 2, 1–2 methylations n=92; group 3, 3 or more methylations n=64). Among patients treated with palliative chemotherapy (n=167), median OSs of groups 1, 2, and 3 were 39.1, 39.7, and 29.1 months, respectively (log rank p=0.013). After adjustment, number of methylations was identified as an independent poor prognostic factor (0–2 methylated vs. ≥3 methylated: hazard ratio, 1.72; 95% confidence interval, 1.16–2.56, p=0.007). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that methylation of Wnt pathway genes, in addition to known CpG island methylator phenotype markers, may help predict treatment outcome and survival in patients with CRC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinogenesis , Colorectal Neoplasms , CpG Islands , Disease-Free Survival , DNA , DNA Methylation , Drug Therapy , Methylation , Phenotype , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Wnt Signaling Pathway
20.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1378-1387, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717515

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Melanoma is a highly heterogeneous neoplasm, composed of subpopulations of tumor cells with distinct molecular and biological phenotypes and genotypes. In this study, to determine the genetic heterogeneity between primary and metastatic melanoma in Korean melanoma patients, we evaluated several well-known genetic alterations of melanoma. In addition, to elucidate the clinical relevance of each genetic alteration and heterogeneity between primary and metastatic lesions, clinical features and patient outcome were collected. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In addition to clinical data, BRAF, NRAS, GNAQ/11 mutation and KIT amplification data was acquired from an archived primary Korean melanoma cohort (KMC) of 188 patients. Among these patients, 43 patients were included for investigation of tumor heterogeneity between primary melanoma and its corresponding metastatic lesions. RESULTS: Overall incidence of genetic aberrations of the primary melanomas in KMC was 17.6% of BRAF V600, 12.6% of NRAS mutation, and 28.6% of KIT amplification. GNAQ/11 mutation was seen in 66.6% of the uveal melanoma patients. Patients with BRAF mutation were associated with advanced stage and correlated to poor prognosis (p < 0.01). Among 43 patients, 55.8% showed heterogeneity between primary and metastatic lesion. The frequency of BRAF mutation and KIT amplification significantly increased in the metastatic lesions compared to primary melanomas. GNAQ/11 mutation showed 100% homogeneity in uveal melanoma patients. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrated heterogeneity between primary melanomas and corresponding metastatic lesions for BRAF, NRAS mutation and KIT amplification. However, GNAQ/11 mutation was genetically homogeneous between primary and metastatic melanoma lesions in uveal melanoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cohort Studies , Genetic Heterogeneity , Genotype , Incidence , Melanoma , Phenotype , Population Characteristics , Prognosis
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