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1.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 373-381, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999583

ABSTRACT

Methods@#We evaluated patients who underwent EPTLIF with a minimum 24-month follow-up. Clinical parameters of the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were measured at the preoperative, 1-week postoperative mark, postoperative 3-month mark, and final follow-up. Preoperative and 1-year postoperative magnetic resonance imaging measurement of preoperative and postoperative Kjaer grade, right and left psoas muscle mass area, and right and left paraspinal muscle mass area was performed. @*Results@#EPTLIF with a minimum 24-month follow-up of 35 levels was included. The complication rate was 6%, and the mean Bridwell’s fusion grade was 1.37 (1–2). There was statistically significant improvement at 1 week, 3 months, and 2 years in VAS (4.11±1.23, 4.94±1.30, and 5.46±1.29) and in ODI (40.34±10.06, 46.69±9.14, and 49.63±8.68), respectively (p <0.05). Successful operation rate with excellent and good MacNab’s criteria at 2 years was 97%. There was an increment of statistically significant bilateral psoas muscle cross-sectional area, right side (70.03±149.1 mm²) and left side (67.59±113.2 mm²) (p <0.05). @*Conclusions@#Uniportal EPTLIF achieved good fusion and improved clinical outcomes with favorable paraspinal musculature bulk at the 2-year follow-up.

2.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 410-420, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999346

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of lymph node yield (LNY) for survival outcomes according to tumor response after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (PCRT) in patients with rectal cancer. @*Methods@#This study was a retrospective study conducted in a tertiary center. A total of 1,240 patients with clinical stage II or III rectal cancer who underwent curative resection after PCRT between 2007 and 2016 were included. Patients were categorized into the good response group (tumor regression grade [TRG], 0–1) or poor response group (TRG, 2–3). Propensity score matching was performed for age, sex, and pathologic stage between LNY of ≥12 and LNY of <12 within tumor response group. The primary outcome was 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). @*Results@#LNY and positive lymph nodes were inversely correlated with TRG. In good responders, 5-year DFS and 5-year OS of patients with LNY of <12 were better than those with LNY of ≥12, but there was no statistical significance. In poor responders, the LNY of <12 group had worse survival outcomes than the LNY of ≥12 group, but there was also no statistical significance. LNY of ≥12 was not associated with DFS and OS in multivariate analysis. @*Conclusion@#LNY of <12 showed contrasting outcomes between the good and poor responders in 5-year DFS and OS. LNY of 12 may not imply adequate oncologic surgery or proper staging in rectal cancer patients treated by PCRT. Furthermore, a decrease in LNY should be comprehended differently according to tumor response.

3.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 831-843, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003034

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Metachronous gastric cancer (MGC) can occur after endoscopic resection for gastric cancer. Further studies on factors other than Helicobacter pylori infection are needed. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate risk factors for metachronous recurrence of endoscopically resected gastric cancer. @*Methods@#We searched medical literature published by February 2023 and identified patients with MGC after endoscopic resection for gastric cancer. The occurrence of MGC and the presence of intestinal metaplasia (IM), severe atrophic gastritis (AG), and H. pylori infection were quantitatively analyzed. @*Results@#We identified 2,755 patients from nine cohort studies who underwent endoscopic resection for gastric cancer by 2018. Those with severe AG or presence of IM had a significantly higher incidence of MGC than those without (RR 2.00, 95% CI 1.35–2.98, I2 = 52% for severe atrophy on antrum; RR 7.08, 95% CI 3.63–13.80, I2 = 0% for antral IM). Absolute risk difference of MGC occurrence was 7.1% in those with severe AG and 9.2% in those with IM. The difference in incidence rate per 1,000 person-years was 17.5 person-years for those with severe AG and 24.7 person-years for those with IM. However, H. pylori eradication did not significantly affect the occurrence of MGC (RR 1.18, 95% CI 0.88–1.59, I2 = 10%). @*Conclusions@#Gastric cancer patients with severe AG or presence of IM had a 2.0-fold or 7.0-fold higher risk of MGC occurrence after endoscopic resection than those without, respectively. They need more stringent follow-up to monitor MGC occurrences (CRD42023410940).

4.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research ; : 159-166, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003025

ABSTRACT

Gastric acid-related disorders are commonly encountered in clinical practice. Acetylcholine, gastrin, and histamine are physiological agonists that stimulate acid secretion from parietal cells. Histamine plays a decisive role in the transformation of parietal cells into acid-secreting forms. The H+, K+- ATPase proton pump, which represents the final step of acid secretion, translocates from cytoplasmic tubulovesicles to secretory canaliculi upon parietal cell stimulation and facilitates exchange of intracellular H+ with extracellular K+ in a 1:1 ratio. Histamine-2 receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used in clinical practice, and potassium-competitive acid blockers (P-CABs) have gained attention in recent times. P-CABs address the unmet needs of patients who receive conventional PPIs and have broadened the spectrum of drug choices; however, further research is warranted to confirm long-term safety of these drugs. Comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of actions, characteristics, advantages and disadvantages, and the adverse effect profile is essential for appropriate prescription of gastric acid-suppressive drugs. In this review, we provide a developing history and outline the pharmacological mechanisms underlying various gastric acid-suppressive drugs used in clinical settings.

5.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research ; : 214-217, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003021

ABSTRACT

A 51-year-old man with a 10-day history of acute-onset dysphagia presented with inability to swallow anything orally. The patient was unable to swallow any radiopaque contrast medium; therefore, a videofluoroscopic swallow study could not be performed. Brain imaging, neurological findings, and initial endoscopy findings were normal. Neck computed tomography suggested left vocal cord paralysis. The patient was diagnosed with diabetes one year prior to presentation but did not receive any treatment. Insulin therapy during hospitalization controlled the patient’s blood glucose levels, and his symptoms improved without any sequelae. We present a rare case of vocal cord paralysis secondary to controlled diabetes. The initial endoscopic examination did not include thorough evaluation of the vocal cords; therefore, accurate diagnosis was challenging in this case.

6.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 194-197, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002973

ABSTRACT

In Korea, the prevalence of paragonimiasis has decreased markedly since 1970 and is now rarely encountered. Although the lung is the primary site of paragonimiasis, ectopic infestation can occur in other sites. The central nervous system is the most commonly involved ectopic site, accounting for only approximately 1% of all paragonimiasis patients. Therefore, the liver is an extremely rare site of ectopic infestation. The authors experienced the case of a 55-year-old female with hepatic paragonimiasis who presented with abdominal colicky pain.

7.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 145-153, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002923

ABSTRACT

Patients frequently report that stress causes or exacerbates gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, indicating a functional relationship between the brain and the GI tract. The brain and GI tract are closely related embryologically and functionally, interacting in various ways. The concept of the brain–gut axis was originally established in the 19th and early 20th centuries based on physiological observations and experiments conducted in animals and humans. In recent years, with the growing recognition that gut microbiota plays a vital role in human health and disease, this concept has been expanded to the brain–gut–microbiota axis. The brain influences the motility, secretion, and immunity of the GI tract, with consequent effects on the composition and function of the gut microbiota. On the other hand, gut microbiota plays an essential role in the development and function of the brain and enteric nervous system. Although knowledge of the mechanisms through which the gut microbiota influences distant brain function is incomplete, studies have demonstrated communication between these organs through the neuronal, immune, and endocrine systems. The brain–gut–microbiota axis is an essential aspect of the pathophysiology of functional GI disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome, and is also involved in other GI diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease. This review summarizes the evolving concept of the brain–gut–microbiota axis and its implications for GI diseases, providing clinicians with new knowledge to apply in clinical practice.

8.
Korean Journal of Aerospace and Environmental Medicine ; : 71-75, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002914

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To observe and compare the trends in epidemic aspects of imported shigellosis (Sg) cases from overseas travelers (OTs) in Korea and Japan between 2016 and 2020. @*Methods@#We analyzed the raw data of imported Sg cases from the Korea Diseases Control and Prevention Agency and the National Institute of Infectious Diseases in Japan between 2016 and 2020. @*Results@#In Korea, there were a total of 596 Sg infections, including 353 cases from overseas travel-associated imported cases, with a cumulative incidence rate (CIR) of 0.23 per 100,000 populations. The CIR of imported Sg cases was 0.32 per 100,000 OTs. In Japan, during the same period, there were a total of 757 Sg cases, including 388 imported cases, with a CIR of 0.12 per 100,000 populations. The CIR of imported Sg cases was 0.50 per 100,000 OTs. The CIR of total Sg cases in Korea was higher than in Japan, but the CIR of imported cases in Korea was lower than in Japan (P<0.01).Additionally, the imported-to-domestic cases ratio of Sg in Korea (1.45) was higher than in Japan (1.05) (P<0.05). @*Conclusion@#Based on the trends in the epidemiological aspects of domestic and imported Sg infection cases in both countries, a robust information system is needed to provide effective warnings and preventive measures for travelers visiting high-risk areas.

9.
The Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics ; : 271-280, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002879

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#. This in vitro study aimed to compare the accuracy of the conventional facebow system and the newly developed POP (PNUD (Pusan National University Dental School) Occlusal Plane) bow system for occlusal plane transfer in asymmetric ear position. @*MATERIALS AND METHODS@#. Two dentists participated in this study, one was categorized as Experimenter 1 and the other as Experimenter 2 based on their clinical experience with the facebow (1F, 2F) and POP bow (1P, 2P) systems. The vertical height difference between the two ears of the phantom model was set to 3 mm. Experimenter 1 and Experimenter 2performed the facebow and POP bow systems on the phantom model 10 times each, and the transfer accuracy was analyzed. The accuracy was evaluated by measuring the angle between the reference virtual plane (RVP) of the phantom model and the experimental virtual plane (EVP) of the upper mounting plate through digital superimposition. All data were statistically analyzed using a paired t-test (P .05). @*CONCLUSION@#. In cases of asymmetric ear position, the POP bow system may transfer occlusal plane information more accurately than the facebow system in the frontal view, regardless of clinical experience.

10.
Neurointervention ; : 159-165, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002565

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Patients with minor stroke (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score ≤5) and large vessel occlusion (LVO) often experience neurological deterioration >24 hours after onset. However, the efficacy of endovascular reperfusion therapy in these patients remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of reperfusion therapy in patients with minor stroke and neurological deterioration >24 hours after onset. @*Materials and Methods@#Data were retrospectively reviewed from patients between January 2019 and April 2022 who met the following criteria: (1) minor stroke and small definitive ischemic lesions at initial visit, (2) onset to neurological deterioration >24 hours, (3) cortical signs, Alberta Stroke Program Early computed tomography (CT) Score >6 points, and large artery occlusion confirmed by CT angiography at neurological deterioration. Efficacy and safety outcomes were based on final thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI), incidence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), and mortality. Outcomes were assessed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 3 months. Good outcome was defined as a mRS of 0, 1, or 2. @*Results@#Data from 26 patients (38.4% female, mean age 75.8 years) were analyzed; 18 (69.2%) had a good outcome. A final TICI of 2b or 3 was observed in 24 (92.3%) patients. No other adverse events, including dissection, vasospasm or distal embolization, were observed during the procedures. Hemorrhagic events occurred in 8 patients after the procedure; however, there were no symptomatic ICHs. Good prognostic factors were younger age (P=0.062) and carotid stenting (P=0.025). @*Conclusion@#Endovascular reperfusion therapy performed in selected patients with minor stroke, LVO, and neurological deterioration >24 hours after stroke onset demonstrated favorable outcomes and safety.

11.
Neurointervention ; : 182-189, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002562

ABSTRACT

Bilateral vertebral artery occlusive disease has been considered as a favorable condition with good collaterals. However, the prognosis of acute ischemic stroke secondary to symptomatic bilateral vertebral artery occlusion (BVAO) and endovascular treatment (EVT) has rarely been reported. We retrospectively selected patients with acute ischemic stroke admitted for symptomatic BVAO between January 2020 and February 2023. All patients with ischemic stroke were evaluated for ischemic lesion and arterial status using brain imaging and angiography. The prognosis of acute stroke with symptomatic BVAO was compared between EVT and conventional treatment. Outcomes were evaluated using modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at 3 months follow-up. Within the study period, 17 of 2,655 acute ischemic stroke patients were diagnosed with ischemic stroke with symptomatic BVAO. The median age of these patients was 70 (interquartile range 44–89) years, and 13 (76%) were male. Seven patients received emergent EVT with stenting and 10 patients received conventional medical treatment only. Nine of 10 patients with conventional treatment had in-hospital stroke progression and developed new ischemic lesions in the pons and midbrain. Five patients with fetal and hypoplastic posterior communicating artery presented bilateral cerebral peduncular lesions. At 3 months follow-up, 6 patients (35%) had favorable outcomes (mRS 0–2), of which 5 were treated with vertebral artery stenting and 1 received conventional treatment. Ischemic stroke in patients with acute symptomatic BVAO is uncommon. However, stroke progression is common, and the prognosis of most patients is poor. Rescue management such as EVT might be considered for symptomatic BVAO.

12.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 772-783, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002390

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Imaging-based survival stratification of patients with gliomas is important for their management, and the 2021 WHO classification system must be clinically tested. The aim of this study was to compare integrative imaging- and pathology-based methods for survival stratification of patients with diffuse glioma. @*Materials and Methods@#This study included diffuse glioma cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas (training set: 141 patients) and Asan Medical Center (validation set: 131 patients). Two neuroradiologists analyzed presurgical CT and MRI to assign gliomas to five imaging-based risk subgroups (1 to 5) according to well-known imaging phenotypes (e.g., T2/FLAIR mismatch) and recategorized them into three imaging-based risk groups, according to the 2021 WHO classification: group 1 (corresponding to risk subgroup 1, indicating oligodendroglioma, isocitrate dehydrogenase [IDH]-mutant, and 1p19q-codeleted), group 2 (risk subgroups 2 and 3, indicating astrocytoma, IDH-mutant), and group 3 (risk subgroups 4 and 5, indicating glioblastoma, IDHwt). The progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated for each imaging risk group, subgroup, and pathological diagnosis. Time-dependent area-under-the receiver operating characteristic analysis (AUC) was used to compare the performance between imaging-based and pathology-based survival model. @*Results@#Both OS and PFS were stratified according to the five imaging-based risk subgroups (P < 0.001) and three imagingbased risk groups (P < 0.001). The three imaging-based groups showed high performance in predicting PFS at one-year (AUC, 0.787) and five-years (AUC, 0.823), which was similar to that of the pathology-based prediction of PFS (AUC of 0.785 and 0.837). Combined with clinical predictors, the performance of the imaging-based survival model for 1- and 3-year PFS (AUC 0.813 and 0.921) was similar to that of the pathology-based survival model (AUC 0.839 and 0.889). @*Conclusion@#Imaging-based survival stratification according to the 2021 WHO classification demonstrated a performance similar to that of pathology-based survival stratification, especially in predicting PFS.

13.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 463-471, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002218

ABSTRACT

For all suspected, clinical, or confirmed cases of scabies, treatment should be initiated. Affected patients should be adequately isolated, and high-risk groups with close contact histories should be treated irrespective of their symptoms. Optimal treatment strategies can be selected based on age, clinical subtype, and patient’s health status. In Korea, commercially available preparations for scabies treatment include topical 5% permethrin, topical 10% crotamiton, and oral ivermectin. Topical 5% permethrin is the first-line selective treatment for both classic and crusted scabies. Alternative treatments are topical 10% crotamiton and oral ivermectin. Following treatment completion, a follow-up visit at 2 and 4 weeks is recommended to monitor therapeutic response. Treatment failure is considered when scabies mites or burrows are detected, upon development of new clinical characteristics, or upon aggravation of pruritus. Scabies itch should be adequately managed with emollients, oral antihistamines, and topical corticosteroids. Preventive measures, including personal hygiene, patient education, and environmental control should be rendered to reduce the transmission of scabies.

14.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 308-312, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002187

ABSTRACT

The areola is a rare location for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) because sunlight exposure, the main risk factor for SCC, is unusual on it. Acantholytic SCC (ASCC) is a rare histologic variant of SCC, characterized by pseudoglandular appearance with acantholytic tumor cells. A 59-year-old male presented a painful erythematous papule on his right areola. He had a history of psoralen ultraviolet A phototherapy for psoriasis in his 20s. Biopsy revealed an epithelial tumor and pseudoglandular structures with acantholytic tumor cells. In immunohistochemistry, cytokeratin 5/6, epithelial membrane antigen, and p63 were positive, while cytokeratin 7, carcinoembryonic antigen, S-100, and estrogen and progesterone receptors were negative. Periodic acid-Schiff stain was negative. Ki-67 labeling index was 79.7%. The final diagnosis was ASCC of the areola. After wide local excision, recurrence have not been reported. Here, we report a case of ASCC on the areola, focusing on its rare histologic variant and uncommon location.

15.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 393-403, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002166

ABSTRACT

Scabies is a skin disease caused by the parasite Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis, primarily transmitted via direct skin or sexual contact or, less commonly, via contact with infested fomites. In Korea, the incidence of scabies has decreased from approximately 50,000 people/yr in 2010 to approximately 30,000 people/yr in 2021. However, outbreaks have been consistently observed in residential facilities, such as nursing facilities, particularly among the older population. The clinical manifestations of scabies vary depending on a patient’s age, health status, number of mites, and transmission route. Typical clinical presentations of classic scabies include intense nocturnal pruritus and characteristic skin rashes (burrows and erythematous papules), with a predilection for the interdigital web spaces, inner wrists, periumbilical areas, axillae, and genital areas. Unlike classic scabies, older adults with immunodeficiency or neurological disorders exhibit hyperkeratotic scaly lesions or an atypical distribution with mild-to-non pruritus (crusted scabies). Diagnosis of scabies is based on clinical symptoms and results of diagnostic tests aimed at identifying the presence of the parasite. Although a close contact history and characteristic clinical findings are suggestive of scabies, confirmation of diagnosis requires detection of scabies mites, eggs, or scybala.This can be achieved through light microscopy of skin samples, non-invasive dermoscopy, and other high-resolution in vivo imaging techniques.

16.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 447-451, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002159

ABSTRACT

Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is the second most common tumor in humans, and its incidence is increasing. In cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, lymph node and distant metastases are rare, and bone invasion in the lower limbs is uncommon. A 67-year-old male presented with a solitary erythematous plaque on the fifth toe, accompanied by swelling. A shave biopsy was performed. The diagnosis of bone-invaded squamous cell carcinoma with aggressive behavior was made by combining the histopathological, immunohistochemical staining, and magnetic resonance imaging results. Mohs micrographic surgery was performed to remove the skin lesion and tumor-invaded bone. However, 2 months later, squamous cell carcinoma relapsed in the same area. After confirming the absence of lymph node metastasis, additional treatment, including ray amputation, was performed. Adjuvant radiotherapy was not administered. We present a rare case of squamous cell carcinoma that relapsed after Mohs surgery and was subsequently treated with ray amputation.

17.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 651-657, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001770

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We report a case of aqueous misdirection syndrome triggered by pilocarpine use after laser iridotomy, which was treated by pars plana vitrectomy and phacoemulsification.Case summary: A 48-year-old female patient presented with sudden-onset right eye pain and decreased vision. The patient had presented to another institute with similar symptoms 20 days prior; she had been diagnosed with acute angle closure. Laser iridotomy was performed, followed by administration of pilocarpine twice daily. In the right eye, visual acuity was hand motion, and intraocular pressure was 31 mmHg. The laser iridotomy site was located at the 11 o’clock position; microcysts, anterior chamber cells, corneal endothelium precipitates, and glaukomflecken were observed. The anterior chamber was shallow due to forward movement of the lens and iris. Despite the application of atropine and pressure-lowering eyedrops, anterior chamber shallowing continued along with a progressive myopic shift of -4.5 diopters. Therefore, the patient was diagnosed with aqueous misdirection syndrome. Pars plana vitrectomy was performed, followed by phacoemulsification, intraocular lens insertion, and posterior capsulotomy. During surgery, vitreous inflammation, a peripheral snowball, and an anterior hyaloid inflammatory membrane were observed, indicating the presence of intermediate uveitis. @*Conclusions@#The administration of miotics after laser iridotomy, intraocular inflammation, and uveitis can lead to aqueous misdirection syndrome. Effective treatment of aqueous misdirection syndrome involves controlling inflammation and performing surgery.

18.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 251-264, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001503

ABSTRACT

Background@#The Korean Society for Cytopathology introduced a digital proficiency test (PT) in 2021. However, many doubtful opinions remain on whether digitally scanned images can satisfactorily present subtle differences in the nuclear features and chromatin patterns of cytological samples. @*Methods@#We prepared 30 whole-slide images (WSIs) from the conventional PT archive by a selection process for digital PT. Digital and conventional PT were performed in parallel for volunteer institutes, and the results were compared using feedback. To assess the quality of cytological assessment WSIs, 12 slides were collected and scanned using five different scanners, with four cytopathologists evaluating image quality through a questionnaire. @*Results@#Among the 215 institutes, 108 and 107 participated in glass and digital PT, respectively. No significant difference was noted in category C (major discordance), although the number of discordant cases was slightly higher in the digital PT group. Leica, 3DHistech Pannoramic 250 Flash, and Hamamatsu NanoZoomer 360 systems showed comparable results in terms of image quality, feature presentation, and error rates for most cytological samples. Overall satisfaction was observed with the general convenience and image quality of digital PT. @*Conclusions@#As three-dimensional clusters are common and nuclear/chromatin features are critical for cytological interpretation, careful selection of scanners and optimal conditions are mandatory for the successful establishment of digital quality assurance programs in cytology.

19.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e255-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001063

ABSTRACT

In recent years, significant translational research advances have been made in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) research field. Endoscopic evaluation is a reasonable option for acquiring upper GI tissue for research purposes because it has minimal risk and can be applied to unresectable gastric cancer. The optimal number of biopsy samples and sample storage is crucial and might influence results. Furthermore, the methods for sample acquisition can be applied differently according to the research purpose; however, there have been few reports on methods for sample collection from endoscopic biopsies. In this review, we suggested a protocol for collecting study samples for upper GI research, including microbiome, DNA, RNA, protein, single-cell RNA sequencing, and organoid culture, through a comprehensive literature review. For microbiome analysis, one or two pieces of biopsied material obtained using standard endoscopic forceps may be sufficient. Additionally, 5 mL of gastric fluid and 3–4 mL of saliva is recommended for microbiome analyses. At least one gastric biopsy tissue is necessary for most DNA or RNA analyses, while proteomics analysis may require at least 2–3 biopsy tissues. Single cell-RNA sequencing requires at least 3–5 tissues and additional 1–2 tissues, if possible. For successful organoid culture, multiple sampling is necessary to improve the quality of specimens.

20.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e253-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001052

ABSTRACT

Artificial intelligence (AI)-based diagnostic technology using medical images can be used to increase examination accessibility and support clinical decision-making for screening and diagnosis. To determine a machine learning algorithm for diabetes complications, a literature review of studies using medical image-based AI technology was conducted using the National Library of Medicine PubMed, and the Excerpta Medica databases. Lists of studies using diabetes diagnostic images and AI as keywords were combined. In total, 227 appropriate studies were selected. Diabetic retinopathy studies using the AI model were the most frequent (85.0%, 193/227 cases), followed by diabetic foot (7.9%, 18/227 cases) and diabetic neuropathy (2.7%, 6/227 cases). The studies used open datasets (42.3%, 96/227 cases) or directly constructed data from fundoscopy or optical coherence tomography (57.7%, 131/227 cases). Major limitations in AI-based detection of diabetes complications using medical images were the lack of datasets (36.1%, 82/227 cases) and severity misclassification (26.4%, 60/227 cases). Although it remains difficult to use and fully trust AI-based imaging analysis technology clinically, it reduces clinicians’ time and labor, and the expectations from its decision-support roles are high. Various data collection and synthesis data technology developments according to the disease severity are required to solve data imbalance.

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