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1.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 52-55, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967812

ABSTRACT

In stroke patients, upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) is uncommon compared with lower extremity. Unlike the blood stasis in lower extremity, UEDVT has been developed by secondary cause. We reported a case of stroke patient with repeated UEDVT, presenting superficial venous congestion, who was finally diagnosed with pulmonary adenocarcinoma. The cause of stroke was non-bacterial thromboembolism formed at the mitral valve. Our case shows that unexpected UEDVT should be closely evaluated for higher coagulable status such as a malignancy.

2.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 201-209, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919198

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with acute respiratory syndrome. The mechanisms underlying the different degrees of pneumonia severity in patients with COVID-19 remain elusive. This study provides evidence that COVID-19 is associated with eosinophil-mediated inflammation. @*Methods@#We performed a retrospective case series of three patients with laboratory and radiologically confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to Chosun University Hospital. Demographic and clinical data on inflammatory cell lung infiltration and cytokine levels in patients with COVID-19 were collected. @*Results@#Cytological analysis of sputum, tracheal aspirates, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples from all three patients revealed massive infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs), such as eosinophils and neutrophils. All sputum and BALF specimens contained high levels of eosinophil cationic proteins. The infiltration of PMNs into the lungs, together with elevated levels of natural killer T (NKT) cells in BALF and peripheral blood samples from patients with severe pneumonia in the acute phase was confirmed by flow cytometry. @*Conclusions@#These results suggest that the lungs of COVID-19 patients can exhibit eosinophil-mediated inflammation, together with an elevated NKT cell response, which is associated with COVID-19 pneumonia.

3.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 380-387, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915798

ABSTRACT

Background@#Papillary breast lesions (PBLs) comprise diverse entities from benign and atypical lesions to malignant tumors. Although PBLs are characterized by a papillary growth pattern, it is challenging to achieve high diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility. Thus, we investigated the diagnostic reproducibility of PBLs in core needle biopsy (CNB) specimens with World Health Organization (WHO) classification. @*Methods@#Diagnostic reproducibility was assessed using interobserver variability (kappa value, κ) and agreement rate in the pathologic diagnosis of 60 PBL cases on CNB among 20 breast pathologists affiliated with 20 medical institutions in Korea. This analysis was performed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for cytokeratin 5 (CK5) and p63. The pathologic diagnosis of PBLs was based on WHO classification, which was used to establish simple classifications (4-tier, 3-tier, and 2-tier). @*Results@#On WHO classification, H&E staining exhibited ‘fair agreement’ (κ = 0.21) with a 47.0% agreement rate. Simple classifications presented improvement in interobserver variability and agreement rate. IHC staining increased the kappa value and agreement rate in all the classifications. Despite IHC staining, the encapsulated/solid papillary carcinoma (EPC/SPC) subgroup (κ = 0.16) exhibited lower agreement compared to the non-EPC/SPC subgroup (κ = 0.35) with WHO classification, which was similar to the results of any other classification systems. @*Conclusions@#Although the use of IHC staining for CK5 and p63 increased the diagnostic agreement of PBLs in CNB specimens, WHO classification exhibited a higher discordance rate compared to any other classifications. Therefore, this result warrants further intensive consensus studies to improve the diagnostic reproducibility of PBLs with WHO classification.

4.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 30-33, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875039

ABSTRACT

In acute stroke, emboli are mostly composed of thrombi from artery, cardiac chamber, valve and vein. Non-thrombotic emboli are sometimes difficult to identify the origin. According to the increased number of cancer patients, now 10% of stroke patients have a cancer. However, the potential mechanisms of stroke in patients with cancer are various. We presented a case of serious acute arterial occlusion with a tumor embolus, which was revealed by histopathologic analysis of retrieved emboli during mechanical thrombectomy.

5.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 56-59, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918920

ABSTRACT

Communication between diabetes educator and patient is very important. Depending on the diabetes educator’s communication style, the patient’s motivation may vary. Three types of communication style are directing, following, and guiding. The purpose of this article is to compare the communication style of directing and guiding, and to help diabetes educators understand their roles through examples of conversation to help patients change their behavior.

6.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 289-292, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834873

ABSTRACT

We reported a 43-year-old male patient who presented with headache and diplopia. The cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed pleocytosis, suggesting acute meningitis. The subsequent polymerase chain reaction and genetic sequencing of blood and cerebrospinal fluid showed that the causative organism was Anaplasma phagocytophilum. This case suggests that we should consider anaplasmosis as a causative agent of acute meningitis; if an unexplained meningitis patient shows no response to any treatments.

7.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 166-171, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903524

ABSTRACT

Motivation enhancement is important in behavioral therapy for patients with obesity. Depending on the clinician's communication style, the patient's motivation level may change. Motivational interviewing helps clinicians interact with patients effectively. The purpose of this article was to introduce how to integrate motivational interviewing into obesity behavioral therapy.

8.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 234-241, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837357

ABSTRACT

Background@#The fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) test is useful in asthma patients. However, a few studies on its usefulness in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients have been reported. We analyzed the FENO level distribution and clinical characteristics according to the FENO level in COPD patients. @*Methods@#From December 2014 to June 2019, COPD patients who underwent pulmonary function and FENO tests at Chonnam National University Hospital were retrospectively evaluated for FENO, comorbidities, asthma history, blood eosinophil, and pulmonary function test. The high FENO group was defined as those with FENO level>25 parts per billion (ppb). @*Results@#A total of 849 COPD patients (mean age, 70.3±9.4 years) were included. The mean forced expiratory volume at 1 second was 66.5±21.7% and the mean FENO level was 24.3±20.5 ppb. Patients with FENO ≤25 ppb were 572 (67.4%) and those with FENO >25 ppb were 277 (32.6%). Blood eosinophil percentage was significantly higher (4.2±4.8 vs. 2.7±2.5, p3% (46.9% vs. 34.8%, p=0.001) and asthma history (25.6% vs. 8.6%, p3%, and positive bronchodilator response (BDR) were independent risk factors for the high FENO level (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.85; p<0.001; aOR, 1.46; p=0.017; and aOR, 1.57, p=0.034, respectively) in the multivariable analysis. @*Conclusion@#The FENO level distribution varied in COPD patients and the mean FENO value was slightly elevated. Asthma history, eosinophil percent, and positive BDR were independent risk factors for the high FENO level.

9.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 166-171, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895820

ABSTRACT

Motivation enhancement is important in behavioral therapy for patients with obesity. Depending on the clinician's communication style, the patient's motivation level may change. Motivational interviewing helps clinicians interact with patients effectively. The purpose of this article was to introduce how to integrate motivational interviewing into obesity behavioral therapy.

10.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 47-53, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719476

ABSTRACT

The guidelines for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment are important for the management of the disease. However, studies regarding the treatment adherence to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines have been scarce in Korea. Therefore, to examine the adherence to the GOLD guidelines, we examined the patterns of prescribed medication in COPD patients from 2011 to 2018. Patients were classified as having been appropriately and inappropriately treated (overtreatment or undertreatment) for the GOLD group. Appropriate medical therapy was defined as using the first choice or alternative choice drug recommended in the GOLD guidelines. Inappropriate therapy was classified as overtreatment or undertreatment in accordance with the categorization in the GOLD guidelines. According to treatment of 2011 GOLD guidelines, there was inappropriate treatment in 52.3% in group A, 47.3% in group B, 56.3% in group C, and 17.8% in group D. According to treatment of 2017 GOLD guidelines, there was inappropriate treatment in 66.7% in group A, 45.3% in group B, 14.3% in group C, and 24.0% in group D. The common type of inappropriate COPD treatment is overtreatment, with inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) containing regimens. In conclusions, adherence to the GOLD guideline by the pulmonologist in clinical practice is still low in Korea. Therefore, we need better strategies to both optimize the use of the guidelines and adhere to the guidelines as well.


Subject(s)
Humans , Korea , Lung Diseases , Medical Overuse , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive
11.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 227-233, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761948

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), a transmembrane protein, binds to the programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor, and anti-PD-1 therapy enables immune responses against tumors. This study aimed to assess clinical characteristics of PD-L1 expression using immunohistochemistry among Korean patients with lung cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the data of patients with pathologically proven lung cancer from a single institution. PD-L1 expression determined by Tumor Proportion Score (TPS) was detected using 22C3 pharmDx (Agilent Technologies) and SP263 (Ventana Medical Systems) assays. RESULTS: From July 2016 to July 2017, 267 patients were enrolled. The main histologic type was adenocarcinoma (69.3%). Most participants were smokers (67.4%) and had clinical stage IV disease (60.7%). In total, 116 (42%) and 58 (21%) patients had TPS ≥1% and ≥50%, respectively. The patients were significantly older in TPS ≥1% group than in TPS <1% group (64.83±9.38 years vs. 61.73±10.78 years, p=0.014), not in TPS ≥50% cutoff value (64.69 ± 9.39 vs. 62.36 ± 10.51, p= 0.178). Regarding histologic grade, higher proportions of poorly differentiated tumor were observed in the TPS ≥1% (40.8% vs. 25.8%, p=0.020) and TPS ≥50% groups (53.2% vs. 27.2%, p=0.004). Among 34 patients examined with 22C3 and SP263 assays, 27 had positive results in both assays, with a cutoff of TPS ≥1% (r=0.826; 95% confidence interval, 0.736–0.916). CONCLUSION: PD-L1 expression, defined as TPS ??%, was related to older age and poorly differentiated histology. There was a similar distribution of PD-L1 expression in both 22C3 and SP263 results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenocarcinoma , Asian People , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Gene Expression , Immunohistochemistry , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Retrospective Studies
12.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 210-216, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766031

ABSTRACT

Since the introduction of the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear system in 1943, cervicovaginal cytology has been used as a standard screening test for cervical cancer. The dissemination of this test contributed to reductions of the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer worldwide. In Korea, regular health check-ups for industrial workers and their family members were introduced in 1988 and were performed as part of the National Cancer Screening Program in 1999. As a result, the incidence of cervical cancer in Korea has been steadily decreasing. However, about 800 cases of cervical cancer-related deaths are reported each year due to false-negative test results. Hence, new screening methods have been proposed. Liquid-based cytology (LBC) was introduced in 1996 to overcome the limitations of conventional Pap smears. Since then, other LBC methods have been developed and utilized, including the human papilloma virus test—a method with higher sensitivity that requires fewer screenings. In this study, we review current issues and future perspectives related to cervical cancer screening in Korea.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Cervix Uteri , Early Detection of Cancer , Human Papillomavirus DNA Tests , Incidence , Korea , Mass Screening , Methods , Mortality , Papanicolaou Test , Papillomaviridae , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Uterus
13.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 227-233, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919444

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), a transmembrane protein, binds to the programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor, and anti-PD-1 therapy enables immune responses against tumors. This study aimed to assess clinical characteristics of PD-L1 expression using immunohistochemistry among Korean patients with lung cancer.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively reviewed the data of patients with pathologically proven lung cancer from a single institution. PD-L1 expression determined by Tumor Proportion Score (TPS) was detected using 22C3 pharmDx (Agilent Technologies) and SP263 (Ventana Medical Systems) assays.@*RESULTS@#From July 2016 to July 2017, 267 patients were enrolled. The main histologic type was adenocarcinoma (69.3%). Most participants were smokers (67.4%) and had clinical stage IV disease (60.7%). In total, 116 (42%) and 58 (21%) patients had TPS ≥1% and ≥50%, respectively. The patients were significantly older in TPS ≥1% group than in TPS <1% group (64.83±9.38 years vs. 61.73±10.78 years, p=0.014), not in TPS ≥50% cutoff value (64.69 ± 9.39 vs. 62.36 ± 10.51, p= 0.178). Regarding histologic grade, higher proportions of poorly differentiated tumor were observed in the TPS ≥1% (40.8% vs. 25.8%, p=0.020) and TPS ≥50% groups (53.2% vs. 27.2%, p=0.004). Among 34 patients examined with 22C3 and SP263 assays, 27 had positive results in both assays, with a cutoff of TPS ≥1% (r=0.826; 95% confidence interval, 0.736–0.916).@*CONCLUSION@#PD-L1 expression, defined as TPS ??%, was related to older age and poorly differentiated histology. There was a similar distribution of PD-L1 expression in both 22C3 and SP263 results.

14.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 1050-1057, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919146

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#Peripheral eosinophilia during tuberculosis (TB) treatment is common, but has not been fully evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and clinical significance of peripheral blood eosinophilia in patients undergoing anti-TB treatment.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and laboratory data of patients who received anti-TB treatment and had peripheral blood eosinophilia (> 5% of the total white blood cell count) at the Chonnam National University Hospital between January 2010 and December 2014.@*RESULTS@#Of all 2,234 patients with TB who received anti-TB treatment, 397 (17.8%) had peripheral blood eosinophilia. Of the 397 with eosinophilia, we reviewed the data of 262 (66%), and cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADRs) were observed in 161 (61.5%). Of the 161 with CADRs, itching (47.2%) and skin rash (47.8%) were common. Older age, abnormal liver function, and higher peak blood eosinophil percentage were associated with CADRs in multivariate analysis. There was a significant relationship between increased peak eosinophil counts and the degree of severity of CADRs.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Peripheral blood eosinophilia is a relatively common occurrence during anti-TB treatment. Peripheral blood eosinophil counts were higher according to the degree of severity of CADRs.

15.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 109-113, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739454

ABSTRACT

Limbic encephalitis (LE) is characterized by short-term memory loss, disorientation, agitation, seizures, and histopathological evidence of medial temporal lobe inflammation. Leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1 (LGI-1) is an auto-antigen associated with LE. We report a 37-year-old male patient with LGI-1-related LE who presented with recurrent episodes of selective amnesia, seizure-like activity, confusion, and personality change. His symptoms were significantly improved with steroid therapy. Thorough differential diagnosis with consideration for autoimmune encephalitis should be in patients with presentation of symptoms, such as memory impairment, personality change and seizure-like activity, especially when other neurological diagnoses are excluded.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Amnesia , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Dihydroergotamine , Encephalitis , Glioma , Inflammation , Limbic Encephalitis , Memory , Memory, Short-Term , Seizures , Temporal Lobe
16.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 186-191, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-726695

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to introduce acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for diabetes educators and review its effectiveness on diabetes patient self-care and mental health. ACT can reduce disease burden by reducing cognitive fusion and experiential avoidance. Psychotherapy such as ACT may be a useful intervention for helping diabetes patients to improve self-care and mental health conditions. Diabetes educators should make continuous efforts to practice ACT for patients in clinical settings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acceptance and Commitment Therapy , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Depression , Diabetes Mellitus , Mental Health , Psychotherapy , Self Care
17.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 415-416, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766693

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome , Uremia
18.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 291-295, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220959

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)–guided transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) of mediastinal lymph nodes, the incidence of histopathologically-confirmed sarcoidosis has increased. METHODS: The electronic medical records of Chonnam National University (CNU) Hospital and CNU Hwasun Hospital (CNUHH) were searched for confirmed cases of sarcoidosis diagnosed between 1996 and 2014. Cases were selected using a combination of clinical, radiological, and pathological evidence. Of 115 cases with the relevant disease codes, 16 cases were excluded, as they had not been confirmed pathologically or had no definitive clinical features of sarcoidosis. RESULTS: Among 99 cases of confirmed sarcoidosis, only nine patients were diagnosed with sarcoidosis before 2008; the rest were diagnosed from 2008 onward, after the introduction of EBUS-TBNA. EBUS-TBNA was used in 75.8% of patients, open surgical biopsy in 13.2%, and mediastinoscopic biopsy in 5.1%. At the time of diagnosis, 42.4% of sarcoidosis cases were at stage I, 55.6% at stage II, and 2% at stage III. Spontaneous remission of sarcoidosis was observed in 33.3% of cases, and stable disease in 37.4%; systemic steroid treatment was initiated in 23.2% of cases. Of the patients treated with systemic steroids, 69.6% showed improvement. The median duration of steroid treatment was 5 months. CONCLUSION: Following the introduction of EBUS-TBNA, the number of newly diagnosed sarcoidosis patients has increased. Clinical features of sarcoidosis were similar to those previously reported. Spontaneous remission occurred in about one-third of patients, while one-fourth of patients required systemic steroid treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biopsy , Bronchoscopy , Diagnosis , Electronic Health Records , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration , Incidence , Korea , Lymph Nodes , Needles , Remission, Spontaneous , Sarcoidosis , Steroids , Ultrasonography
19.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 169-178, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-169288

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of our new video-assisted asthma education program on patients' knowledge regarding asthma and asthma control. METHODS: Adult asthmatics who were diagnosed by primary care physicians and followed for at least 1 year were educated via smart devices and pamphlets. The education sessions were carried out three times at 2-week intervals. Each education period lasted at most 5 minutes. The effectiveness was then evaluated using questionnaires and an asthma control test (ACT). RESULTS: The study enrolled 144 patients (mean age, 56.7±16.7 years). Half of the patients had not been taught how to use their inhalers. After participating in the education program, the participants' understanding of asthma improved significantly across all six items of a questionnaire assessing their general knowledge of asthma. The proportion of patients who made errors while manipulating their inhalers was reduced to less than 10%. The ACT score increased from 16.6±4.6 to 20.0±3.9 (p<0.001). The number of asthmatics whose ACT score was at least 20 increased from 45 (33.3%) to 93 (65.3%) (p<0.001). The magnitude of improvement in the ACT score did not differ between patients who received an education session at least three times within 1 year and those who had not. The majority of patients agreed to the need for an education program (95.8%) and showed a willingness to pay an additional cost for the education (81.9%). CONCLUSION: This study indicated that our newly developed education program would become an effective component of asthma management in primary care clinics.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Asthma , Education , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Pamphlets , Physicians, Primary Care , Primary Health Care
20.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 121-128, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-178694

ABSTRACT

Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is a common condition occurring after intentional or unintentional abrupt cessation of alcohol in an alcohol-dependent individual. AWS represents a major problem in our society and alcohol withdrawal seizure is the major cause of seizures encountered by neurology residents in the emergency department. Patients with AWS present with mild symptoms of tremulousness and agitation or more severe symptoms including withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. Particularly, severe AWS can produce significant rates of the morbidity (complications) and mortality. When diagnosed and managed insufficiently, the morbidity and mortality rates increase. Nevertheless, patients with AWS may be neglected and are often marginalized and the teaching about AWS to neurology residents is usually minimal. Also, attending neurologists are often poorly informed on the topic. Although there is insufficient consensus about the optimal investigation and management, the purpose of this review is to serve as a summary of the appropriate identification and management of this important condition in a neurological setting.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium , Alcohol Withdrawal Seizures , Consensus , Dihydroergotamine , Disease Management , Emergency Service, Hospital , Mortality , Neurology , Seizures
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