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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925172

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Breast cancer is mainly diagnosed using core needle biopsy (CNB), although other biopsy methods, including vacuum-assisted biopsy (VAB), may also be used. We compared differences in clinical characteristics and prognoses of patients with breast cancer according to biopsy methods used for diagnosis. @*Methods@#A total of 98,457 patients who underwent various biopsy methods (CNB, fine-needle aspiration [FNA], VAB, and excisional biopsy) for diagnosing breast cancer were recruited. Using CNB as a reference, related clinicopathological factors and prognostic differences between biopsy methods were analyzed retrospectively using large-scale data from the Korean Breast Cancer Society Registration System. The associations between biopsy methods and clinicopathological factors were compared using multinomial logistic regression analysis, and the prognoses of patients undergoing the different biopsy methods, as breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) and overall survival (OS), were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard model. @*Results@#Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that unlike FNA, both VAB and excisional biopsy were significantly associated with tumor size, palpability, tumor stage, and histologic grade as relatively good prognostic factors compared to CNB. In particular, VAB showed lower odds ratios for these factors than excisional biopsy. In the univariate analysis, the prognosis of patients undergoing VAB was better than that of those undergoing CNB with respect to BCSS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.188, p < 0.001) and OS (HR, 0.359; p < 0.001). However, in the multivariate analysis, there were no significant prognostic differences from CNB in both BCSS and OS; differences were only evident for FNA. @*Conclusion@#In this study, we showed that the characteristics of breast cancer differed according to various biopsy methods. Although VAB is not a standard method for breast cancer diagnosis, it showed no prognostic differences to CNB.

2.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 164-174, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891277

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In this trial, we investigated the efficacy and safety of adjuvant letrozole for hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer. Here, we report the clinical outcome in postmenopausal women with HR-positive breast cancer treated with adjuvant letrozole according to estrogen receptor (ER) expression levels. @*Methods@#In this multi-institutional, open-label, observational study, postmenopausal patients with HR-positive breast cancer received adjuvant letrozole (2.5 mg/daily) for 5 years unless they experienced disease progression or unacceptable toxicity or withdrew their consent. The patients were stratified into the following 3 groups according to ER expression levels using a modified Allred score (AS): low, intermediate, and high (AS 3–4, 5–6, and 7–8, respectively). ER expression was centrally reviewed. The primary objective was the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate. @*Results@#Between April 25, 2010, and February 5, 2014, 440 patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 62.0 months, the 5-year DFS rate in all patients was 94.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.8–96.6). The 5-year DFS and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates did not differ according to ER expression; the 5-year DFS rates were 94.3% and 94.1%in the low-to-intermediate and high expression groups, respectively (p = 0.6), and the corresponding 5-year RFS rates were 95.7% and 95.4%, respectively (p = 0.7). Furthermore, 25 patients discontinued letrozole because of drug toxicity. @*Conclusion@#Treatment with adjuvant letrozole showed very favorable treatment outcomes and good tolerability among Korean postmenopausal women with ER-positive breast cancer, independent of ER expression.

3.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 164-174, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898981

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In this trial, we investigated the efficacy and safety of adjuvant letrozole for hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer. Here, we report the clinical outcome in postmenopausal women with HR-positive breast cancer treated with adjuvant letrozole according to estrogen receptor (ER) expression levels. @*Methods@#In this multi-institutional, open-label, observational study, postmenopausal patients with HR-positive breast cancer received adjuvant letrozole (2.5 mg/daily) for 5 years unless they experienced disease progression or unacceptable toxicity or withdrew their consent. The patients were stratified into the following 3 groups according to ER expression levels using a modified Allred score (AS): low, intermediate, and high (AS 3–4, 5–6, and 7–8, respectively). ER expression was centrally reviewed. The primary objective was the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate. @*Results@#Between April 25, 2010, and February 5, 2014, 440 patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 62.0 months, the 5-year DFS rate in all patients was 94.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.8–96.6). The 5-year DFS and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates did not differ according to ER expression; the 5-year DFS rates were 94.3% and 94.1%in the low-to-intermediate and high expression groups, respectively (p = 0.6), and the corresponding 5-year RFS rates were 95.7% and 95.4%, respectively (p = 0.7). Furthermore, 25 patients discontinued letrozole because of drug toxicity. @*Conclusion@#Treatment with adjuvant letrozole showed very favorable treatment outcomes and good tolerability among Korean postmenopausal women with ER-positive breast cancer, independent of ER expression.

4.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831094

ABSTRACT

Government healthcare expenditure is rising in Korea, and the costs incurred by patients in Korea exceed those incurred by patients in other Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. Despite the increasing health expenditure, patient demand for services is increasing as well, so it is now becoming recognized that cancer care needs to be balanced. The most important measure in cancer care optimization is to provide high-quality care while keeping costs sustainable. The Korean Cancer Association considers the current situation of cancer therapy in Korea the foremost issue, which has led to the implementation of the nationwide ‘Right Decisions in Cancer Care’ initiative. This initiative is based on the concepts of medical professionalism in that it should be led by physicians working in the field of oncology, that education should be offered to patients and clinicians, and that it should influence healthcare policy. In this article, we introduce the nationwide ‘Right Decision in Cancer Care’ initiative and highlight the five initial items on its agenda. The agenda is open to expansion and update as the medical environment evolves and additional clinical evidence becomes available.

5.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 453-463, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764277

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We evaluated the clinical value of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery (BCS). The degree of correlation between pathology size and MRI or ultrasonography (US) size was compared based on breast cancer subtypes. In addition, we investigated the positive margin rates. METHODS: Patients with invasive breast cancer who underwent preoperative breast MRI and US between 2011 and 2016 were included in the study. Lin's concordance correlation coefficient was used to measure the correlation between MRI or US andpathologic tumor extent. Tumor extent was defined as pathologic tumor size, including in situ carcinoma. Margin positivity was assessed based on frozen-section examination. RESULTS: A total of 516 patients with a single tumor who underwent BCS were included in the study. The correlation between pathologic size and MRI was significantly higher than that of US (r = 0.6975 vs. 0.6211, p = 0.001). The superiority of MRI over US in measuring the pathologic extent was only observed in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC; r = 0.8089 vs. 0.6014, p < 0.001). The agreement between MRI or US and tumor extent was low for the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive subtype (MRI: 0.5243, US: 0.4898). Moreover, the positive margin rate was higher in the HER2-positive subtype than in the others (luminal/HER2-negative: 11.6%, HER2-positive: 23.2%, TNBC: 17.8%, p = 0.019). The post hoc analysis showed that the HER2-positive subtype was more likely to show positive margins than the luminal/HER2-negative subtype (p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: Breast MRI was superior to US in the preoperative assessment of the pathologic extent of tumor size; this was most evident in TNBC. For HER2-positive tumors, imaging-pathologic discordance resulted in higher positive margin rates than that with other subtypes.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mastectomy, Segmental , Pathology , ErbB Receptors , Receptor, ErbB-2 , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms , Ultrasonography
6.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 109-119, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738411

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The use of immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) has been debated because it may be a causative factor in adjuvant treatment delay and may subsequently increase the probability of recurrence. We investigated whether IBR was related to adjuvant treatment delay and survival outcomes. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the duration from operation to adjuvant treatment administration and survival outcomes according to IBR status among patients with breast cancer who underwent mastectomy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy from January 2005 to December 2014. Propensity score matching was performed to balance the clinicopathologic baseline characteristics between patients who did and did not undergo IBR. RESULTS: Of 646 patients, 107 (16.6%) underwent IBR, and the median follow-up was 72 months. The median duration from surgery to adjuvant chemotherapy was significantly longer in patients who underwent IBR than in those who did not (14 vs. 12 days, respectively, p = 0.008). Based on propensity score matching, patients who underwent IBR received adjuvant therapy 3 days later than those who did not (14 vs. 11 days, respectively, p = 0.044). The duration from surgery to post-mastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) did not significantly differ between the 2 groups. Local recurrence-free survival, regional recurrence-free survival, systemic recurrence-free survival, and overall survival were also not significantly different between the 2 groups (p = 0.427, p = 0.445, p = 0.269, and p = 0.250, respectively). In the case-matched cohort, survival outcomes did not change. CONCLUSION: IBR was associated with a modest increase in the duration from surgery to chemotherapy that was statistically but not clinically significant. Moreover, IBR had no influence on PMRT delay or survival outcomes, suggesting that it is an acceptable option for patients with non-metastatic breast cancer undergoing mastectomy.


Subject(s)
Breast Implants , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Cohort Studies , Drug Therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Mammaplasty , Mastectomy , Propensity Score , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715842

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) can accurately represent the axillary lymph node (ALN) status, the false-negative rate (FNR) of SLNB is the main concern in the patients who receive SLNB alone instead of ALN dissection (ALND). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 1,886 patientswho underwent ALND after negative results of SLNB, retrospectively. A logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors associated with a false-negative (FN) result. Cox regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratio of factors affecting disease-free survival (DFS). RESULTS: Tumor located in the upper outer portion of the breast, lymphovascular invasion, suspicious node in imaging assessment and less than three sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) were significant independent risk factors for FN in SLNB conferring an adjusted odds ratio of 2.10 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30 to 3.39), 2.69 (95% CI, 1.47 to 4.91), 2.59 (95% CI, 1.62 to 4.14), and 2.39 (95% CI, 1.45 to 3.95), respectively. The prognostic factors affecting DFS were tumor size larger than 2 cm (hazard ratio [HR], 1.86; 95% CI, 1.17 to 2.96) and FN of SLNB (HR, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.42 to 4.42) in SLN-negative group (FN and true-negative), but in ALN-positive group (FN and true-positive), FN of SLNB (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.33 to 1.25) did not affect DFS. CONCLUSION: In patients with risk factors for a FN such as suspicious node in imaging assessment, upper outer breast cancer, less than three harvested nodes, we need attention to find another metastatic focus in non-SLNs during the operation. It may contribute to provide an exact prognosis and optimizing adjuvant treatments.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Logistic Models , Lymph Nodes , Odds Ratio , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
8.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 213-221, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715382

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In properly selected patients with breast cancer, nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) is generally considered safe by oncologic standards. We examined two groups of patients who underwent direct-to-implant (DTI) reconstruction after NSM, comparing complications encountered, revision rates, and aesthetic outcomes. The patients were stratified based on type of surgical incision and assigned to inframammary fold (IMF) and non-IMF groups. METHODS: We investigated 141 patients (145 breasts) subjected to NSM and immediate DTI reconstruction between 2013 and 2016. A total of 62 breasts (in 58 patients) were surgically removed via IMF incisions, with the other 83 breasts (in 83 patients) removed by non-IMF means. RESULTS: Complications associated with IMF (n=62) and non-IMF (n=83) incisions were as follows: skin necrosis (IMF, 9; non-IMF, 18); hematoma (IMF, 3; non-IMF, 4); seroma (IMF, 8; non-IMF, 4); mild capsular contracture (IMF, 4; non-IMF, 7); and tumor recurrence (IMF, 2; non-IMF, 8). Surgical revisions were counted as duplicates (IMF, 18; non-IMF, 38). Aesthetic outcomes following IMF incisions were rated as very good (44.2%), good (23.1%), fair (23.1%), or poor (9.6%). CONCLUSION: IMF incision enables complete preservation of the nipple-areolar complex, yielding superior aesthetic results in immediate DTI breast reconstruction after NSM. The nature of incision used had no significant impact on postoperative complications or reoperation rates and had comparable oncologic safety to that of non-IMF incisions. IMF incisions produced the least visible scarring and did not affect breast shape. Most patients were satisfied with the aesthetic outcomes.


Subject(s)
Breast Implants , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Cicatrix , Contracture , Female , Hematoma , Humans , Mammaplasty , Mastectomy , Necrosis , Postoperative Complications , Recurrence , Reoperation , Seroma , Skin
9.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 190-196, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714861

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: There is still a clinical need to easily evaluate the metastatic status of lymph nodes during breast cancer surgery. We hypothesized that ex vivo shear-wave elastography (SWE) would predict precisely the presence of metastasis in the excised lymph nodes. METHODS: A total of 63 patients who underwent breast cancer surgery were prospectively enrolled in this study from May 2014 to April 2015. The excised axillary lymph nodes were examined using ex vivo SWE. Metastatic status was confirmed based on the final histopathological diagnosis of the permanent section. Lymph node characteristics and elasticity values measured by ex vivo SWE were assessed for possible association with nodal metastasis. RESULTS: A total of 274 lymph nodes, harvested from 63 patients, were examined using ex vivo SWE. The data obtained from 228 of these nodes from 55 patients were included in the analysis. Results showed that 187 lymph nodes (82.0%) were nonmetastatic and 41 lymph nodes (18.0%) were metastatic. There was significant difference between metastatic and nonmetastatic nodes with respect to the mean (45.4 kPa and 17.7 kPa, p<0.001) and maximum (55.3 kPa and 23.2 kPa, p<0.001) stiffness. The elasticity ratio was higher in the metastatic nodes (4.36 and 1.57, p<0.001). Metastatic nodes were significantly larger than nonmetastatic nodes (mean size, 10.5 mm and 7.5 mm, p<0.001). The size of metastatic nodes and nodal stiffness were correlated (correlation coefficient of mean stiffness, r=0.553). The area under curve of mean stiffness, maximum stiffness, and elasticity ratio were 0.794, 0.802, and 0.831, respectively. CONCLUSION: Ex vivo SWE may be a feasible method to predict axillary lymph node metastasis intraoperatively in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery.


Subject(s)
Area Under Curve , Axilla , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Diagnosis , Elasticity , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Metastasis , Methods , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prospective Studies
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716855

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study investigated how adding Korean red ginseng extract (KRG) to folinic acid, fluorouracil and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) chemotherapy affected the rate of splenomegaly in colon cancer. METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed 42 patients who were randomly assigned to receive a FOLFOX regimen with or without KRG. Spleen volume change was assessed by computed tomography scans measured before surgery (presurgery volume) and 3 weeks after cessation of the 12th cycle of FOLFOX (postchemotherapy volume). RESULTS: All patients showed increased spleen volume. No difference was observed in median presurgery and postchemotherapy volume between the KRG and control groups. However, a ratio defined as postchemotherapy volume divided by presurgery volume was significantly lower in the KRG group than the control group (median, 1.38 [range, 1.0–2.8] in KRG group vs. median, 1.89 [range, 1.1–3.0] in control group, P = 0.028). When splenomegaly was defined as a >61% increase in spleen volume, the rate of splenomegaly was significantly lower in the KRG group than the control group (28.6% vs. 61.9%, P = 0.03). KRG consumption was inversely associated with developing splenomegaly in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Adding KRG during FOLFOX chemotherapy for colon cancer might protect against oxaliplatin-induced splenomegaly. The protective effect of Korean red ginseng should be investigated with further research.


Subject(s)
Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Fluorouracil , Humans , Leucovorin , Multivariate Analysis , Panax , Retrospective Studies , Spleen , Splenomegaly
11.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 228-233, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-226313

ABSTRACT

The Korean clinical practice guideline recently developed by the Korean Breast Cancer Society to address the national clinical situation is currently under revision ahead of a seventh recommendation. A second consensus conference was held to further develop this guideline by soliciting opinions regarding important issues related to surgery, radiotherapy, and medical oncology. Several issues were discussed, and the discussion progressed to pros and cons in the context of cases in various clinical situations. The panels discussed and voted on issues regarding surgical treatment for non-axillary regional lymph nodes, regional nodal irradiation of pN1 disease, and ovarian functional suppression (OFS) as an adjuvant treatment in premenopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Regarding the surgical treatment of non-axillary regional lymph node, most panelists agreed with the recommendation of preoperative chemotherapy and postoperative radiotherapy for patients with biopsy-diagnosed metastases, whereas surgery or radiotherapy of non-axillary regional lymph nodes was suggested for clinical partial responders. Discussions on radiotherapy addressed the need for adjuvant radiotherapy and radiation field of regional lymph node in the context of various N1 breast cancer cases. The participants reached a consensus to recommend that N1 patients should receive regional nodal irradiation for a large tumor burden (e.g., three positive nodes, perinodal extension, or large primary tumor). Finally, the panels favored OFS in addition to endocrine therapy for premenopausal women with high risk factors such as a large tumor size, involvement of more than three nodes, and a high histologic grade.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Consensus , Drug Therapy , Female , Humans , Interdisciplinary Communication , Korea , Lymph Nodes , Medical Oncology , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Risk Factors , Tumor Burden
12.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 400-403, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194952

ABSTRACT

Two consecutive surveys for breast surgeons in Korea were conducted to comprehend the practice patterns and perceptions on margin status after breast-conserving surgery. The surveys were conducted online in 2014 (initial) and 2016 (follow-up). A total of 126 and 88 responses were obtained in the initial and follow-up survey, respectively. More than 80% of the respondents replied to routinely apply frozen section biopsy for intraoperative margin assessment in both surveys. Re-excision recommendations of the margin for invasive cancer significantly changed from a close margin to a positive margin over time (p=0.033). Most of the respondents (73.8%) defined a negative margin as “no ink on tumor” in invasive cancer, whereas more diverse responses were observed in ductal carcinoma in situ cases. The influence of guideline establishment for negative margins has been identified. A high uptake rate of intraoperative frozen section biopsy was noted and routine use needs reconsideration.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Breast , Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating , Follow-Up Studies , Frozen Sections , Ink , Korea , Mastectomy, Segmental , Surgeons , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 121-128, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-44441

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report the results of a correlation analysis of skin dose assessed by in vivo dosimetry and the incidence of acute toxicity. This is a phase 2 trial evaluating the feasibility of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) as a boost for breast cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eligible patients were treated with IORT of 20 Gy followed by whole breast irradiation (WBI) of 46 Gy. A total of 55 patients with a minimum follow-up of 1 month after WBI were evaluated. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter (OSLD) detected radiation dose delivered to the skin during IORT. Acute toxicity was recorded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.0. Clinical parameters were correlated with seroma formation and maximum skin dose. RESULTS: Median follow-up after IORT was 25.9 weeks (range, 12.7 to 50.3 weeks). Prior to WBI, only one patient developed acute toxicity. Following WBI, 30 patients experienced grade 1 skin toxicity and three patients had grade 2 skin toxicity. Skin dose during IORT exceeded 5 Gy in two patients: with grade 2 complications around the surgical scar in one patient who received 8.42 Gy. Breast volume on preoperative images (p = 0.001), ratio of applicator diameter and breast volume (p = 0.002), and distance between skin and tumor (p = 0.003) showed significant correlations with maximum skin dose. CONCLUSIONS: IORT as a boost was well-tolerated among Korean women without severe acute complication. In vivo dosimetry with OSLD can help ensure safe delivery of IORT as a boost.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Cicatrix , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Luminescence , Mastectomy, Segmental , Radiotherapy , Seroma , Skin
14.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 223-230, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-201281

ABSTRACT

Tumor heterogeneity of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has been the main barrier in conquering breast cancer. To dissect the molecular diversity of TNBC and discover therapeutic targets for TNBC, the molecular classification of TNBC is a prioritized issue in research area. Accordingly, recent studies have been successful in classifying TNBC into several distinct subtypes with specific biologic pathways. Despite the different methodologies used and varied number of final subtypes, these studies identically suggested that TNBC consists of four major subtypes: basal-like, mesenchymal, luminal androgen receptor, and immune-enriched. By reviewing these methods of classifications of TNBC, we highlight the unmet need to develop a molecular classifier suited for TNBC.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Classification , Gene Expression , Phenobarbital , Population Characteristics , Receptors, Androgen , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
15.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 214-217, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-166629

ABSTRACT

The prognosis associated with brain metastasis arising from breast cancer is very poor. Eribulin is a microtubule dynamic inhibitor synthesized from halichondrin B, a natural marine product. In a phase III study (EMBRACE), eribulin improved overall survival in patients with heavily pretreated metastatic breast cancers. However, these studies included few patients with brain metastases. Metastatic brain tumors (MBT) were detected during first-line palliative chemotherapy in a 43-year-old woman with breast cancer metastasis to the lung and mediastinal nodes; the genetic subtype was luminal B-like human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative. Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) followed by eribulin treatment continuously decreased the size, and induced regression, of the MBT with systemic disease stability for 12 months. Another 48-year-old woman with metastatic breast cancer (HER2+ subtype) presented with MBT. Following surgical resection of the tumor, eribulin with concurrent WBRT showed regression of the MBT without systemic progression for 18 months.


Subject(s)
Adult , Brain Neoplasms , Brain , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Drug Therapy , Female , Humans , Lung , Mesylates , Microtubules , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Metastasis , Phenobarbital , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , ErbB Receptors
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-182015

ABSTRACT

With the advance in personalized therapeutic strategies in patients with breast cancer, there is an increasing need for biomarker-guided therapy. Although the immunogenicity of breast cancer has not been strongly considered in research or practice, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are emerging as biomarkers mediating tumor response to treatments. Earlier studies have provided evidence that the level of TILs has prognostic value and the potential for predictive value, particularly in triple-negative and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer. Moreover, the level of TILs has been associated with treatment outcome in patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. To date, no standardized methodology for measuring TILs has been established. In this article, we review current issues and clinical evidence for the use of TILs in breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Drug Therapy , Humans , Immune System , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating , Negotiating , ErbB Receptors , Treatment Outcome , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-173796

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate treatment options for local control of metastasis in the brain, we compared focal brain treatment (FBT) with or without whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) vs. WBRT alone, for breast cancer patients with tumor relapse in the brain. We also evaluated treatment outcomes according to the subtypes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of breast cancer patients with brain metastasis after primary surgery. All patients received at least one local treatment for brain metastasis. Surgery or stereotactic radiosurgery was categorized as FBT. Patients were divided into two groups: the FBT group received FBT+/-WBRT, whereas the non-FBT group received WBRT alone. Subtypes were defined as follows: hormone receptor (HR)-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative, HR-positive/HER2-positive, HR-negative/HER2-positive, and triple-negative (TN). We examined the overall survival after brain metastasis (OSBM), brain metastasis-specific survival (BMSS), and brain metastasis-specific progression-free survival (BMPFS). RESULTS: A total of 116 patients were identified. After a median follow-up of 50.9 months, the median OSBM was 11.5 months (95% confidence interval, 9.0-14.1 months). The FBT group showed significantly superior OSBM and BMSS. However, FBT was not an independent prognostic factor for OSBM and BMSS on multivariate analyses. In contrast, multivariate analyses showed that patients who underwent surgery had improved BMPFS, indicating local control of metastasis in the brain. FBT resulted in better BMPFS in patients with HR-negative/HER2-positive cancer or the TN subtype. CONCLUSION: We found that patients who underwent surgery experienced improved local control of brain metastasis, regardless of its extent. Furthermore, FBT showed positive results and could be considered for better local control of brain metastasis in patients with aggressive subtypes such as HER2-positive and TN.


Subject(s)
Brain , Breast Neoplasms , Cranial Irradiation , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiosurgery , Radiotherapy , ErbB Receptors , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
18.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 371-377, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-77779

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We investigated the relationships between metastasis-free interval (MFI) and tumor characteristics, and assessed the prognostic value of MFI for survival after metastasis in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Furthermore, we compared MFI among the subtypes. METHODS: We identified 335 patients with postoperative tumor recurrence at distant site(s). All patients underwent curative resection and had a MFI of at least 6 months. MFI was categorized as short ( or =2 years and or =5 years). Overall survival after metastasis (OSM) was estimated. RESULTS: Patients with a shorter MFI were younger, more likely to have initial metastasis to visceral organs, and had a larger tumor with a higher stage and grade as well as a higher rate of nodal involvement at initial diagnosis. Among 136 patients with known disease subtypes, shorter MFI was associated with the triple-negative subtype while longer MFI was associated with the hormone receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative subtype. Mortality after metastasis declined sharply with increasing MFI up to approximately 2 years, and continued gradually declining between 2 and 5 years. An MFI longer than 5 years did not add any survival benefit. MFI was a significant prognostic factor for OSM independent of nodal status, stage, metastatic site, and hormone receptor status of the metastasized cancer. CONCLUSION: MFI is closely related to biological characteristics of both primary tumors and their metastases, and has a prognostic value for survival after metastasis. We therefore suggest investigation into treatments targeting improvement of MFI as a potential novel strategy.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Diagnosis , Humans , Mortality , Neoplasm Metastasis , Population Characteristics , ErbB Receptors , Recurrence
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-20379

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) may adversely affect the identification and accuracy rate of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of SLNB in node-positive breast cancer patients with negative axillary conversion after NAC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-six patients with positive nodes at presentation were prospectively enrolled. 18Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) and ultrasonography were performed before and after NAC. A metastatic axillary lymph node was defined as positive if it was positive upon both 18F-FDG PET and ultrasonography, while it was considered negative if it was negative upon both 18F-FDG PET and ultrasonography. RESULTS: After NAC, 55 cases (57.3%) became clinically node-negative, while 41 cases (42.7%) remained node-positive. In the entire cohort, the sentinel lymph node (SLN) identification and false-negative rates were 84.3% (81/96) and 18.4% (9/49), respectively. In the negative axillary conversion group, the results of SLNB showed an 85.7% (48/55) identification rate and 16.7% (4/24) false-negative rate. CONCLUSION: For breast cancer patients with clinically positive nodes at presentation, it is difficult to conclude whether the SLN accurately represents the metastatic status of all axillary lymph nodes, even after clinically negative node conversion following NAC.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Cohort Studies , Drug Therapy , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy , Ultrasonography
20.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 350-355, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-218642

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: A growing body of evidence indicates that zoledronic acid (ZA) can improve the clinical outcome in patients with breast cancer and low estrogen levels. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the survival benefit of ZA administration in postmenopausal Korean women with breast cancer who were also receiving aromatase inhibitors. METHODS: Between January 2004 and December 2010, 235 postmenopausal breast cancer patients undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy were investigated. All patients were postmenopausal, as confirmed by laboratory tests. Of these patients, 77 received adjuvant upfront ZA for at least 1 year in addition to conventional adjuvant treatment. The remaining 158 patients never received ZA and were treated according to the St. Gallen guidelines. RESULTS: The baseline characteristics for ZA treatment were not different between the two groups. The median follow-up time was 62 months, and the patients who received ZA in addition to aromatase inhibitors showed a better recurrence-free survival compared to those who received aromatase inhibitors alone (p=0.035). On multivariate analysis, the patients who received ZA showed a better recurrence-free survival independent of the tumor size, nodal status, progesterone receptor, and histological grade. For this model, Harrell c index was 0.743. The hazard ratio of ZA use for recurrence-free survival was 0.12 (95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.99). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that upfront use of ZA as part of adjuvant treatment can offer a survival benefit to postmenopausal breast cancer patients receiving aromatase inhibitor treatment.


Subject(s)
Aromatase , Aromatase Inhibitors , Breast Neoplasms , Estrogens , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Postmenopause , Receptors, Progesterone
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