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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913532

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The programmed death protein 1 (PD-1) pathway is the critical mechanism in development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The present study analyzed the prognostic impact of pretransplant serum soluble PD-1 (sPD-1) concentration and α-FP–des-γ- –tumor volume (ADV) score in patients with previously untreated HCC undergone liver transplantation (LT). @*Methods@#This retrospective single-center study enrolled 100 patients with HCC who underwent living donor LT from 2010 to 2016. Concentrations of sPD-1 were measured in stored serum samples. @*Results@#Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of 2-year tumor recurrence resulted in an sPD-1 cutoff of 177.1 µg/mL, which was associated with higher rates of tumor recurrence (P = 0.022), but not with overall patient survival (P = 0.460). The derived cutoff for pretransplant ADV score was 5.4log, which was associated with higher tumor recurrence rate (P 177.1 µg/mL (hazard ratio [HR], 2.26; P = 0.020) and pretransplant ADV score of >5.4log (HR, 3.56; P < 0.001) were independent risk factors for posttransplant HCC recurrence. The combination of these 2 factors enabled the stratification of patients into 3 groups, with groups having 0, 1, and 2 risk factors differing significantly in the prognosis of tumor recurrence (P < 0.001) and overall patient survival (P = 0.006). @*Conclusion@#Both sPD-1 concentration and ADV score have prognostic impacts in patients who underwent LT for untreated HCCs. These factors, both individually and combined, can help in predicting posttransplant prognosis.

2.
Ultrasonography ; : 164-170, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919560

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to determine the diagnostic performance of the controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) measured using transient elastography (TE) for assessing macrovesicular steatosis (MaS) in potential living liver donors using same-day biopsy as a reference standard. @*Methods@#This retrospective study included 204 living liver donor candidates who underwent TE and liver biopsy on the same day between July 2013 and June 2014. The histologic degree of MaS was determined. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was used to evaluate the performance of CAP for diagnosing MaS of >10%, and the optimal cutoff value was identified using the maximal Youden index. @*Results@#Based on liver biopsy, 185 subjects had MaS of ≤10% and 19 had MaS of >10%. The CAP value was significantly correlated with the percentage of MaS on liver biopsy (r=0.635, P10% than in those with MaS of ≤10% (300 dB/m vs. 209 dB/m, P10% by CAP was 0.938 (95% confidence interval, 0.896 to 0.967), and a CAP of >259 dB/m yielded a sensitivity of 84.2% and a specificity of 92.4%. @*Conclusion@#The CAP measured using TE was significantly correlated with MaS and accurately detected substantial MaS in potential living liver donors. The CAP is a promising tool for the noninvasive diagnosis of MaS and may be used to screen unsuitable living liver donor candidates.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918239

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate whether the diagnostic performance of CT angiography (CTA) could be improved by modifying the conventional criterion (anastomosis site abnormality) to diagnose hepatic artery occlusion (HAO) after liver transplantation (LT) in suspected patients with Doppler ultrasound (US) abnormalities. @*Materials and Methods@#One hundred thirty-four adult LT recipients (88 males and 46 females; mean age, 52.7 years) with suspected HAO on Doppler US (40 HAO and 94 non-HAO according to the reference standards) were included. We evaluated 1) abnormalities in the HA anastomosis, categorized as a cutoff, ≥ 50% stenosis at the anastomotic site, or diffuse stenosis at both graft and recipient sides around the anastomosis, and 2) abnormalities in the distal run-off, including invisibility or irregular, faint, and discontinuous enhancement. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of the conventional (considering anastomosis site abnormalities alone) and modified CTA criteria (abnormalities in both the anastomosis site and distal run-off) for the diagnosis of HAO were calculated and compared using the McNemar test. @*Results@#By using the conventional criterion to diagnose HAO, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy were 100% (40/40), 74.5% (70/94), 62.5% (40/64), 100% (70/70), and 82.1% (110/134), respectively. The modified criterion for diagnosing HAO showed significantly increased specificity (93.6%, 88/94) and accuracy (93.3%, 125/134) compared to that with the conventional criterion (p = 0.001 and 0.002, respectively), although the sensitivity (92.5%, 37/40) decreased slightly without statistical significance (p = 0.250). @*Conclusion@#The modified criterion considering abnormalities in both the anastomosis site and distal run-off improved the diagnostic performance of CTA for HAO in suspected patients with Doppler US abnormalities, particularly by increasing the specificity.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874223

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is a rare borderline vascular tumor. This retrospective, single-center study evaluated the outcomes of hepatic resection (HR) in patients with hepatic EHE. @*Methods@#Over the 10-year period from 2009 to 2018, 11 patients with hepatic EHE underwent HR, accounting for 0.1% of the 11,979 adults who underwent HR at our center. Diagnosis of hepatic EHE was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining for CD34, CD31, and factor VIII-related antigen. @*Results@#The 11 patients included 9 females (81.8%) and 2 males (18.2%) with mean age of 43.5 ± 13.6 years. Preoperative imaging resulted in a preliminary diagnosis of suspected liver metastasis or EHE, with 9 patients (81.8%) undergoing liver biopsy. No patient presented with abnormally elevated concentrations of liver tumor markers. The extents of HR were determined by tumor size and location from trisectionectomy to partial hepatectomy. All patients recovered uneventfully from HR. Five patients showed tumor recurrence, with 4 receiving locoregional treatments for recurrent lesions. The 1-, 3-and 5-year disease-free survival rates were 90.9%, 54.5%, and 54.5%, respectively. Currently, all patients remain alive and are doing well. Univariate analysis on tumor recurrence showed that tumor size ≥ 4 cm was significantly associated with tumor recurrence (P = 0.032), but tumor number ≥ 4 was not related to (P = 0.24). @*Conclusion@#Hepatic EHE is a rare form of primary liver tumor often misdiagnosed as a metastatic tumor. Because of its malignant potential, HR is indicated if possible. HR plus, when necessary, treatment of recurrence yields favorable overall survival rates in patients with hepatic EHE.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903113

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Despite aggressive medical and nutritional management, patients with methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) often suffer from multi-organ damage. Early deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) has emerged as an intervention to prevent disease progression. We investigated the efficacy of living donor LT (LDLT) with a potential carrier of MMA and a small volume of graft in patients with MMA as an alternative to DDLT. @*Methods@#Of five patients (three male, two female; median age 5.7 years; range, 1.3–13.7 years), four underwent carrier LDLT, while one underwent non-carrier auxiliary LDLT. All patients received pre- and post-LT continuous renal replacement therapy and were provided with minimal restriction diet according to serum MMA level after LT. MMA levels in the serum and urine, the incidence of metabolic crisis, and clinical findings before and after LT were compared. @*Results@#The survival rate was 100% during 2.2 years of follow up period after LT. In all five cases, MMA titer in the serum after transplantation decreased with less restrictive diet. Metabolic crisis was not observed during the follow-up period. In addition, no patient showed progression of severe renal impairment requiring hemodialysis. Progression of delayed cognitive development was not observed. Social functioning with improved neuropsychiatric development was observed. @*Conclusion@#This study showed that LDLT achieved improved quality of life with less restrictive diet, therefore it could be a feasible alternative option to DDLT for the treatment of patients with MMA, even with an auxiliary LT.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899924

ABSTRACT

Background@#Cholecystitis is an important risk factor for gallbladder cancer, but the bile microbiome and its association with gallbladder disease has not been investigated fully.We aimed to analyze the bile microbiome in normal conditions, chronic cholecystitis, and gallbladder cancer, and to identify candidate bacteria that play an important role in gallbladder carcinogenesis. @*Methods@#We performed metagenome sequencing on bile samples of 10 healthy individuals, 10 patients with chronic cholecystitis, and 5 patients with gallbladder cancer, and compared the clinical, radiological, and pathological characteristics of the participants. @*Results@#No significant bacterial signal was identified in the normal bile. The predominant dysbiotic bacteria in both chronic cholecystitis and gallbladder cancer were those belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. Klebsiella increased significantly in the order of normal, chronic cholecystitis, and gallbladder cancer. Patients with chronic cholecystitis and dysbiotic microbiome patterns had larger gallstones and showed marked epithelial atypia, which are considered as precancerous conditions. @*Conclusion@#We investigated the bile microbiome in normal, chronic cholecystitis, and gallbladder cancer. We suggest possible roles of Enterobacteriaceae, including Klebsiella, in gallbladder carcinogenesis. Our findings reveal a possible link between a dysbiotic bile microbiome and the development of chronic calculous cholecystitis and gallbladder cancer.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896997

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#When splitting a liver for adult and pediatric graft recipients, the retained left medial section (S4) will undergo ischemic necrosis and the right trisection graft becomes an extended right liver (ERL) graft. We investigated the fates of the retained S4 and its prognostic impact in adult split liver transplantation (SLT) using an ERL graft. @*Methods@#This was a retrospective analysis of 25 adult SLT recipients who received split ERL grafts. @*Results@#The mean model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score was 27.3 ± 10.9 and graft-recipient weight ratio (GRWR) was 1.98 ± 0.44. The mean donor age was 26.5 ± 7.7 years. The split ERL graft weight was 1,181.5 ± 252.8 g, which resulted in a mean GRWR of 1.98 ± 0.44. Computed tomography of the retained S4 parenchyma revealed small ischemic necrosis in 16 patients (64.0%) and large ischemic necrosis in the remaining 9 patients (36.0%). No S4-associated biliary complications were developed. The mean GRWR was 1.87 ± 0.43 in the 9 patients with large ischemic necrosis and 2.10 ± 0.44 in the 15 cases with small ischemic necrosis (P = 0.283). The retained S4 parenchyma showed gradual atrophy on follow-up imaging studies. The amount of S4 ischemic necrosis was not associated with graft (P = 0.592) or patient (P = 0.243) survival. A MELD score of >30 and pretransplant ventilator support were associated with inferior outcomes. @*Conclusion@#The amount of S4 ischemic necrosis is not a prognostic factor in adult SLT recipients, probably due to a sufficiently large GRWR.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895409

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Despite aggressive medical and nutritional management, patients with methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) often suffer from multi-organ damage. Early deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) has emerged as an intervention to prevent disease progression. We investigated the efficacy of living donor LT (LDLT) with a potential carrier of MMA and a small volume of graft in patients with MMA as an alternative to DDLT. @*Methods@#Of five patients (three male, two female; median age 5.7 years; range, 1.3–13.7 years), four underwent carrier LDLT, while one underwent non-carrier auxiliary LDLT. All patients received pre- and post-LT continuous renal replacement therapy and were provided with minimal restriction diet according to serum MMA level after LT. MMA levels in the serum and urine, the incidence of metabolic crisis, and clinical findings before and after LT were compared. @*Results@#The survival rate was 100% during 2.2 years of follow up period after LT. In all five cases, MMA titer in the serum after transplantation decreased with less restrictive diet. Metabolic crisis was not observed during the follow-up period. In addition, no patient showed progression of severe renal impairment requiring hemodialysis. Progression of delayed cognitive development was not observed. Social functioning with improved neuropsychiatric development was observed. @*Conclusion@#This study showed that LDLT achieved improved quality of life with less restrictive diet, therefore it could be a feasible alternative option to DDLT for the treatment of patients with MMA, even with an auxiliary LT.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892220

ABSTRACT

Background@#Cholecystitis is an important risk factor for gallbladder cancer, but the bile microbiome and its association with gallbladder disease has not been investigated fully.We aimed to analyze the bile microbiome in normal conditions, chronic cholecystitis, and gallbladder cancer, and to identify candidate bacteria that play an important role in gallbladder carcinogenesis. @*Methods@#We performed metagenome sequencing on bile samples of 10 healthy individuals, 10 patients with chronic cholecystitis, and 5 patients with gallbladder cancer, and compared the clinical, radiological, and pathological characteristics of the participants. @*Results@#No significant bacterial signal was identified in the normal bile. The predominant dysbiotic bacteria in both chronic cholecystitis and gallbladder cancer were those belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. Klebsiella increased significantly in the order of normal, chronic cholecystitis, and gallbladder cancer. Patients with chronic cholecystitis and dysbiotic microbiome patterns had larger gallstones and showed marked epithelial atypia, which are considered as precancerous conditions. @*Conclusion@#We investigated the bile microbiome in normal, chronic cholecystitis, and gallbladder cancer. We suggest possible roles of Enterobacteriaceae, including Klebsiella, in gallbladder carcinogenesis. Our findings reveal a possible link between a dysbiotic bile microbiome and the development of chronic calculous cholecystitis and gallbladder cancer.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889293

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#When splitting a liver for adult and pediatric graft recipients, the retained left medial section (S4) will undergo ischemic necrosis and the right trisection graft becomes an extended right liver (ERL) graft. We investigated the fates of the retained S4 and its prognostic impact in adult split liver transplantation (SLT) using an ERL graft. @*Methods@#This was a retrospective analysis of 25 adult SLT recipients who received split ERL grafts. @*Results@#The mean model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score was 27.3 ± 10.9 and graft-recipient weight ratio (GRWR) was 1.98 ± 0.44. The mean donor age was 26.5 ± 7.7 years. The split ERL graft weight was 1,181.5 ± 252.8 g, which resulted in a mean GRWR of 1.98 ± 0.44. Computed tomography of the retained S4 parenchyma revealed small ischemic necrosis in 16 patients (64.0%) and large ischemic necrosis in the remaining 9 patients (36.0%). No S4-associated biliary complications were developed. The mean GRWR was 1.87 ± 0.43 in the 9 patients with large ischemic necrosis and 2.10 ± 0.44 in the 15 cases with small ischemic necrosis (P = 0.283). The retained S4 parenchyma showed gradual atrophy on follow-up imaging studies. The amount of S4 ischemic necrosis was not associated with graft (P = 0.592) or patient (P = 0.243) survival. A MELD score of >30 and pretransplant ventilator support were associated with inferior outcomes. @*Conclusion@#The amount of S4 ischemic necrosis is not a prognostic factor in adult SLT recipients, probably due to a sufficiently large GRWR.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785430

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a fatal complication in patients with end-stage liver disease awaiting liver transplantation (LT). HRS often develops in patients with high model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score. This study investigated the outcomes of peritransplant management of HRS in a high-volume LT center in Korea for 2 years.METHODS: A total of 157 recipients that deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) from January 2017 to December 2018 were included. In-hospital mortality (IHM) was analyzed in relation to pre- and posttransplant application of renal replacement therapy (RRT).RESULTS: Primary diagnoses for DDLT were alcoholic liver disease (n = 61), HBV-associated liver cirrhosis (n = 48), retransplantation for chronic graft failure (n = 24), and others (n = 24). Mean MELD score was 34.6 ± 6.2 with 72 patients at Korean Network for Organ Sharing MELD status 2 (45.9%), 43 at status 3 (27.4%), 36 at status 4 (22.9%), and 6 at status 5 (3.8%). Pretransplant RRT was performed in 16 patients (10.2%) that did not show IHM. Posttransplant RRT was performed in 69 patients (44.0%), for whom IHM incidence was 15.9%. In 53 patients that had undergone de novo posttransplant RRT, IHM incidence increased to 20.8%. IHM in the 88 patients not requiring RRT was 2.3%.CONCLUSION: The majority of adult DDLT recipients in Korean MELD score-based allocation system have very high MELD scores, which is often associated with HRS. Pretransplant RRT appears to improve posttransplant survival outcomes. We thereby recommend that, if indicated, pretransplant RRT be performed while awaiting DDLT.


Subject(s)
Adult , Diagnosis , Hepatorenal Syndrome , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Diseases , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic , Liver Transplantation , Liver , Renal Dialysis , Renal Replacement Therapy , Tissue Donors , Transplants
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810941

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence and development of de novo malignancy (DNM) after liver transplantation (LT) are the major causes of late recipient death.METHODS: We analyzed the incidence of extrahepatic DNM following living donor LT according to the status of pretransplant hepatic malignancy. We selected 2,076 adult patients who underwent primary LDLT during 7 years from January 2010 to December 2016.RESULTS: The pretransplant hepatic malignancy group (n = 1,012) showed 45 cases (4.4%) of the following extrahepatic DNMs: posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) in 10; lung cancer in 10; stomach cancer in 6; colorectal cancer in 5; urinary bladder cancer in 3; and other cancers in 11. The pretransplant no hepatic malignancy group (n = 1,064) showed 25 cases (2.3%) of the following extrahepatic DNMs: colorectal cancer in 3; stomach cancer in 3; leukemia in 3; lung cancer in 3; PTLD in 2; prostate cancer in 2; and other cancers in 9. Incidences of extrahepatic DNM in the pretransplant hepatic malignancy and no hepatic malignancy groups were as follows: 1.1% and 0.5% at 1 year, 3.2% and 2.0% at 3 years, 4.6% and 2.5% at 5 years, and 5.4% and 2.8% at 8 years, respectively (P = 0.006). Their overall patient survival rates were as follows: 97.3% and 97.2% at 1 year, 91.6% and 95.9% at 3 years, 89.8% and 95.4% at 5 years, and 89.2% and 95.4% at 8 years, respectively (P < 0.001). Pretransplant hepatic malignancy was the only significant risk factor for posttransplant extrahepatic DNM.CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that patients who had pretransplant hepatic malignancy be followed up more strictly because they have a potential risk of primary hepatic malignancy recurrence as well as a higher risk of extrahepatic DNM than patients without pretransplant hepatic malignancy.

13.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831739

ABSTRACT

Background@#Split liver transplantation (SLT) has been occasionally performed in Korea. This study compared the incidence and prognosis of SLT with whole liver transplantation (WLT) in adult patients. @*Methods@#Between June 2016 and November 2019, 242 adult patients underwent a total of 256 deceased donor liver transplantation operations. SLT was performed in 7 patients (2.9%). @*Results@#The mean age of SLT donors was 29.7 ± 7.4 years, and the mean age of recipients was 55.7 ± 10.6 years, with the latter having a mean model for end-stage liver disease score of 34.6 ± 3.1. Mean split right liver graft weight was 1,228.6 ± 149.7 g and mean graft-recipient weight ratio was 1.97 ± 0.39. Of the seven SLT recipients, Korean Network for Organ Sharing (KONOS) status was one in status 1, one in status 2 and five in status 3. The graft (p = 0.72) and patient (p = 0.84) survival rates were comparable in the SLT and WLT groups. Following propensity score matching, graft (p = 0.61) and patient (p = 0.91) survival rates remained comparable in the two groups. Univariate analysis showed that pretransplant ventilator support and renal replacement therapy were significantly associated with patient survival, whereas KONOS status category and primary liver diseases were not. Multivariate analysis showed that pretransplant ventilator support was an independent risk factor for patient survival. @*Conclusion@#Survival outcomes were similar in adult SLT and WLT recipients, probably due to selection of high-quality grafts and low-risk recipients. Prudent selection of donors and adult recipients for SLT may expand the liver graft pool for pediatric patients without affecting outcomes in adults undergoing SLT.

14.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830542

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#A cryopreserved iliac artery homograft (IAH) has not been considered suitable for middle hepatic vein (MHV) reconstruction during living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), primarily due to the low patency from its small diameter. We revised our surgical techniques for MHV reconstruction using an IAH to improve its patency. @*Methods@#This study analyzed the causes of early conduit occlusion and developed revised techniques to address this that had clinical application. @*Results@#The potential risk factors for early conduit occlusion were the small IAH size, small graft in the segment V vein (V5) and segment VIII vein (V8) opening, and small recipient MHV-left hepatic vein stump. These factors were reflected to our revised surgical methods which included endarterectomy of the atherosclerotic plaque, unification of the internal and external iliac artery branches for large V5, and branch-patch arterioplasty for large V8. IAH endarterectomy, branch unification technique, and branch-patch arterioplasty were applied to 8, 5, and 5 patients, respectively and resulted in 1-month occlusion rates of 37.5%, 20.0%, and 40.0%, respectively. The overall patency rates of the IAH-MHV conduits in our 18 patients were 66.7% at 1 month, 38.9% at 3 months, and 33.3% at 1 year. @*Conclusion@#Our refined MHV reconstruction using an IAH improved short-term MHV conduit patency, but did not effectively prevent early conduit occlusion, particularly with a small- or medium-sized IAH. Individualized reconstruction designs during LDLT operation are needed when an IAH is used for a modified right liver graft.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899814

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence and development of de novo malignancy (DNM) after liver transplantation (LT) are the major causes of late recipient death.@*METHODS@#We analyzed the incidence of extrahepatic DNM following living donor LT according to the status of pretransplant hepatic malignancy. We selected 2,076 adult patients who underwent primary LDLT during 7 years from January 2010 to December 2016.@*RESULTS@#The pretransplant hepatic malignancy group (n = 1,012) showed 45 cases (4.4%) of the following extrahepatic DNMs: posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) in 10; lung cancer in 10; stomach cancer in 6; colorectal cancer in 5; urinary bladder cancer in 3; and other cancers in 11. The pretransplant no hepatic malignancy group (n = 1,064) showed 25 cases (2.3%) of the following extrahepatic DNMs: colorectal cancer in 3; stomach cancer in 3; leukemia in 3; lung cancer in 3; PTLD in 2; prostate cancer in 2; and other cancers in 9. Incidences of extrahepatic DNM in the pretransplant hepatic malignancy and no hepatic malignancy groups were as follows: 1.1% and 0.5% at 1 year, 3.2% and 2.0% at 3 years, 4.6% and 2.5% at 5 years, and 5.4% and 2.8% at 8 years, respectively (P = 0.006). Their overall patient survival rates were as follows: 97.3% and 97.2% at 1 year, 91.6% and 95.9% at 3 years, 89.8% and 95.4% at 5 years, and 89.2% and 95.4% at 8 years, respectively (P < 0.001). Pretransplant hepatic malignancy was the only significant risk factor for posttransplant extrahepatic DNM.@*CONCLUSION@#Our results suggest that patients who had pretransplant hepatic malignancy be followed up more strictly because they have a potential risk of primary hepatic malignancy recurrence as well as a higher risk of extrahepatic DNM than patients without pretransplant hepatic malignancy.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892110

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence and development of de novo malignancy (DNM) after liver transplantation (LT) are the major causes of late recipient death.@*METHODS@#We analyzed the incidence of extrahepatic DNM following living donor LT according to the status of pretransplant hepatic malignancy. We selected 2,076 adult patients who underwent primary LDLT during 7 years from January 2010 to December 2016.@*RESULTS@#The pretransplant hepatic malignancy group (n = 1,012) showed 45 cases (4.4%) of the following extrahepatic DNMs: posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) in 10; lung cancer in 10; stomach cancer in 6; colorectal cancer in 5; urinary bladder cancer in 3; and other cancers in 11. The pretransplant no hepatic malignancy group (n = 1,064) showed 25 cases (2.3%) of the following extrahepatic DNMs: colorectal cancer in 3; stomach cancer in 3; leukemia in 3; lung cancer in 3; PTLD in 2; prostate cancer in 2; and other cancers in 9. Incidences of extrahepatic DNM in the pretransplant hepatic malignancy and no hepatic malignancy groups were as follows: 1.1% and 0.5% at 1 year, 3.2% and 2.0% at 3 years, 4.6% and 2.5% at 5 years, and 5.4% and 2.8% at 8 years, respectively (P = 0.006). Their overall patient survival rates were as follows: 97.3% and 97.2% at 1 year, 91.6% and 95.9% at 3 years, 89.8% and 95.4% at 5 years, and 89.2% and 95.4% at 8 years, respectively (P < 0.001). Pretransplant hepatic malignancy was the only significant risk factor for posttransplant extrahepatic DNM.@*CONCLUSION@#Our results suggest that patients who had pretransplant hepatic malignancy be followed up more strictly because they have a potential risk of primary hepatic malignancy recurrence as well as a higher risk of extrahepatic DNM than patients without pretransplant hepatic malignancy.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765083

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prophylaxis for hepatitis B virus (HBV) recurrence is essential after liver transplantation (LT) in HBV-associated recipients. This study established an individualized HBV prophylaxis protocol, through optimization of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) administration, with application of simulative half-life (SHL). METHODS: This study involved five parts: Part 1 developed the SHL estimation method with 20 patients; Parts 2 and 3 assessed the SHL variability and developed a simulation model to apply SHL in 100 patients; Part 4 validated the simulation model in 114 patients, and Part 5 was a cross-sectional study on the current status of HBIG infusion intervals in 660 patients. RESULTS: In Part 1, infusion of 10,000 IU HBIG induced add-on rise hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) titer of 5,252.5 ± 873.7 IU/L, which was 4.4% lower than actual measurement. Mean SHL of 20.0 ± 3.7 days was 2.2% longer than actual measurement. In Part 2, the medians of the intra- and inter-individual coefficient of variation in SHL were 13.5% and 18.5%, respectively. Pretransplant HBV DNA load and posttransplant antiviral therapy did not affect SHL. In Part 3, a simulation model was developed to determine the interval of HBIG infusion, by using SHL. In Part 4, all 114 patients were successfully managed with regular HBIG infusion intervals of ≥ 8 weeks, and the interval was prolonged to ≥ 12 weeks in 89.4%, with a target trough anti-HBs titer ≥ 200 IU/L. In Part 5, 47.4% of our patients received HBIG excessively, at a target trough titer of 500 IU/L. CONCLUSION: SHL estimation using only clinically available parameters seems to be reliably accurate when compared with actual measurements. We believe that SHL estimation is helpful to establish a personalized HBV prophylaxis protocol for optimizing HBIG administration.


Subject(s)
Cross-Sectional Studies , DNA , Half-Life , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis , Humans , Immunoglobulins , Liver Transplantation , Methods , Recurrence
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919097

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#Although the association between intrapulmonary shunt (IPS) and liver cirrhosis is clear, data of repeated contrast echocardiography (CE) before and after liver transplantation (LT) to evaluate factors associated with IPS are limited.@*METHODS@#Hand-agitated saline was used for CE and, by assessing left-chamber opacification, IPS was classified as grade 0 to 4. Grade 3/4 constituted significant IPS and hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) was defined as significant IPS with the arterial partial pressure of oxygen < 70 mmHg.@*RESULTS@#Before LT, 253 patients underwent CE and the frequency of significant IPS and HPS were 44% (n = 112) and 7% (n = 17), respectively. Child-Pugh score (odds ratio [OR], 1.345; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.090 to 1.660; p = 0.006) and arterial oxygen content (OR, 0.838; 95% CI, 0.708 to 0.991; p = 0.039) were independent determinants of significant IPS, whereas direct bilirubin (OR, 1.076; 95% CI, 1.012 to 1.144; p = 0.019) was the only variable associated with HPS. Among 153 patients who underwent successful LT, repeated CE was performed in 97 (63%), which showed significant reductions in IPS grade (from 2.6 ± 1.0 to 1.2 ± 1.3, p < 0.001) and the prevalence of significant IPS (from 56% to 20%, p = 0.038). After adjustment for pre-LT IPS grade, time from LT to repeated CE presented negative linear relationship with post-LT IPS grade (r2 = 0.366, p < 0.001) and was the only determinant of post-LT IPS grade (OR, 1.009; 95% CI, 1.003 to 1.014; p = 0.004).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Repeated CE is useful to evaluate intrapulmonary vascular change before and after LT. Reversal of IPS after successful LT is time-dependent and follow-up duration should be considered for accurate assessment of IPS after LT.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741418

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) could be improved with modified criteria to diagnose significant hepatic artery occlusion (HAO) and to determine the role of CEUS in patients with a tardus-parvus hepatic artery (HA) pattern on Doppler US. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among 2679 adult liver transplantations performed over 7 years, HAO was suspected in 288 recipients, based on Doppler ultrasound. Among them, 130 patients underwent CEUS. After excluding two technical failures, 128 CEUS images were retrospectively reviewed to search for abnormal findings, such as no HA enhancement, abnormal HA enhancement (delayed, faint, and discontinuous enhancement), and perfusion defect in the liver parenchyma. The performance CEUS abnormalities were assessed in the patients overall and in subgroups based on Doppler ultrasound abnormality (group A, no flow; group B, tardus-parvus pattern) and were compared based on the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). RESULTS: HAO were diagnosed in 41 patients by surgery, angiography, or follow-up abnormality. By using the conventional criterion (no HA enhancement) to diagnose HAO in patients overall, the sensitivity, specificity, and AUC were 58.5%, 100%, and 0.793, respectively. Modified criteria for HAO (no HA enhancement, abnormal enhancement, or parenchymal perfusion defect) showed statistically significantly increased sensitivity (97.6%, 40/41) and AUC (0.959) (p < 0.001), although the specificity (95.4%, 83/87) was slightly decreased. The sensitivity and specificity of the modified criteria in Groups A and B were 97.1% (33/34) and 95.7% (22/23), and 100% (7/7) and 95.3% (61/64), respectively. CONCLUSION: Modified criteria could improve diagnostic performance of CEUS for HAO, particularly by increasing sensitivity. CEUS could be useful for diagnosing HAO even in patients with a tardus-parvus HA pattern on Doppler US, using modified criteria.


Subject(s)
Adult , Angiography , Area Under Curve , Contrast Media , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Hepatic Artery , Humans , Liver Transplantation , Liver , Perfusion , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Ultrasonography
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719206

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: OncoHepa test is a multigene expression profile test developed for assessment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prognosis. Multiplication of α-FP, des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) and tumor volume (TV) gives the α-FP-DCP-volume (ADV) score, which is also developed for assessment of HCC prognosis. METHODS: The predictive powers of OncoHepa test and ADV score were validated in 35 patients who underwent curative hepatic resection for naïve solitary HCCs ≤5 cm. RESULTS: Median tumor diameter was 3.0 cm. Tumor recurrence and patient survival rates were 28.6% and 100% at 1 year, 48.6% and 82.9% at 3 years, and 54.3% and 71.4% at 5 years, respectively. The site of first tumor recurrence was the remnant liver in 18, lung in 1, and the peritoneum in 1. All patients with HCC recurrence received locoregional treatment. OncoHepa test showed marginal prognostic significance for tumor recurrence and patient survival. ADV score at 4log also showed marginal prognostic difference with respect to tumor recurrence and patient survival. Combination of these 2 tests resulted in greater prognostic significance for both tumor recurrence (P = 0.046) and patient survival (P = 0.048). CONCLUSION: Both OncoHepa test and ADV score have considerably strong prognostic power, thus individual and combined findings of OncoHepa test and ADV score will be helpful to guide postresection surveillance in patients with solitary HCCs ≤5 cm.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Humans , Liver , Lung , Peritoneum , Prognosis , Prothrombin , Recurrence , Survival Rate , Tumor Burden
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