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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e139-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976961

ABSTRACT

Background@#A fourth dose of vaccination is known to help reduce the severity and mortality rate of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The South Korean vaccination guidelines for the fourth dose do not include healthcare workers (HCWs) as priority candidates. We investigated the necessity of the fourth dose in South Korean HCWs based on an 8-month follow-up period after the third vaccination. @*Methods@#Changes in the surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT) inhibition (%) score were measured at one month, four months and eight months after the third vaccination. The sVNT values were analyzed between infected and uninfected groups, and their trajectories were compared. @*Results@#A total of 43 HCWs were enrolled in this study. In total, 28 cases (65.1%) were confirmed to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 (presumed omicron variant), and all had mild symptoms. Meanwhile, 22 cases (78.6%) were infected within four months of the third dose (median, 97.5 days). Eight months after the third dose, the SARS-CoV-2 (presumed omicron variant)-infected group showed significantly higher sVNT inhibition than that in the uninfected group (91.3% vs. 30.7%; P < 0.001). The antibody response due to hybrid immunity, provided by a combination of infection and vaccination, was maintained at sufficient levels for more than four months. @*Conclusion@#For HCWs who had coronavirus disease 2019 infection after completing a third vaccination, a sufficient antibody response was maintained until eight months after the third dose. The recommendation of the fourth dose may not be prioritized in subjects with hybrid immunity.

2.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e281-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001232

ABSTRACT

Background@#Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) was not actively performed in elderly acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome patients who are at a high-risk based on hematopoietic cell transplantation-specific comorbidity index (HCT-CI). The advent of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens has made HSCT applicable in this population. However, the selection of appropriate conditioning is a major concern for the attending physician. The benefits of combination of treosulfan and fludarabine (Treo/Flu) have been confirmed through many clinical studies. Korean data on treosulfan-based conditioning regimen are scarce. @*Methods@#A retrospective study was conducted to compare the clinical outcomes of allogeneic HSCT using RIC between 13 patients receiving Treo/Flu and 39 receiving busulfan/ fludarabine (Bu/Flu). @*Results@#In terms of conditioning-related complications, the frequency of ≥ grade 2 nausea or vomiting was significantly lower and the duration of symptoms was shorter in the Treo/ Flu group than in the Bu/Flu group. The incidence of ≥ grade 2 mucositis tended to be lower in the Treo/Flu group. In the analysis of transplant outcomes, all events of acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) and ≥ grade 2 acute GVHD occurred more frequently in the Treo/ Flu group. The frequency of Epstein-Barr virus reactivation was significantly higher in the Treo/Flu group (53.8% vs. 23.1%, P = 0.037). Non-relapse mortality (NRM) at 12 months was higher in the Treo/Flu group (30.8% vs. 7.7%, P = 0.035). Significant prognostic factors included disease type, especially secondary AML, disease status and high-risk based on HCT-CI, ≥ grade 2 acute GVHD, and cases requiring ≥ 2 immunosuppressive drugs for treating acute GVHD. In the comparison of survival outcomes according to conditioning regimen, the Bu/Flu group seemed to show better results than the Treo/Flu group (60% vs.46.2%, P = 0.092 for overall survival; 56.4% vs. 38.5%, P = 0.193 for relapse-free survival). In additional analysis for only HCT-CI high-risk groups, there was no difference in transplant outcomes except that the Treo/Flu group tended to have a higher NRM within one year after transplantation. Survival outcomes of both groups were similar. @*Conclusion@#This study suggests that Treo/Flu conditioning may be an alternative to Bu/Flu regimen in elderly patients with high-risk who are not suitable for standard conditioning.

3.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 476-486, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000913

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The optimal tumor mutational burden (TMB) value for predicting treatment response to programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) checkpoint inhibitors in advanced gastric cancer (AGC) remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the optimal TMB cutoff value that could predict the efficacy of PD-1 checkpoint inhibitors in AGC. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients with AGC who received pembrolizumab or nivolumab between October 1, 2020, and July 27, 2021, at Samsung Medical Center in Korea were retrospectively analyzed. The TMB levels were measured using a next-generation sequencing assay. Based on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the TMB cutoff value was determined. @*Results@#A total 53 patients were analyzed. The TMB cutoff value for predicting the overall response rate (ORR) to PD-1 checkpoint inhibitors was defined as 13.31 mutations per megabase (mt/Mb) with 56% sensitivity and 95% specificity. Based on this definition, 7 (13.2%) patients were TMB-high (TMB-H). The ORR differed between the TMB-low (TMB-L) and TMB-H (8.7% vs. 71.4%, P=0.001). The progression-free survival and overall survival (OS) for 53 patients were 1.93 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.600–2.268) and 4.26 months (95% CI, 2.992–5.532). The median OS was longer in the TMB-H (20.8 months; 95% CI, 2.292–39.281) than in the TMB-L (3.31 months; 95% CI, 1.604–5.019; P=0.049). @*Conclusions@#The TMB cutoff value for predicting treatment response in AGC patients who received PD-1 checkpoint inhibitor monotherapy as salvage treatment was 13.31 mt/Mb.When applying the programmed death ligand-1 status to TMB-H, patients who would benefit from PD-1 checkpoint inhibitors can be selected.

4.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 123-132, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968873

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study is to share our outcomes and experiences on allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in elderly patients aged 60 years and older with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in South Korea, and to compare them with other studies. @*Materials and Methods@#We analyzed the clinical outcomes of 116 patients with AML or MDS aged 60 years and older who underwent allogeneic HSCT. We also analyzed which pretreatment factors affect the overall survival (OS) after allogeneic HSCT. @*Results@#Neutrophil and platelet engraftment were achieved at median day +11 [interquartile range (IQR) 10–15] and +14 (IQR 11–19), respectively. A complete donor chimerism was confirmed in 65 (56.0%) patients at 3 weeks and in 63 (54.3%) patients at 3 months after HSCT. The estimated incidence of grade II–IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) at day 100 was 13.7%. The estimated incidence of chronic GVHD at 2 years was 38.8%. Within a median follow-up of 14 months after HSCT, OS was 64% at 1 year and 55% at 2 years, and non-relapse mortality (NRM) was 20% at 1 year and 28% at 2 years. Multivariate analysis revealed that male sex and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-Specific Comorbidity Index ≥3 were associated with poor OS. @*Conclusion@#This study showed that allogeneic HSCT in elderly adults aged 60 and older can be performed with successful engraftment and acceptable NRM and OS are expected given the generally known survival of patients with higher risk MDS and poor risk AML.

5.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e103-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967391

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although the primary vaccine coverage rate for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in South Korea has exceeded 80%, the coronavirus continues to spread, with reports of a rapid decline in vaccine effectiveness. South Korea is administering booster shots despite concerns about the effectiveness of the existing vaccine. @*Methods@#Neutralizing antibody inhibition scores were evaluated in two cohorts after the booster dose. For the first cohort, neutralizing activity against the wild-type, delta, and omicron variants after the booster dose was evaluated. For the second cohort, we assessed the difference in neutralizing activity between the omicron infected and uninfected groups after booster vaccination. We also compared the effectiveness and adverse events (AEs) between homologous and heterologous booster doses for BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 vaccines. @*Results@#A total of 105 healthcare workers (HCWs) that were additionally vaccinated with BNT162b2 at Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital were enrolled in this study.Significantly higher surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT) inhibition (%) was observed for the wild-type and delta variants compared to sVNT (%) for the omicron after the booster dose (97%, 98% vs. 75%; P < 0.001). No significant difference in the neutralizing antibody inhibition score was found between variants in the BNT/BNT/BNT group (n = 48) and the ChA/ChA/BNT group (n = 57). Total AEs were not significantly different between the ChA/ ChA/BNT group (85.96%) and the BNT/BNT group (95.83%; P = 0.11). In the second cohort with 58 HCWs, markedly higher sVNT inhibition to omicron was observed in the omicroninfected group (95.13%) compared to the uninfected group (mean of 48.44%; P < 0.001) after four months of the booster dose. In 41 HCWs (39.0%) infected with the omicron variant, no difference in immunogenicity, AEs, or effectiveness between homogeneous and heterogeneous boosters was observed. @*Conclusion@#Booster vaccination with BNT162b2 was significantly less effective for the neutralizing antibody responses to omicron variant compared to the wild-type or delta variant in healthy population. Humoral immunogenicity was sustained significantly high after 4 months of booster vaccine in the infected population after booster vaccination.Further studies are needed to understand the characteristics of immunogenicity in these populations.

6.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : S217-S224, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875516

ABSTRACT

Clinical trials have not consistently supported the use of induction chemotherapy (IC) for locally advanced head and neck squamous cell cancer. Hypopharynx and base of tongue (BOT) cancer has shown relatively poor survival. We investigated the role of IC in improving outcome over current chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with hypopharynx and BOT cancer. Methods: Treatment-naïve patients with stage III/IV (M0) hypopharynx or BOT cancer were randomly assigned to receive CRT alone (CRT arm: cisplatin 100 mg/m2 on D1 3-weekly, two times plus radiotherapy 68.4 Gy/30 fractions on weekdays) versus two 21-day cycles of IC with TPF (docetaxel & cisplatin 75 mg/m2 on D1, and fluorouracil 75 mg/m2 on D1-4) followed by the same CRT regimen (IC arm). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Results: This study closed early after enrollment of 36 patients (19 in the CRT arm, 17 in the IC arm). After a median follow-up of 47.2 months, there was no significant difference in PFS: the median PFS was 26.8 months for the CRT arm and was not reached for the IC arm (p = 0.13). However, the survival curves were widely separated with a plateau after 3 years, suggesting a potential survival benefit from IC: 3-year PFS rates were 45% and 68%, and 3-year overall survival rates were 56% and 86%, in the CRT and IC arms, respectively. Conclusions: This study failed to demonstrate that induction TPF chemotherapy improves survival in patients with BOT and hypopharynx cancer. However, it suggested a favorable outcome with IC to this population.

7.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 671-678, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904233

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Erlotinib has been the only targeted agent to show significantly improved outcomes in pancreatic adenocarcinoma when combined with gemcitabine. We aimed to evaluate whether the addition of oxaliplatin to a combination gemcitabine/erlotinib treatment conferred a clinical benefit in patients with locally advanced unresectable or metastatic pancreatic cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#Chemotherapy-naïve patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer were randomly assigned to receive GEMOX-T [gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 and oxaliplatin 50 mg/m2 on day 1 (D1) and D8 plus erlotinib 100 mg daily for 3 weeks] or GT (gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 on D1 and D8 plus erlotinib 100 mg daily for 3 weeks). The primary endpoint was the overall response rate (ORR). @*Results@#Between 2013 and 2016, 65 patients were assigned to a treatment group (33 in the GEMOX-T arm, 32 in the GT arm). The ORR was 18.2% [95% confidence interval (CI), 8.82–27.58] in the GEMOX-T arm and 6.2% (95% CI, 0.34–12.06) in the GT arm (p=0.051). The disease control rate was significantly superior in the GEMOX-T arm compared to the GT arm (72.7% vs. 43.8%, p=0.019). After a median follow-up of 19.7 months, the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 3.9 months for the GEMOX-T arm and 1.4 months for the GT arm (p=0.033). However, this did not translate to an improvement in overall survival. The most common grade 3 or higher hematologic adverse events were neutropenia (16.9%) and anemia (13.8%). @*Conclusion@#The addition of oxaliplatin to a first-line gemcitabine/erlotinib regimen demonstrated higher response rates and significantly improved PFS in patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer.

8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 671-678, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896529

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Erlotinib has been the only targeted agent to show significantly improved outcomes in pancreatic adenocarcinoma when combined with gemcitabine. We aimed to evaluate whether the addition of oxaliplatin to a combination gemcitabine/erlotinib treatment conferred a clinical benefit in patients with locally advanced unresectable or metastatic pancreatic cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#Chemotherapy-naïve patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer were randomly assigned to receive GEMOX-T [gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 and oxaliplatin 50 mg/m2 on day 1 (D1) and D8 plus erlotinib 100 mg daily for 3 weeks] or GT (gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 on D1 and D8 plus erlotinib 100 mg daily for 3 weeks). The primary endpoint was the overall response rate (ORR). @*Results@#Between 2013 and 2016, 65 patients were assigned to a treatment group (33 in the GEMOX-T arm, 32 in the GT arm). The ORR was 18.2% [95% confidence interval (CI), 8.82–27.58] in the GEMOX-T arm and 6.2% (95% CI, 0.34–12.06) in the GT arm (p=0.051). The disease control rate was significantly superior in the GEMOX-T arm compared to the GT arm (72.7% vs. 43.8%, p=0.019). After a median follow-up of 19.7 months, the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 3.9 months for the GEMOX-T arm and 1.4 months for the GT arm (p=0.033). However, this did not translate to an improvement in overall survival. The most common grade 3 or higher hematologic adverse events were neutropenia (16.9%) and anemia (13.8%). @*Conclusion@#The addition of oxaliplatin to a first-line gemcitabine/erlotinib regimen demonstrated higher response rates and significantly improved PFS in patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer.

9.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 957-969, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831793

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Immune reconstitution following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is affected by multiple variables during the transplantation. @*Methods@#We assessed the clinical factors contributing to immune function reconstitution at 100 days post-allogeneic HSCT in 114 patients receiving fludarabine-based conditioning. Immunophenotypic analysis using flow cytometry was performed to evaluate the percentage and the absolute numbers of T-cell subsets, natural killer cells, and B-cells as clinical outcomes. @*Results@#Tacrolimus-based graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, T-cell depletion, and acute GVHD were significantly associated with delayed immune reconstitution of T-cell subsets. The incidence of chronic GVHD was significantly increased in the normal recovery group compared to the abnormal group (p = 0.01). Epstein-Barr virus reactivation was more frequently observed in the abnormal group of T-cell subsets (p = 0.045). All viral reactivation events including cytomegalovirus reactivation appeared to be more frequent in the abnormal group of T-cell subsets. @*Conclusions@#The immune recovery status post-allogeneic HSCT was affected by GVHD prophylactic regimens, especially in cases receiving tacrolimus-based GVHD prophylaxis, T-cell depletion, and possibly those manifesting acute GVHD. Delayed immune reconstitution might increase the morbidity due to viral reactivation. Treatment strategies are needed to prevent infectious complications and enhance immune reconstitution based on the immune recovery status following allogeneic HSCT with fludarabine-based conditioning.

10.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 906-914, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160281

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) frequently involve genetic alterations. The objective of this study was to investigate genetic alterations and further explore the relationships between these genetic alterations and clinicopathological characteristics in a high-recurrence risk (node positive, N1) PTC group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tumor tissue blocks were obtained from 240 surgically resected patients with histologically confirmed stage III/IV (pT3/4 or N1) PTCs. We screened gene fusions using NanoString’s nCounter technology and mutational analysis was performed by direct DNA sequencing. Data describing the clinicopathological characteristics and clinical courses were retrospectively collected. RESULTS: Of the 240 PTC patients, 207 (86.3%) had at least one genetic alteration, including BRAF mutation in 190 patients (79.2%), PIK3CA mutation in 25 patients (10.4%), NTRK1/3 fusion in six patients (2.5%), and RET fusion in 24 patients (10.0%). Concomitant presence of more than two genetic alterations was seen in 36 patients (15%). PTCs harboring BRAF mutation were associated with RET wild-type expression (p=0.001). RET fusion genes have been found to occur with significantly higher frequency in N1b stage patients (p=0.003) or groups of patients aged 45 years or older (p=0.031); however, no significant correlation was found between other genetic alterations. There was no trend toward favorable recurrence-free survival or overall survival among patients lacking genetic alterations. CONCLUSION: In the selected high-recurrence risk PTC group, most patients had more than one genetic alteration. However, these known alterations could not entirely account for clinicopathological features of high-recurrence risk PTC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gene Fusion , Retrospective Studies , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms
11.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 816-823, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129224

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The optimal perioperative treatment for resectable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains controversial. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of leucovorin and 5-fluorouracil (LV5FU2) and LV5FU2 plus oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) combination chemotherapies administered adjuvantly for curatively-resected, node-positive ESCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with pathologically node-positive esophageal cancer after curative R0 resection were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive LV5FU2 or FOLFOX biweekly for up to eight cycles. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS). RESULTS: Between 2011 and 2015, 62 patients were randomized into the two treatment groups (32 in the LV5FU2 arm and 30 in the FOLFOX arm). The median age was 60 years and both groups had similar pathologic characteristics in tumor, nodal status, and location. Treatment completion rates were similarly high in both groups. The DFS rate at 12 months was 67% in the LV5FU2 group and 63% in the FOLFOX group with a hazard ratio of 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 2.62). After a median follow-up period of 27 months, the median DFS was 29.6 months (95% CI, 4.9 to 54.2) in the LV5FU2 arm and 16.8 months (95% CI, 7.5 to 26.1) in the FOLFOX arm (p=0.428), respectively, while the median overall survival was not reached in either arm. Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia was more frequent in patients in the FOLFOX arm than the LV5FU2 arm (20.0% vs. 3.1%). CONCLUSION: The addition of oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) did not lead to better efficacy compared to LV5FU2 chemotherapy in an adjuvant setting in node-positive ESCC patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arm , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Epithelial Cells , Esophageal Neoplasms , Fluorouracil , Follow-Up Studies , Leucovorin , Neutropenia
12.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 816-823, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129209

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The optimal perioperative treatment for resectable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains controversial. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of leucovorin and 5-fluorouracil (LV5FU2) and LV5FU2 plus oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) combination chemotherapies administered adjuvantly for curatively-resected, node-positive ESCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with pathologically node-positive esophageal cancer after curative R0 resection were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive LV5FU2 or FOLFOX biweekly for up to eight cycles. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS). RESULTS: Between 2011 and 2015, 62 patients were randomized into the two treatment groups (32 in the LV5FU2 arm and 30 in the FOLFOX arm). The median age was 60 years and both groups had similar pathologic characteristics in tumor, nodal status, and location. Treatment completion rates were similarly high in both groups. The DFS rate at 12 months was 67% in the LV5FU2 group and 63% in the FOLFOX group with a hazard ratio of 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 2.62). After a median follow-up period of 27 months, the median DFS was 29.6 months (95% CI, 4.9 to 54.2) in the LV5FU2 arm and 16.8 months (95% CI, 7.5 to 26.1) in the FOLFOX arm (p=0.428), respectively, while the median overall survival was not reached in either arm. Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia was more frequent in patients in the FOLFOX arm than the LV5FU2 arm (20.0% vs. 3.1%). CONCLUSION: The addition of oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) did not lead to better efficacy compared to LV5FU2 chemotherapy in an adjuvant setting in node-positive ESCC patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arm , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Epithelial Cells , Esophageal Neoplasms , Fluorouracil , Follow-Up Studies , Leucovorin , Neutropenia
13.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1382-1388, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-109739

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the tumor characteristics and long-term clinical outcomes of adjuvant treatments after surgery with a curative aim for patients with breast cancer who are 65 years and older. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with breast cancer who underwent curative surgery from 2000 to 2009 were analyzed (n=4,388). Tumor characteristics and survival outcome were compared by dividing the patients into two age groups (< 65 and ≥ 65 years old). The Kaplan-Meier method was used for comparison of survival rates by log-rank test, and a Cox regression model was used to examine the effect of variables. RESULTS: Among 4,388 patients with invasive breast cancer, 317 patients (7.2%) were 65 years or older and the median age of all patients was 47 years (range, 18 to 91 years). Tumor characteristics were similar between the two age groups, but the older patients were treated less often with adjuvant treatments. During a median follow-up period of 122 months, recurrence-free survival (RFS) was equivalent for patients 65 years and older compared to younger patients, but significantly worse in overall survival (OS) and breast cancer–specific survival (BCSS) (5-year OS, 94.3% vs. 90.5%; p < 0.001 and 5-year BCSS, 94.7% vs. 91.8%; p=0.031). In the multivariate model, age ≥ 65 years old was identified as an independent risk factor for OS and RFS. CONCLUSION: Elderly breast cancer appeared to have worse outcomes with very low prevalence in Korea, despite similar tumor characteristics. More active adjuvant therapies would have a role for aggressive subtypes for fit, elderly patients.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Follow-Up Studies , Korea , Methods , Population Characteristics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome
14.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 527-536, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72544

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been recognized as an immunosuppressive disease. Various mechanisms have been proposed for immune escape, including dysregulation of immune checkpoints such as the PD-1:PD-L1 pathway. We investigated the expression of programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in HPV-negative and HPV-positive OSCC to determine its prevalence and prognostic relevance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using immunohistochemistry, 133 cases of OSCC were evaluated for expression of PD-L1. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples were stained with monoclonal antibody (clone 5H1) to PD-L1. PD-L1 positivity was defined as membrane staining in ≥20% of tumor cells. Correlations between PD-L1 expression and HPV status and survival parameters were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 133 patients, 68% showed PD-L1 expression, and 67% of patients were positive for p16 expression by immunohistochemistry. No significant difference in PD-L1 expression was observed between HPV(-) and HPV(+) tumors (61% vs. 71%, p=0.274). No significant difference in age, gender, smoking history, location of tumor origin, or stage was observed according to PD-L1 status. With a median follow-up period of 44 months, older age (≥65) (p=0.017) and T3-4 stage (p<0.001) were associated with poor overall survival (OS), whereas PD-L1 expression did not affect OS in univariate and multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: PD-L1 expression was observed in the majority of OSCC patients regardless of HPV status. Further large prospective studies are required to determine the role of PD-L1 expression as a prognostic or predictive biomarker, and clinical studies of immune checkpoint inhibitors in OCSS are warranted regardless of HPV status.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Follow-Up Studies , Immunohistochemistry , Membranes , Multivariate Analysis , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Smoke , Smoking , United Nations
15.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 312-321, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-64174

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are not clear although thrombosis can be associated with host status, tumor burden, and inflammatory activity. We assessed the effect of those factors on VTE in a cross-sectional study of patients enrolled in a prospective cohort study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the occurrence of VTE in 322 patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL who received rituximab with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) between 2008 and 2011. Serum levels of inflammatory cytokines were measured from serum samples archived at diagnosis. RESULTS: With a median follow-up duration of 41.9 months, VTE was documented in 34 patients (10.6%). A comparison of baseline characteristics indicated the group with VTE had higher percentage of old age, stage III/IV and extranodal involvements than the group without VTE (p or = 60 years) and poor performance were independent risk factors for VTE. CONCLUSION: Among potential risk factors for VTE including tumor burden and inflammatory activity, age and performance status had a strong impact on the occurrence of VTE in patients with DLBCL who received R-CHOP.


Subject(s)
Humans , B-Lymphocytes , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cyclophosphamide , Cytokines , Diagnosis , Doxorubicin , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Interleukin-10 , Interleukins , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Multivariate Analysis , Prednisone , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Thrombosis , Tumor Burden , Venous Thromboembolism , Vincristine
16.
Hanyang Medical Reviews ; : 180-185, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-186439

ABSTRACT

There have been conflicting reports on the continuation of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) in patients with newly developed or progressive brain metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with newly developed or progressive intracranial lesions, but who maintained well-controlled extracranial disease during erlotinib treatment, were enrolled in this study. The proposed therapy included stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT), and/or surgical resection for intracranial lesions. Erlotinib treatment was continued simultaneously unless extracranial disease progressed. The evaluation of both extra- and intra-cranial lesions was performed every 3 months. From October 2009 to June 2012, 14 patients were enrolled in this pilot study. For intracranial disease, 4 patients received SRS alone, 7 patients received both SRS and WBRT, 2 patients received SRS, WBRT and surgical resection, and 1 patient received no local therapy due to the presence of asymptomatic lesions. Of the patients with extracranial disease who were placed on continued erlotinib therapy, 6 patients (42.9%) showed partial response (PR), while 7 patients (50.0%) remained in stable disease (SD). The progression-free survival (PFS) of extracranial and intracranial disease was 11.1 (range 1.6-34.6) and 10.2 (range 1.5-34.6) months, respectively. In 5 cases, brain lesions relapsed before the progression of extracranial disease. Overall survival (OS) was 22.6 (range 2.1-50.4) months. For NSCLC patients with progression of only intracranial disease during erlotinib treatment, the continuation of erlotinib in combination with local therapy to brain metastases can be an effective treatment option.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Central Nervous System , Disease-Free Survival , Epidermal Growth Factor , Neoplasm Metastasis , Phosphotransferases , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Quinazolines , Radiosurgery , Radiotherapy , Erlotinib Hydrochloride
17.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 765-773, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-74287

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of regular postoperative surveillance to improve the prognosis of patients with breast cancer after curative surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 4,119 patients who received curative surgery for breast cancer at Samsung Medical Center between January 2000 and September 2008. Patients were divided into two groups (group I, regular postoperative surveillance; group II, control group) according to their post-therapy follow-up status for the first 5 years after surgery. RESULTS: Among the 3,770 patients selected for inclusion, groups I and II contained 3,300 (87%) and 470 (13%) patients, respectively. The recurrence rates at 5 years for groups I and II were 10.6% and 16.4%, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67 to 1.09; p=0.197). The 10-year mortality cumulative rates were 8.8% for group I and 25.4% for group II (hazard ratio, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.22 to 0.35; p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis for recurrence-free survival (RFS), age over 40 years (p < 0.001), histologic grade 1 (p < 0.001), and pathologic stage I (p < 0.001) were associated with longer RFS but not with follow-up status. Multivariate analysis for overall survival (OS) revealed that patients in group I showed significantly improved OS (hazard ratio, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.23 to 0.37; p < 0.001). Additionally, age over 40 years, histologic grade I, and pathologic stage I were independent prognostic factors for OS. CONCLUSION: Regular follow-up for patients with breast cancer after primary surgery resulted in clinically significant improvements in patient OS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , Medical Records , Mortality , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
18.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 790-795, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-90561

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Regorafenib, an oral multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is considered the new standard of care in patients with chemotherapy-refractory colorectal cancers (CRCs). However, there are no data on this drug in Korean patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated patients who received oral regorafenib 160 mg once daily during the first 3 weeks of each 4-week cycle between August 2013 and September 2013. All patients had previously progressed fluorouracil, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin with or without biologic agents such as cetuximab or bevacizumab. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients were enrolled (median age, 57 years; male:female ratio, 20:12; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status [0-1:2], 31:1; colon:rectum, 21:11). The overall response rate was 3.1% and the disease control rate was 50.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]) with one partial response and 15 patients with stable disease. The median progression-free survival was 4.2 months (95% CI, 3.1 to 5.2 months) and the median overall survival has not yet been reached. The most common adverse events of grade two or higher related to regorafenib were hand-foot skin reaction (25%), mucositis (19%), abdominal pain (9%), and liver function test (LFT) abnormalities (9%). Grade 3 or 4 toxicities included LFT abnormalities (9%), abdominal pain (9%), rash (6%), anemia (3%), leukopenia (3%), neutropenic fever (3%), and fatigue (3%). There was no treatment-related death. CONCLUSION: Regorafenib appears to have promising activity and tolerable toxicity profiles in Korean patients with refractory CRC, consistent with the CORRECT trial findings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Abdominal Pain , Anemia , Biological Factors , Colorectal Neoplasms , Disease-Free Survival , Exanthema , Fatigue , Fever , Fluorouracil , Korea , Leukopenia , Liver Function Tests , Mucositis , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Skin , Standard of Care
19.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 744-748, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-85490

ABSTRACT

Cardiac myxoma is the most common primary tumor of the heart and development of a cerebral aneurysm is rare in cardiac myxoma patients. We present the case of a 57-year-old asymptomatic male with multiple aneurysms in the cerebral and coronary arteries complicated by cardiac myxoma. Multiple cerebral aneurysms were fusiform shaped and located in the right middle cerebral artery, right anterior cerebral artery, right anterior choroidal artery, and left anterior cerebral artery. A coronary artery aneurysm was also located in the distal left circumflex artery with subendocardial myocardial infarction seen by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The cardiac myxoma was surgically removed and 1 month after surgical resection, there was no progression of the aneurysms on follow-up brain MRI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aneurysm , Anterior Cerebral Artery , Arteries , Brain , Choroid , Coronary Aneurysm , Coronary Vessels , Follow-Up Studies , Heart , Intracranial Aneurysm , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Cerebral Artery , Myocardial Infarction , Myxoma
20.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 749-754, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-85489

ABSTRACT

Fibrosclerosing periaortitis is a rare condition that refers to a spectrum of idiopathic diseases characterized by a fibroinflammatory reaction that extends from the adventitia of the aorta into the surrounding structures. It can be present in either IgG4-related or non-IgG4-related fibrosclerosing periaortitis. IgG4-related fibrosclerosing periaortitis could be associated with concomitant multi-organ involvement. However, non-IgG4-related fibrosclerosing periaortitis has rarely been associated with systemic manifestations. Here, we report a 76-year-old female with non-IgG4-related fibrosclerosing periaortitis, who developed pancytopenia, pleural effusion and ascites, which improved after high dose steroid treatment.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Adventitia , Aorta , Ascites , Immunoglobulin G , Pancytopenia , Pleural Effusion , Retroperitoneal Fibrosis
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