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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e304-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001189

ABSTRACT

Background@#In Korea, there have been no reports comparing the prevalence of major congenital anomalies with other countries and no reports on surgical treatment and longterm mortality. We investigated the prevalence of 67 major congenital anomalies in Korea and compared the prevalence with that of the European network of population-based registries for the epidemiological surveillance of congenital anomalies (EUROCAT). We also investigated the mortality and age at death, the proportion of preterm births, and the surgical rate for the 67 major congenital anomalies. @*Methods@#Korean National Health Insurance claim data were obtained for neonates born in 2013–2014 and admitted within one-year-old. Sixty-seven major congenital anomalies were defined by medical diagnoses classified by International Classification of Diseases-10 codes according to the EUROCAT definition version 2014. Mortality and surgery were defined if any death or surgery claim code was confirmed until 2020. Poisson distribution was used to calculate the 95% confidence interval of the congenital anomaly prevalence. @*Results@#The total prevalence of the 67 major anomalies was 433.5/10,000 livebirths. When compared with the prevalence of each major anomaly in EUROCAT, the prevalence of spina bifida, atrial septal defect (ASD), congenital megacolon, hip dislocation and/or dysplasia and skeletal dysplasia were more than five times higher in Korea. In contrast, the prevalence of aortic atresia/interrupted aortic arch and gastroschisis was less than one-fifth in Korea. The proportion of preterm births was 15.7%; however, more than 40% of infants with anencephaly, annular pancreas and gastroschisis were preterm infants. Additionally, 29.2% of the major anomalies were admitted to the neonatal intensive care units at birth, and 25.6% received surgical operation. The mortality rate was 1.7%, and 78.2% of the deaths occurred within the first year of life. However, in neonates with tricuspid valve atresia and stenosis, duodenal atresia or stenosis, and diaphragmatic hernia, more than half died within their first month of life. ASD and ventricular septal defect were the most common anomalies, and trisomy 18 and hypoplastic left heart syndrome were the most fatal anomalies. All infants with aortic atresia/interrupted aortic arch and conjoined twins received surgery. @*Conclusion@#The proportion of surgeries, preterm births and mortality was high in infants with major congenital anomalies. The establishment of a national registry of congenital anomalies and systematic support by national medical policies are needed for infants with major congenital anomalies in Korea.

2.
Pediatric Emergency Medicine Journal ; : 76-81, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968467

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to survey current status of preparedness for neonatal resuscitation in delivery rooms in Korea. @*Methods@#We analyzed data regarding preparedness for the resuscitation in terms of personnel, equipment, and education using a questionnaire, which was developed by the Korean Association of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. From August 2020 through January 2021, the questionnaires were sent to hospitals affiliated with the Korean Association of Maternity Hospitals or the Korean Neonatal Network (KNN) operated by the Korean Society of Neonatology. As per the affiliated society, the hospitals were grouped as the maternity hospitals or the KNN hospitals. The questionnaires were delivered in 3 steps: mailout, electronic mail, and phone calls. @*Results@#Response rate was 21.3% (115 of 541) and 65.3% (49 of 75) in the maternity and KNN hospitals, respectively. The maternity hospitals showed a higher mean number of delivery and fewer pediatricians. In the KNN hospitals, pediatricians played a leading role during the resuscitation, but in the maternity hospitals, their role as a leader was less conspicuous. The KNN hospitals were better equipped with masks of variable sizes, oxygen blender, T-piece resuscitator, and electrocardiographic monitor (all Ps < 0.001). In the maternity hospitals, the preparedness of oxygen blender or T-piece resuscitator was positively associated with the number of pediatricians (P = 0.005). Although bag-mask ventilation was mostly feasible in both groups, endotracheal intubation was less feasible in the maternity hospitals (P = 0.007). The annual participation in resuscitation training for providers was higher in the KNN hospitals (P < 0.001). In the maternity hospitals, the annual participation was positively associated with the numbers of deliveries, obstetricians, and pediatricians. @*Conclusion@#This preliminary survey indicates the need for further improvement in preparing in personnel, equipment, and education, particularly in maternity hospitals.

3.
Allergy, Asthma & Respiratory Disease ; : 40-44, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913334

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) is not the only a marker for eosinophil activation, but also acts as an alarm protein.Very few studies have examined the potential role of eosinophils in the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). This study aims to address the roles of eosinophil and EDN in the early phase of BPD development. @*Methods@#Patients were preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) born at 36 weeks of gestation or less. Blood and urine samples were collected to measure total eosinophil count in the blood, serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), serum EDN, and urinary EDN during the first week of life. @*Results@#Fifty-two preterms were recruited, of whom 43 infants were analyzed. Comparisons were made between the RDS (n = 16) and non-RDS groups (n = 27) and between the BPD (n = 6) and non-BPD groups (n = 26). There were no differences between RDS and non-RDS group in total eosinophil count, serum ECP, serum EDN, or urinary EDN, except when compared by gestational age, birth weight and prenatal dexamethasone use. Urinary EDN was increased significantly in the BPD group compared to the non-BPD group. @*Conclusion@#We demonstrated the roles of eosinophil and EDN in the development of BPD and suggest that urinary EDN may be utilized as a noninvasive factor predicting the development of BPD.

4.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 28-35, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926814

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Pediatricians have a significant responsibility to educate mothers about the importance of breastfeeding. However, there have been minimal efforts in the courses of resident training in Korea. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the change in knowledge and attitude before and after a 4-week breastfeeding educational intervention among multicenter residents. @*Methods@#Prospective interventional educational research was designed for residents at eight training hospitals in Korea. Institutional reviews were obtained in each hospital. The education curriculum consisted of 14 courses regarding breastfeeding theory and practice. These materials were used to teach pediatric residents for 4 weeks. Knowledge-based tests were administered before the course, and re-tests were administered after the course using different test items of similar levels. Test scores and survey responses were compared before and after the intervention. @*Results@#A total of 73 residents (1st year 20, 2nd year 23, 3rd year 16, and 4th year residents 14) from eight training hospitals completed the intervention. Their average age was 30.3±2.9 years, 17 (23.3%) were male, 22 (30.1%) were married, and eight had more than one child of their own. The mean pre-test score was 61.8±13.4 and the mean post-test score was 78.3±7.5 (P<0.001). The inter-grade difference in the score was significant in the pre-test (P=0.005), but not significant in the post-test (P=0.155). There were more responses of obtaining confidence after the intervention (P<0.001). @*Conclusion@#In our study, pediatric residents showed improvement in their knowledge and confidence level after 4 weeks of the breastfeeding curriculum. This will provide a basis for future policymaking in the training of pediatric residents regarding breastfeeding in Korea.

5.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e120-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925880

ABSTRACT

Background@#Human breast milk is essential and provides irreplaceable nutrients for early humans. However, breastfeeding is not easy for various reasons in medical institution environments. Therefore, in order to improve the breastfeeding environment, we investigated the difficult reality of breastfeeding through questionnaire responses from medical institution workers. @*Methods@#A survey was conducted among 179 medical institution workers with experience in childbirth within the last five years. The survey results of 175 people were analyzed, with incoherent answers excluded. @*Results@#Of the 175 people surveyed, a total of 108 people (61.7%) worked during the day, and 33 people (18.9%) worked in three shifts. Among 133 mothers who stayed with their babies in the same nursing room, 111 (93.3%) kept breastfeeding for more than a month, but among those who stayed apart, only 10 (71.4%) continued breastfeeding for more than a month (P = 0.024). Ninety-five (88.0%) of daytime workers, 32 (94.1%) two-shift workers, and 33 (100%) three-shift workers continued breastfeeding for more than a month (P = 0.026). Workers in general hospitals tended to breastfeed for significantly longer than those that worked in tertiary hospitals (P = 0.003). A difference was also noted between occupation categories (P = 0.019), but a more significant difference was found in the comparison between nurses and doctors (P = 0.012). Longer breastfeeding periods were noted when mothers worked three shifts (P = 0.037). Depending on the period planned for breastfeeding prior to childbirth, the actual breastfeeding maintenance period after birth showed a significant difference (P = 0.002). Of 112 mothers who responded to the question regarding difficulties in breastfeeding after returning to work, 87 (77.7%) mentioned a lack of time caused by being busy at work, 82 (73.2%) mentioned the need for places and appropriate circumstances. @*Conclusion@#In medical institutions, it is recommended that environmental improvements in medical institutions, the implementation of supporting policies, and the provision of specialized education on breastfeeding are necessary to promote breastfeeding.

6.
Journal of the Korean Society of Maternal and Child Health ; : 170-180, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836443

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to investigate the extent of the difference in health status between South Korea (SK) and North Korea (NK) by comparing indicators relevant to maternal and child health. @*Methods@#The maternal and child health status of SK and NK considering population, birth, and mortality was reviewed using 2 Korean statistics, United Nations Children’s Fund, and United Nations databases from 1950 to 2017. @*Results@#The annual number of total live births in SK had decreased from 1,006,600 in 1970 to 326,900 in 2018, and that in NK had declined from 530,000 in 1970 to 360,000 in 2015. The percentage of children among the total population was higher in NK than in SK, and the decrease in the percentage of children in SK is remarkable, which is related to a low fertility rate in the last few decades. However, the mortality rates related to children were higher in NK than in SK. In 2017, neonatal mortality rates (per 1,000 live births) in SK and NK were 1.5 and 9.0, respectively. The fertile female population of SK and NK in 2015 was 50.2% and 52.0%, respectively, and SK and NK’s aging index (%) in 2017 was 107.3 and 46.1, re spectively. @*Conclusion@#This study shows the different population distributions and maternal and child health statuses between SK and NK, which may have a negative impact on social integration after reunification. Therefore, it is important to understand the indicators of maternal and child health to become the powerbase of effi cient healthcare system integration by minimizing the impact at the beginning of the reunification.

7.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e34-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719569

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the aging society progresses, the average age of mothers is also increasing. Advanced maternal age has been known to be associated with perinatal outcomes, as well as birth weight (BW). In this study, we aimed to investigate the perinatal factors associated with low birth weight infants (LBWIs) using birth statistics of the Korean population. METHODS: Birth statistics between 1993 and 2016 from the Korean Statistical Information Service were reviewed. We investigated 12,856,614 data points, which included the number of births, BWs, percentage of preterm births and LBWIs, multiple pregnancies, and maternal age. RESULTS: The proportion of LBWIs delivered by mothers of advanced maternal age has gradually increased since 1993. In addition, the proportion of older mothers (≥ 35 years old) giving birth to LBWIs has increased over the years. Average BW has a negative correlation with the ratio of preterm births, LBW, multiple births, and advanced maternal age. The mean BW also has a negative correlation with maternal age. CONCLUSION: This study shows that the average BW continues to decline, and the incidence of LBWIs is increasing in Korea since 1993. This study also revealed that several perinatal factors, including percentage of preterm births, LBWIs, multiple births, and maternal age influence the mean BW. Although this study did not investigate the effects of decreasing mean BW on perinatal health, future research is worth discussing.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Aging , Birth Weight , Incidence , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Information Services , Korea , Maternal Age , Mothers , Multiple Birth Offspring , Parturition , Pregnancy, Multiple , Premature Birth
8.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e175-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765010

ABSTRACT

Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a disease that is unique to newborn infants. It is caused by a deficiency of pulmonary surfactant (PS), which is usually ready to be activated around the perinatal period. Until RDS was more clearly understood, it was not known why premature infants died from respiratory failure, although pathology revealed hyaline membranes in the alveoli. Surprisingly, the era of PS replacement therapy began only relatively recently. The first clinical trial investigating neonatal RDS was conducted in 1980. Since then, newborn survival has improved dramatically, which has led to significant advances in the field of neonatology. The present comprehensive review addresses PS, from its discovery to the application of artificial PS in newborns with RDS. It also reviews the history of PS in Korea, including its introduction, various commercial products, present and past research, newborn registries, and health insurance issues. Finally, it describes the inception of the Korean Society of Neonatology and future directions of research and treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , History of Medicine , Hyalin , Infant, Premature , Insurance, Health , Korea , Membranes , Neonatology , Pathology , Pulmonary Surfactants , Registries , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Respiratory Insufficiency
9.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 191-195, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718043

ABSTRACT

Leukocyte adhesion deficiency is a rare primary immunodeficiency and autosomal recessive disorder caused by a mutation in the gene encoding CD18, which is a constituent of leukocyte integrins. Clinical features usually begin with a delay in the separation of the umbilical cord in the neonatal period, and are characterized by marked leukocytosis with infection, delayed wound healing, and repeated bacterial and fungal infections. We experienced a case of leukocyte adhesion deficiency diagnosed in the neonatal period, in which a late preterm infant admitted to neonatal intensive care unit presented with a septic hip. Flow cytometry analysis of whole blood showed a decrease in the expression of CD11b/CD18. This is the first case of leukocyte adhesion deficiency with neonatal septic hip diagnosed in Korea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Arthritis, Infectious , Flow Cytometry , Hip , Infant, Premature , Integrins , Intensive Care, Neonatal , Korea , Leukocytes , Leukocytosis , Osteomyelitis , Umbilical Cord , Wound Healing
10.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 1217-1219, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210884

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Deglutition Disorders , Esophageal Sphincter, Upper , Suicide
11.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 1228-1234, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210882

ABSTRACT

The survival rate (SR) of very low birth weight infants (VLBWIs) and extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWIs) is a health indicator of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) outcomes. The Korean Neonatal Network (KNN) was established in 2013, and a system has been launched to manage the registration and quality improvement of VLBWIs. The SR of the VLBWIs significantly increased to 85.7% in the 2010s compared with 83.0% in the 2000s. There was also a significant increase in the SR of the ELBWIs from 66.1% to 70.7%. The equipment, manpower, and assistance systems of NICUs also improved in quantity and quality. In the international comparison of the SRs of VLBWIs, the SRs were 93.8%, 92.2%, 90.2%, 89.4%, 86.4%, 85.1%, and 80.6% in Japan, Australia and New Zealand, Canada, Europe, Korea, Taiwan, and United States, respectively. In conclusion, the SRs of the VLBWIs and ELBWIs improved in the 2010s compared with those in the 2000s in Korea. This improvement is considered to have been related to the role of the KNN built in 2013. However, the latest VLBWI and ELBWI SRs in 2015 are still low compared with those in Japan, Australia and New Zealand, Canada, and Europe. In the future, we must establish and develop the tasks that are presented as future tasks in this review.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Australia , Canada , Critical Care , Europe , Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Intensive Care, Neonatal , Japan , Korea , New Zealand , Quality Improvement , Survival Rate , Taiwan , United States
12.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 1319-1326, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210871

ABSTRACT

Fetal death is an important indicator of national health care. In Korea, the fetal mortality rate is likely to increase due to advanced maternal age and multiple births, but there is limited research in this field. The authors investigated the characteristics of fetal deaths, the annual changes in the fetal mortality rate and the perinatal mortality rate in Korea, and compared them with those in Japan and the United States. Fetal deaths were restricted to those that occurred at 20 weeks of gestation or more. From 2009 to 2014, the overall mean fetal mortality rate was 8.5 per 1,000 live births and fetal deaths in Korea, 7.1 in Japan and 6.0 in the United States. While the birth rate in Korea declined by 2.1% between 2009 and 2014, the decrease in the number of fetal deaths was 34.5%. The fetal mortality rate in Korea declined by 32.9%, from 11.0 in 2009 to 7.4 in 2014, the largest decline among the 3 countries. In addition, rates for receiving prenatal care increased from 53.9% in 2009 to 75.0% in 2014. Perinatal mortality rate I and II were the lowest in Japan, followed by Korea and the United States, and Korea showed the greatest decrease in rate of perinatal mortality rate II. In this study, we identified that the indices of fetal deaths in Korea are improving rapidly. In order to maintain this trend, improvement of perinatal care level and stronger national medical support policies should be maintained continuously.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Birth Rate , Delivery of Health Care , Fetal Death , Fetal Mortality , Infant Mortality , Japan , Korea , Live Birth , Maternal Age , Multiple Birth Offspring , Perinatal Care , Perinatal Mortality , Prenatal Care , Stillbirth , United States
13.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 1312-1318, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-165880

ABSTRACT

Since 2002, the number of marriages, births, and family members among multi-cultural families (MCFs) has increased. Beginning in 2006, the government initiated a planned management for such families and has implemented the MCF policy basic plan since 2010. In 2015, with multiple socio-economic and medical support initiatives for MCF being available, we analyzed the statistics for several factors related to birth, to determine whether there are significant adverse birth outcomes in MCF. We analyzed the birth data of MCFs in 2015, from Statistics Korea. This study compared the birth data of MCF and Korean families (KF) by geography, neonatal birth weight (BW), gestational age (GA), birth order of the neonates, place of delivery, cohabitation period of parents before the first child, and parental education level. The distribution of BW and the prevalence of low BW (< 2,500 g) or very low BW (< 1,500 g) were similar between both groups. The incidence of preterm birth was lower in the MCF group (6.5% vs. 7.0%, P = 0.015) than in the KF group. In the MCF group, parental education level was lower, and incidence of out-of-hospital births was higher than that of the KF group. Adverse birth outcomes, such as preterm birth and low BW in MCF are similar or better than KF. This study could be a good basis to present the status of MCF birth and newborn care in 2015.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Birth Order , Birth Weight , Education , Geography , Gestational Age , Incidence , Korea , Marriage , Parents , Parturition , Premature Birth , Prevalence
14.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 823-828, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-81889

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Pulmonary surfactants for preterm infants contain mostly animal-derived surfactant proteins (SPs), which are essential for lowering surface tension. We prepared artificial pulmonary surfactants using synthetic human SP analogs and performed in vitro and in vivo experiments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We synthesized peptide analogues that resemble human SP-B (RMLPQLVCRLVLRCSMD) and SP-C (CPVHLKRLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL). Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and palmitic acid (PA) were added and mixed in lyophilized to render powdered surfactant. Synsurf-1 was composed of DPPC:PG:PA:SP-B (75:25:10:3, w/w); Synsurf-2 was composed of DPPC:PG:PA:SP-C (75:25:10:3, w/w); and Synsurf-3 was composed of DPPC:PG:PA:SP-B:SP-C (75:25:10:3:3, w/w). We performed in vitro study to compare the physical characteristics using pulsating bubble surfactometer and modified Wilhelmy balance test. Surface spreading and adsorption test of the surfactant preparations were measured. In vivo test was performed using term and preterm rabbit pups. Pressure-volume curves were generated during the deflation phase. Histologic findings were examined. RESULTS: Pulsating bubble surfactometer readings revealed following minimum and maximum surface tension (mN/m) at 5 minutes: Surfacten® (5.5±0.4, 32.8±1.6), Synsurf-1 (16.7±0.6, 28.7±1.5), Synsurf-2 (7.9±1.0, 33.1±1.6), and Synsurf-3 (7.1±0.8, 34.5±1.0). Surface spreading rates were as follows: Surfacten® (27 mN/m), Synsurf-1 (43 mN/m), Synsurf-2 (27 mN/m), and Synsurf-3 (27 mN/m). Surface adsorption rate results were as follows: Surfacten® (28 mN/m), Synsurf-1 (35 mN/m), Synsurf-2 (29 mN/m), and Synsurf-3 (27 mN/m). The deflation curves were best for Synsurf-3; those for Synsurf-2 were better than those for Surfacten®. Synsurf-1 was the worst surfactant preparation. Microscopic examination showed the largest aerated area of the alveoli in the Synsurf-3 group, followed by Synsurf-1 and Surfacten®; Synsurf-2 was the smallest. CONCLUSION: Synsurf-3 containing both SP-B and SP-C synthetic analogs showed comparable and better efficacy than commercially used Surfacten® in lowering surface tension, pressure-volume curves, and tissue aerated area of the alveoli.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Infant, Newborn , 1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine , Adsorption , Animal Experimentation , In Vitro Techniques , Infant, Premature , Palmitic Acid , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Proteins , Pulmonary Surfactants , Reading , Surface Tension
15.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 88-91, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-9699

ABSTRACT

Chromosome 9p syndrome is a rare chromosomal abnormality caused by a partial deletion in chromosome 9. It was first described in 1973 by Alfi et al., and has since been shown to have diverse clinical phenotypes. Here, we reported a case of a male infant with joint contracture of the extremities, dysmorphic face, inguinal hernia, and testicular cystic masses. Chromosomal analysis revealed a terminal deletion at the short arm of chromosome 9. The major clinical features of the 9p deletion syndrome are trigonocephaly, small palpebral fissures, a flat nasal bridge, and mental retardation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a patient with 9p24 deletion presenting with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Male , Arm , Arthrogryposis , Chromosome Aberrations , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9 , Contracture , Craniosynostoses , Extremities , Hernia, Inguinal , Intellectual Disability , Joints , Phenotype
16.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 129-133, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-44062

ABSTRACT

Auricular deformities occur frequently in newborn infants. Typically, most pediatricians explain to parents that these deformities will get better as child grows older. But, only about 30% of auricular deformities are known to be self-correcting, and there is no reliable model to predict them. If ear molding is initiated during the first days of life with the EarWell System, successful treatment could be possible without pain in a non-surgical way. We present 3 cases of auricular deformities treated with the EarWell System. 2 infants were born with auricular deformities at Gangnam Cha Medical Center and 1 infant visited the outpatient clinic for the treatment of auricular deformities. 5 ears in 3 infants underwent ear molding using the EarWell System. They had it placed on the 20th day after birth. Average treatment time was 18.7 days, and all of them were corrected. Complications were redness, oozing, erosion and mild pressure ulcerations. Early recognition and treatment of the auricular deformity ensure the great prospect of success. Also, it is important for both the parents and the pediatricians to know that auricular deformities could be successfully treated with Earwell System.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Congenital Abnormalities , Ear , Hearing Aids , Parents , Parturition , Pressure Ulcer
17.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 203-208, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220781

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Pulmonary surfactant (PS) replacement has been the gold standard therapy for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome; however, almost all commercial PSs contain animal proteins. We prepared a synthetic PS by using a human surfactant protein (SP) analog and evaluated its in vitro properties. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A peptide sequence (CPVHLKRLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL) of human SP-C was chosen to develop the peptide analog (SPa-C). The new synthetic SP-C PS (sSP-C PS) was synthesized from SPa-C, dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidyl glycerol, and palmitic acid. Physical properties of the sSP-C PS were evaluated by measuring the maximum and minimum surface tensions (STs), surfactant spreading, and adsorption rate. In addition, we recorded an ST-area diagram. The data obtained on sSP-C PS were subsequently compared with those of purified natural bovine surfactant (PNBS), and the commercial product, Surfacten(R). RESULTS: The sSP-C PS and Surfacten(R) were found to have maximum ST values of 32-33 mN/m, whereas that of PNBS was much lower at 19 mN/m. The minimum ST values of all three products were less than 10 mN/m. The values that were measured for the equilibrium ST of rapidly spreading sSP-C PS, Surfacten(R), and PNBS were 27, 27, and 24 mN/m, respectively. The surface adsorptions were found to be the same for all three PSs (20 mN/m). ST-area diagrams of sSP-C PS and Surfacten(R) revealed similar properties. CONCLUSION: In an in vitro experiment, the physical properties exhibited by sSP-C PS were similar to those of Surfacten(R). Further study is required to evaluate the in vivo efficacy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Humans , Infant, Newborn , 1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/analogs & derivatives , Adsorption , Amino Acid Sequence/genetics , C-Peptide/chemistry , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein C/chemical synthesis , Pulmonary Surfactants/chemical synthesis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/drug therapy , Surface Properties , Surface Tension , Surface-Active Agents
18.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 1775-1783, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-80066

ABSTRACT

Human milk banks are a solution for mothers who cannot supply their own breast milk to their sick or hospitalized infants; premature infants, in particular, are unable to receive a full volume of breast milk for numerous reasons. As of December 2015, there was only one milk bank in a university hospital in Korea. We reviewed the basic characteristics of donors and recipients, and the amounts and contamination of breast milk donated at the Human Milk Bank in Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong in Korea from 2008 to 2015. The donor pool consisted of 463 first-time donors and 452 repeat donors who made 1,724 donations. A total of 10,820 L of breast milk was collected, and 9,541.6 L were processed. Detectable bacteria grew in 12.6% after pasteurization and 52.5% had cytomegalovirus DNA before pasteurization in donated milk. There were 836 infant and 25 adult recipients; among new infant recipients, 48.5% were preterm; the groups received 8,009 and 165.7 L of donor milk, respectively. There was an increase in the percentage of preterm infants among new infant recipients in 2015 (93.1%) compared to 2008 (8.5%). Based on the number of premature infants in Korea, the number of potential recipients is not likely to diminish anytime soon, despite efforts to improve the breastfeeding rate. Sustainability and quality improvement of the milk bank need long-term financial support by health authorities and a nationwide network similar to blood banking will further contribute to the progress of milk banking.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Bacteria , Blood Banks , Breast Feeding , Cytomegalovirus , DNA , Financial Support , Infant, Premature , Korea , Milk , Milk Banks , Milk, Human , Mothers , Pasteurization , Quality Improvement , Tissue Donors
19.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 939-949, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34226

ABSTRACT

The Pediatric Growth Chart (2007) is used as a standard reference to evaluate weight and height percentiles of Korean children and adolescents. Although several previous studies provided a useful reference range of newborn birth weight (BW) by gestational age (GA), the BW reference analyzed by sex and plurality is not currently available. Therefore, we aimed to establish a national reference range of neonatal BW percentiles considering GA, sex, and plurality of newborns in Korea. The raw data of all newborns (470,171 in 2010, 471,265 in 2011, and 484,550 in 2012) were analyzed. Using the Korean Statistical Information Service data (2010-2012), smoothed percentile curves (3rd-97th) by GA were created using the lambda-mu-sigma method after exclusion and the data were distinguished by all live births, singleton births, and multiple births. In the entire cohort, male newborns were heavier than female newborns and singletons were heavier than twins. As GA increased, the difference in BW between singleton and multiples increased. Compared to the previous data published 10 years ago in Korea, the BW of newborns 22-23 gestational weeks old was increased, whereas that of others was smaller. Other countries' data were also compared and showed differences in BW of both singleton and multiple newborns. We expect this updated data to be utilized as a reference to improve clinical assessments of newborn growth.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Birth Weight , Gestational Age , Growth Charts , Reference Values , Republic of Korea
20.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : S35-S44, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-218216

ABSTRACT

This study attempted to assess the risk factors for mortality of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU, n=2,386). Using data from the Korean Neonatal Network, we investigated infants with birth weights <1,500 g and gestational ages (GAs) of 22-31 weeks born between January 2013 and June 2014. Cases were defined as death at NICU discharge. Controls were randomly selected from live VLBW infants and frequency matched to case subjects by GA. Relevant variables were compared between the cases (n=236) and controls (n=236) by Cox proportional hazards regression to determine their associations with cause-specific mortality (cardiorespiratory, neurologic, infection, gastrointestinal, and others). In a Cox regression analysis, cardiorespiratory death were associated with a foreign mother (hazard ratio, HR, 4.33; 95% confidence interval, CI, 2.08-9.02), multiple gestation (HR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.07-2.54), small for gestational age (HR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.25-3.41), male gender (HR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.10-2.60), Apgar score < or =3 at 5 min (HR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.18-3.31), and delivery room resuscitation (HR, 2.60; 95% CI, 1.53-4.40). An Apgar score < or =3 at 5 min was also associated with neurological death (HR, 2.95; 95% CI, 1.29-6.73). Death due to neonatal infection was associated with outborn delivery (HR, 5.09; 95% CI, 1.46-17.74). Antenatal steroid and preterm premature rupture of membranes reduced risk of cardiorespiratory death (HR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.27-0.67) and gastrointestinal death (HR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.13-0.70), respectively. In conclusion, foreign mother, multiple gestation, small gestation age, male gender, Apgar score < or =3 at 5 min, and resuscitation in the delivery room are associated with cardiorespiratory mortality of VLBW infants in NICU. An Apgar score < or =3 at 5 min and outborn status are associated with neurological and infection mortality, respectively.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Apgar Score , Cohort Studies , Databases, Factual , Gestational Age , Infant Death , Infant Mortality/trends , Infant, Premature , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Pregnancy, Multiple , Proportional Hazards Models , Republic of Korea , Resuscitation , Risk Factors , Sex Factors
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