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1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 109-117, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875595

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of postoperative chemotherapy in pT1bN0 and pT2N0 gastric cancer patients with high risk factors. @*Materials and Methods@#Clinicopathological data of gastric cancer patients, who had undergone gastrectomy in high volume centers in Korea and China and were finally diagnosed with pT1bN0 and pT2N0 between 2006 and 2010, were analyzed retrospectively. Survival analyses stratified by risk factors and multivariable analyses were performed. @*Results@#A total of 1509 patients were enrolled, with 41 (2.7%) patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy after gastrectomy and 1468 (97.3%) patients undergoing surgery alone. The adjuvant chemotherapy group showed higher percentages of tumor with maximal diameter >3 cm (51.2% vs. 25.8%), poor differentiation (68.3% vs. 49.8%), and less harvested lymph nodes (17.1% vs. 5.2%) compared to the surgery alone group. The overall survival rates were 95.1% in the adjuvant chemotherapy group and 93.3% in the surgery alone group, without significant difference. In multivariable analysis, age was found to be an independent prognostic factor. However, there were no difference in the overall survival between patients with risk factors and those without risk factors, even in terms of age. Meanwhile, patients with more than two risk factors who received chemotherapy showed better survival trend, especially for pT2N0 patients, compared to the surgery alone group, although no significant differences were observed. @*Conclusion@#In pT1bN0 and pT2N0 patients, age was found to be an independent prognostic factor. However, adjuvant chemotherapy seemed to be unnecessary, while postoperative chemotherapy might offer survival benefits to pT2N0 patients with more than two risk factors.

2.
Gut and Liver ; : 44-52, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874575

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Papillary gastric cancer (GC) is classified as differentiated adenocarcinoma, together with well-differentiated (WD) and moderately differentiated (MD) adenocarcinoma. This study evaluated the risk of lymph node metastasis (LNM) in submucosal (SM) invasive papillary GC compared with other differentiated early GC types. @*Methods@#This retrospective study involved three tertiary hospitals and enrolled 1,798 lesions with differentiated SM invasive GC treated with curative gastrectomy between March 2001 and December 2012. All pathology slides were reviewed, and clinicopathologic findings associated with LNM, including tumor size, location, gross type, ulceration, depth and width of SM invasion, and lymphovascular invasion (LVI), were analyzed. @*Results@#The proportion of SM papillary GC was 2.8% (n=51). SM papillary GC was associated with larger tumor size and deeper and wider SM invasion than other differentiated GC types.LNM was significantly higher in the papillary type than in the MD and WD types. LNM was found in 27.5% of SM papillary GC patients (WD: 9.0%, MD: 21.2%). LVI was the only significant risk factor for LNM in SM papillary GC. The depth or width of SM invasion was not associated with LNM in papillary GC. Lower third location or elevated gross appearance was significantly associated with LVI. @*Conclusions@#SM papillary GC had the highest LNM rate, with features different from those of other differentiated SM invasive GCs. The treatment strategy for SM papillary GC should be carefully approached, especially for lesions located in the lower third or of the elevated gross type.

3.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 190-201, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835755

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study sought to investigate the prognostic significance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in relation to tumor location within the stomach. @*Materials and Methods@#The densities and prognostic significance of TIL subsets were evaluated in 542 gastric cancer patients who underwent gastrectomy. Immunohistochemical staining for CD3, CD4, CD8, forkhead/winged helix transcription factor (Foxp3), and granzyme B was performed. @*Results@#Cardia cancer was associated with significantly lower densities of CD8 T-cells and higher densities of Foxp3 and granzyme B T-cells than non-cardia tumors. Multivariate analysis showed that advanced age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.023; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.006–1.040), advanced T classification (HR, 2.029; 95% CI, 1.106–3.721), lymph node metastasis (HR, 3.319; 95% CI, 1.947–5.658), low CD3 expression (HR, 0.997; 95% CI, 0.994–0.999), and a high Foxp3/CD4 ratio (HR, 1.007; 95% CI, 1.001–1.012) were independent predictors of poor overall survival in cardia cancer patients. In non-cardia cancer patients, total gastrectomy (HR, 2.147; 95% CI, 1.507–3.059), advanced T classification (HR, 2.158; 95% CI, 1.425–3.266), lymph node metastasis (HR, 1.854; 95% CI, 1.250–2.750), and a low Foxp3/CD4 ratio (HR, 0.978; 95% CI, 0.959–0.997) were poor prognostic factors for survival. @*Conclusions@#The densities and prognostic effects of TILs differed in relation to the location of tumors within the stomach. The contrasting prognostic effects of Foxp3/CD4 ratio in cardia and non-cardia gastric cancer patients suggests that clinicians ought to consider tumor location when determining treatment strategies.

4.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1153-1161, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831147

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#High microsatellite instability (MSI) is related to good prognosis in gastric cancer. We aimed to identify the prognostic factors of patients with recurrent gastric cancer and investigate the role of MSI as a prognostic and predictive biomarker of survival after tumor recurrence. @*Materials and Methods@#This retrospective cohort study enrolled patients treated for stage II/III gastric cancer who developed tumor recurrence and in whom the MSI status or mismatch repair (MMR) status of the tumor was known. MSI status and the expression of MMR proteins were evaluated using polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis, respectively. @*Results@#Of the 790 patients included, 64 (8.1%) had high MSI status or MMR deficiency. The tumor-node-metastasis stage, type of recurrence, Lauren classification, chemotherapy after recurrence, and interval to recurrence were independently associated with survival after tumor recurrence. The MSI/MMR status and receiving adjuvant chemotherapy were not associated with survival after recurrence. In a subgroup analysis of patients with high MSI or MMR-deficient gastric cancer, those who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy had better treatment response to chemotherapy after recurrence than those who received adjuvant chemotherapy. @*Conclusion@#Patients with high MSI/MMR-deficient gastric cancer should be spared from adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery, but aggressive chemotherapy after recurrence should be considered. Higher tumor-node-metastasis stage, Lauren classification, interval to recurrence, and type of recurrence are associated with survival after tumor recurrence and should thus be considered when establishing a treatment plan and designing clinical trials targeting recurrent gastric cancer.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763114

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Identification of biomarkers to predict recurrence risk is essential to improve adjuvant treatment strategies in stage II/III gastric cancer patients. This study evaluated biomarkers for predicting survival after surgical resection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This post-hoc analysis evaluated patients from the CLASSIC trial who underwent D2 gastrectomywith orwithout adjuvant chemotherapy (capecitabine plus oxaliplatin) at the Yonsei Cancer Center. Tumor expressions of thymidylate synthase (TS), excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1), and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) were evaluated by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining to determine their predictive values. RESULTS: Among 139 patients, IHC analysis revealed high tumor expression of TS (n=22, 15.8%), ERCC1 (n=23, 16.5%), and PD-L1 (n=42, 30.2%) in the subset of patients. Among all patients, high TS expression tended to predict poor disease-free survival (DFS; hazard ratio [HR], 1.80; p=0.053), whereas PD-L1 positivity was associated with favorable DFS (HR, 0.33; p=0.001) and overall survival (OS; HR, 0.38; p=0.009) in multivariate Cox analysis. In the subgroup analysis, poor DFS was independently predicted by high TS expression (HR, 2.51; p=0.022) in the adjuvant chemotherapy subgroup (n=66). High PD-L1 expression was associated with favorable DFS (HR, 0.25; p=0.011) and OS (HR, 0.22; p=0.015) only in the surgery-alone subgroup (n=73). The prognostic impact of high ERCC1 expression was not significant in the multivariate Cox analysis. CONCLUSION: This study shows that high TS expression is a predictive factor for worse outcomes on capecitabine plus oxaliplatin adjuvant chemotherapy, whereas PD-L1 expression is a favorable prognostic factor in locally advanced gastric cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Capecitabine , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Disease-Free Survival , DNA Repair , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Recurrence , Stomach Neoplasms , Thymidylate Synthase
6.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 212-224, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764485

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Splenic hilar lymph node dissection (LND) during total gastrectomy is regarded as the standard treatment for proximal advanced gastric cancer (AGC). This study aimed to investigate whether splenic hilar LND or D2 LND is essential for proximal AGC of pT2-4aN0M0 stage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of curative total gastrectomies (n=370) performed from 2000 to 2010 for proximal AGC of pT2-4aN0 stage were retrospectively reviewed. Clinicopathological characteristics and long-term outcomes were compared using propensity score matching between patients who underwent splenectomy (n=43) and those who did not (n=327) and between patients who underwent D2 LND (n=122) and those who underwent D1+ LND (n=248). RESULTS: Tumors of larger size and a more advanced T stage and significantly lower overall and relapse-free survival (P<0.001) were observed in the splenectomy group than in the 2 spleen-preserving groups. Before propensity score matching, worse overall and relapse-free survival (P<0.001) was observed in the splenectomy group than in the non-splenectomy group. After matching, although the overall survival became similar (P=0.123), relapse-free survival was worse in the splenectomy group (P=0.021). Compared with D1+ LND, D2 LND had no positive impact on the overall (P=0.619) and relapse-free survival (P=0.112) after propensity score matching. CONCLUSIONS: Splenic hilar LND with or without splenectomy may not have an oncological benefit for patients with pathological AGC with no LN metastasis.


Subject(s)
Gastrectomy , Humans , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , Splenectomy , Stomach Neoplasms
7.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 427-437, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785959

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of microsatellite instability in early gastric cancer.MATERIALS AND METHODS: The microsatellite instability status of resected early gastric tumors was evaluated using two mononucleotide repeat markers (BAT25 and BAT26) and three dinucleotide repeat markers (D5S346, D2S123, and D17S250). Tumors with instability in two or more markers were defined as microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) and others were classified as microsatellite stable (MSS).RESULTS: Overall, 1,156 tumors were included in the analysis, with 85 (7.4%) classified as MSI-H compared with MSS tumors. For MSI-H tumors, there was a significant correlation with the female sex, older age, tumor location in the lower gastric body, intestinal histology, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), and submucosal invasion (P<0.05). There was also a trend toward an association with lymph node (LN) metastasis (P=0.056). In mucosal gastric cancer, there was no significant difference in MSI status in tumors with LN metastasis or tumors with LVI. In submucosal gastric cancer, LVI was more frequently observed in MSI-H than in MSS tumors (38.9% vs. 25.0%, P=0.027), but there was no difference in the presence of LN metastases. The prognosis of MSI-H tumors was similar to that of MSS tumors (log-rank test, P=0.797, the hazard ratio for MSI-H was adjusted by age, sex, pT stage, and the number of metastatic LNs, 0.932; 95% confidence interval, 0.423–2.054; P=0.861).CONCLUSIONS: MSI status was not useful in predicting prognosis in early gastric cancer. However, the frequent presence of LVI in early MSI-H gastric cancer may help guide the appropriate treatment for patients, such as endoscopic treatment or limited LN surgical dissection.


Subject(s)
Dinucleotide Repeats , Female , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Microsatellite Instability , Microsatellite Repeats , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Stomach Neoplasms
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719724

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We conducted a randomized, multicenter, phase III trial to compare S-1 plus docetaxel (DS) with S-1 plus cisplatin (SP) as adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III gastric cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stage III gastric cancer patients who had received curative gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy were randomized into equal groups to receive adjuvant chemotherapy of eight cycles of DS (S-1 70 mg/m2/day on days 1-14 plus docetaxel 35 mg/m2on days 1 and 8) every 3 weeks or SP (S-1 70 mg/m2/day on days 1-14 plus cisplatin 60 mg/m2on day 1) every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate. RESULTS: Between November 2010 and July 2013, 153 patients (75 patients to DS and 78 patients to SP) were enrolled from 8 institutions in Korea. After the capecitabine plus oxaliplatin was approved based on the CLASSIC study, itwas decided to close the study early. With a median follow-up duration of 56.9 months, the 3-year DFS rate between two groups was not significantly different (49.14% in DS group vs. 52.5% in SP group). The most common grade 3-4 adverse event was neutropenia (42.7% in DS and 38.5% in SP, p=0.351). SP group had more grade 3-4 anemia (1.3% vs. 11.5%, p=0.037), whereas grade 3-4 hand-foot syndrome (4.1% vs. 0%, p=0.025) and mucositis (10.7% vs. 2.6%, p=0.001) were more common in DS group. Fifty-one patients (68%) in DS group and 52 (66.7%) in SP group finished planned treatment. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that SP or DS is an effective and tolerable option for patients with curatively resected stage III gastric cancer.


Subject(s)
Anemia , Capecitabine , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Cisplatin , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Gastrectomy , Hand-Foot Syndrome , Humans , Korea , Lymph Node Excision , Mucositis , Neutropenia , Stomach Neoplasms
9.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 132-139, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742526

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Clinical implications of single patient classifier (SPC) and microsatellite instability (MSI) in stage II/III gastric cancer have been reported. We investigated SPC and the status of MSI and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as combinatory biomarkers to predict the prognosis and responsiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II/III gastric cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tumor specimens and clinical information were collected from patients enrolled in CLASSIC trial, a randomized controlled study of capecitabine plus oxaliplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy. The results of nine-gene based SPC assay were classified as prognostication (SPC-prognosis) and prediction of chemotherapy benefit (SPC-prediction). Five quasimonomorphic mononucleotide markers were used to assess tumor MSI status. EBV-encoded small RNA in situ hybridization was performed to define EBV status. RESULTS: There were positive associations among SPC, MSI, and EBV statuses among 586 patients. In multivariate analysis of disease-free survival, SPC-prognosis [hazard ratio (HR): 1.879 (1.101–3.205), 2.399 (1.415–4.067), p=0.003] and MSI status (HR: 0.363, 95% confidence interval: 0.161–0.820, p=0.015) were independent prognostic factors along with age, Lauren classification, TNM stage, and chemotherapy. Patient survival of SPC-prognosis was well stratified regardless of EBV status and in microsatellite stable (MSS) group, but not in MSI-high group. Significant survival benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy was observed by SPC-Prediction in MSS and EBV-negative gastric cancer. CONCLUSION: SPC, MSI, and EBV statuses could be used in combination to predict the prognosis and responsiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II/III gastric cancer.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Capecitabine , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Classification , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , In Situ Hybridization , Microsatellite Instability , Microsatellite Repeats , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , RNA , Stomach Neoplasms
10.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 142-151, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715196

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The modification of the cancer classification system aimed to improve the classical anatomy-based tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) staging by considering tumor biology, which is associated with patient prognosis, because such information provides additional precision and flexibility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We previously developed an mRNA expression-based single patient classifier (SPC) algorithm that could predict the prognosis of patients with stage II/III gastric cancer. We also validated its utilization in clinical settings. The prognostic single patient classifier (pSPC) differentiates based on 3 prognostic groups (low-, intermediate-, and high-risk), and these groups were considered as independent prognostic factors along with TNM stages. We evaluated whether the modified TNM staging system based on the pSPC has a better prognostic performance than the TNM 8th edition staging system. The data of 652 patients who underwent gastrectomy with curative intent for gastric cancer between 2000 and 2004 were evaluated. Furthermore, 2 other cohorts (n=307 and 625) from a previous study were assessed. Thus, 1,584 patients were included in the analysis. To modify the TNM staging system, one-grade down-staging was applied to low-risk patients according to the pSPC in the TNM 8th edition staging system; for intermediate- and high-risk groups, the modified TNM and TNM 8th edition staging systems were identical. RESULTS: Among the 1,584 patients, 187 (11.8%), 664 (41.9%), and 733 (46.3%) were classified into the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups, respectively, according to the pSPC. pSPC prognoses and survival curves of the overall population were well stratified, and the TNM stage-adjusted hazard ratios of the intermediate- and high-risk groups were 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41–2.72; P < 0.001) and 2.54 (95% CI, 1.84–3.50; P < 0.001), respectively. Using Harrell's C-index, the prognostic performance of the modified TNM system was evaluated, and the results showed that its prognostic performance was better than that of the TNM 8th edition staging system in terms of overall survival (0.635 vs. 0.620, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The pSPC-modified TNM staging is an alternative staging system for stage II/III gastric cancer.


Subject(s)
Biology , Classification , Cohort Studies , Gastrectomy , Humans , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasm Staging , Pliability , Prognosis , RNA, Messenger , Stomach Neoplasms
11.
Gut and Liver ; : 635-641, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-175167

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Few studies have evaluated the effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on the prognosis of patients diagnosed with gastric cancer (GC) after curative surgery. We investigated the association between the H. pylori infection status and clinical outcome after surgery. METHODS: We assessed the H. pylori status of 314 patients who underwent curative resection for GC. The H. pylori status was examined using a rapid urease test 2 months after resection. Patients were followed for 10 years after surgery. RESULTS: An H. pylori infection was observed in 128 of 314 patients. The median follow-up period was 93.5 months. A Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that patients with H. pylori had a higher cumulative survival rate than those who were negative for H. pylori. Patients with stage II cancer who tested negative for H. pylori were associated with a poor outcome. In a multivariate analysis, H. pylori-negative status was a significant independent prognostic factor for poor overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: Having a negative H. pylori infection status seems to indicate poor prognosis for patients with GC who have undergone curative resection. Further prospective controlled studies are needed to evaluate the mechanism by which H. pylori affects GC patients after curative surgery in Korea.


Subject(s)
Follow-Up Studies , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Korea , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Stomach Neoplasms , Survival Rate , Urease
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225237

ABSTRACT

Gastric cancer is a global health burden and has the highest incidence in East Asia. This disease is complex in nature because it arises from multiple interactions of genetic, local environmental, and host factors, resulting in biological heterogeneity. This genetic intricacy converges on molecular characteristics reflecting the pathophysiology, tumor biology, and clinical outcome. Therefore, understanding the molecular characteristics at a genomic level is pivotal to improving the clinical care of patients with gastric cancer. A recent landmark study, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project, showed the molecular landscape of gastric cancer through a comprehensive molecular evaluation of 295 primary gastric cancers. The proposed molecular classification divided gastric cancer into four subtypes: Epstein-Barr virus-positive, microsatellite unstable, genomic stable, and chromosomal instability. This information will be taken into account in future clinical trials and will be translated into clinical therapeutic decisions. To fully realize the clinical benefit, many challenges must be overcome. Rapid growth of high-throughput biology and functional validation of molecular targets will further deepen our knowledge of molecular dimensions of this cancer, allowing for personalized precision medicine.


Subject(s)
Biology , Chromosomal Instability , Classification , Far East , Genome , Humans , Incidence , Microsatellite Repeats , Population Characteristics , Stomach Neoplasms , Translational Medical Research
13.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 182-190, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-216432

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to establish a large-scale database of patients with gastric cancer to facilitate the development of a national-cancer management system and a comprehensive cancer control policy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An observational prospective cohort study on gastric cancer was initiated in 2010. A total of 14 cancer centers throughout the country and 152 researchers were involved in this study. Patient enrollment began in January 2011, and data regarding clinicopathological characteristics, life style-related factors, quality of life, as well as diet diaries were collected. RESULTS: In total, 4,963 patients were enrolled until December 2014, and approximately 5% of all Korean patients with gastric cancer annually were included. The mean age was 58.2±11.5 years, and 68.2% were men. The number of patients in each stage was as follows: 3,394 patients (68.4%) were in stage IA/B; 514 patients (10.4%), in stage IIA/B; 469 patients (9.5%), in stage IIIA/B/C; and 127 patients (2.6%), in stage IV. Surgical treatment was performed in 3,958 patients (79.8%), endoscopic resection was performed in 700 patients (14.1%), and 167 patients (3.4%) received palliative chemotherapy. The response rate for the questionnaire on the quality of life was 95%; however, diet diaries were only collected for 27% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: To provide comprehensive information on gastric cancer for patients, physicians, and government officials, a large-scale database of Korean patients with gastric cancer was established. Based on the findings of this cohort study, an effective cancer management system and national cancer control policy could be developed.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Diet , Drug Therapy , Humans , Korea , Male , Occupational Groups , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Stomach Neoplasms
14.
Asian Oncology Nursing ; : 85-93, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160161

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of a standardized preoperative education program on self-care knowledge, performance, satisfaction, and physical recovery in the stomach cancer patients undergoing gastrectomy. METHODS: A nonequivalent control group non-synchronized design was utilized and 63 participants who underwent gastrectomy (31 for experimental group, 32 for control group) were recruited at a university hospital from May to August 2015. RESULTS: There were significant differences between the groups in self-care knowledge (F=17.63, p<.001), performance (F=-9.25, p<.001) and satisfaction (F=-6.91, p<.001). Although the pain levels (F=974.57, p<.001) showed significant differences in each group and 3 time intervals (F=18.26, p<.001), there was no interaction of group and time (F=0.09, p=.917). The highest body temperature at 48 hours after surgery (F=1.32, p=.192), as well as presence of atelectasis (F=2.23, p=.213) indicating a chance of pulmonary complications, and the time of first gas pass (F=-1.05, p=.299), presence of paralytic ileus (F=0.13, p=.719) were not significantly differ. CONCLUSION: The preoperative education program developed in this study can be utilized as a part of nursing interventions and be beneficial to patients who undergo stomach cancer surgery for their thorough understanding.


Subject(s)
Body Temperature , Education , Gastrectomy , Humans , Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction , Nursing , Patient Education as Topic , Pulmonary Atelectasis , Self Care , Stomach Neoplasms , Stomach
15.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1294-1297, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-79759

ABSTRACT

East Asian surgeons generally report lower morbidity and mortality rates for gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy than do surgeons in Western countries; however, the disparity remains unexplained. The aim of this article was to determine the feasibility and safety regarding cases in which East Asian surgeons perform such procedures in Caucasian patients (CPs). Twelve CPs underwent gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy for gastric cancer at Yonsei University Severance Hospital, Seoul, Korea between June 2011 and April 2014. Procedures performed included total gastrectomy (7 of 12, 58%), distal gastrectomy (4 of 12, 33%), and completion total gastrectomy (1 of 12, 8%). Nine patients (75%) underwent D2 lymphadenectomy, and D1+ lymphadenectomy was performed in three others (25%). In four patients (33%), combined resections were carried out. The median values of surgical parameters were as follows: operative time, 266.5 min (range, 120-586 min); estimated blood loss, 90 mL (range, 37-350 mL); retrieved lymph node count, 37.5 (range, 22-63); and postoperative hospital stay, 13.7 days (range, 5-63 days). No mortality was encountered, although two patients (17%) experienced complications (both Clavien-Dindo classification grade IIIa anastomotic leakages), which were successfully managed by conservative treatment. In the hands of East Asian surgeons, mortality and short-term morbidity appears to be acceptably low in CPs subjected to gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy for gastric cancer.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , European Continental Ancestry Group , Female , Gastrectomy/adverse effects , Humans , Length of Stay , Lymph Node Excision/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Operative Time , Patients , Pilot Projects , Republic of Korea , Safety , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Surgeons
16.
Gut and Liver ; : 629-635, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-216107

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The usefulness of immunohistochemistry to screen for the microsatellite instability (MSI) phenotype in gastric cancer remains unclear. Moreover, the prognostic value of MSI phenotypes in gastric cancer has been debated. METHODS: The clinicopathologic parameters and survival outcomes of 203 MSI-high (MSI-H) and 261 microsatellite-stable (MSS) advanced gastric cancers (AGCs) were compared. Next, we compared the immunohistochemistry results for hMLH1 and hMSH2 with those of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method. Kaplan-Meier curves and a Cox proportional hazard regression model were used to conduct survival analyses. RESULTS: The MSI-H AGCs were correlated with older age (p<0.001), female gender (p=0.018), distal location (p<0.001), larger size (p=0.016), and intestinal type (p<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that the MSI-H phenotype was an independent favorable factor that was related to overall survival in patients with AGC (p<0.001). Compared with the PCR-based analysis, immunohistochemistry exhibited high sensitivity (91.1%) and specificity (98.5%) in the detection of MSI phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS: MSI-H gastric cancers have distinct clinicopathologic features and better prognoses, which suggests the necessity of MSI analysis in gastric cancer. Immunohistochemistry can be a useful and reliable screening method in the assessment of MSI status in gastric cancer.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry/statistics & numerical data , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Microsatellite Instability , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sex Factors , Stomach Neoplasms/genetics
17.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 223-230, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-195759

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the association between adenosine triphosphate-based chemotherapy response assays (ATP-CRAs) and subsets of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in gastric cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 15 gastric cancer tissue samples were obtained from gastrectomies performed between February 2007 and January 2011. Chemotherapy response assays were performed on tumor cells from these samples using 11 chemotherapeutic agents, including etoposide, doxorubicin, epirubicin, mitomycin, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), oxaliplatin, irinotecan, docetaxel, paclitaxel, methotrexate, and cisplatin. TILs in the tissue samples were evaluated using antibodies specific for CD3, CD4, CD8, Foxp3, and Granzyme B. RESULTS: The highest cancer cell death rates were induced by etoposide (44.8%), 5-FU (43.1%), and mitomycin (39.9%). Samples from 10 patients who were treated with 5-FU were divided into 5-FU-sensitive and -insensitive groups according to median cell death rate. No difference was observed in survival between the two groups (P=0.216). Only two patients were treated with a chemotherapeutic agent determined by an ATP-CRA and there was no significant difference in overall survival compared with that of patients treated with their physician's choice of chemotherapeutic agent (P=0.105). However, a high number of CD3 TILs was a favorable prognostic factor (P=0.008). Pearson's correlation analyses showed no association between cancer cell death rates in response to chemotherapeutic agents and subsets of TILs. CONCLUSIONS: Cancer cell death rates in response to specific chemotherapeutic agents were not significantly associated with the distribution of TIL subsets.


Subject(s)
Adenosine , Adenosine Triphosphate , Antibodies , Cell Death , Cisplatin , Doxorubicin , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Drug Therapy , Epirubicin , Etoposide , Fluorouracil , Gastrectomy , Granzymes , Humans , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating , Methotrexate , Mitomycin , Paclitaxel , Pilot Projects , Stomach Neoplasms
18.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 231-237, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-195758

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Various laparoscopic wedge resection (LWR) techniques requiring gastrotomy for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) of the stomach have been applied to facilitate tumor resection and preserve the remnant gastric volume. However, there is the possibility of cancer cell dissemination during these procedures. The aim of this study was to assess the oncologic safety of LWR with gastrotomy (LWR-G) compared to LWR without luminal exposure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinicopathologic and operative results of 193 patients who underwent LWR for gastric GIST were retrospectively analyzed from 2003 to 2013. We stratified the patients into two groups: LWR-G and LWR without gastrotomy (LWR-C). Clinicopathologic features, short-term outcomes, and long-term outcomes were compared. RESULTS: A total of 26 patients underwent LWR-G, and 167 patients underwent LWR-C. The LWR-G group showed significantly more anterior wall-located (n=10, 38.5%), intraluminal (n=20, 76.9%), and ulcerative (n=13, 50.0%) tumors than the LWR-C group (n=33, 19.8%; n=96, 57.5%; n=46, 27.5%, respectively). Postoperative short-term outcomes did not differ between the two groups. When tumor staging was compared, no statistical difference was noted. There was no recurrence in the LWR-G group, while 2 patients in the LWR-C group experienced recurrence. The two recurrences in the LWR-C group were found in the liver and in the remnant stomach at 63 and 12 months after the operation, respectively. No gastric GIST-related death was recorded in any group during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: LWR-G for gastric GIST is an oncologically safe procedure even for masses with ulcerations.


Subject(s)
Gastric Stump , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors , Humans , Laparoscopy , Liver , Neoplasm Staging , Phenobarbital , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Stomach , Stomach Neoplasms , Ulcer
19.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 159-166, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-119748

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Laparoscopic total gastrectomy (LTG) is more complicated than laparoscopic distal gastrectomy, especially during a surgeon's initial experience with the technique. In this study, we evaluated the short-term outcomes of and learning curve for LTG during the initial cases of a single surgeon compared with those of open total gastrectomy (OTG). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2009 and 2013, 134 OTG and 74 LTG procedures were performed by a single surgeon who was experienced with OTG but new to performing LTG. Clinical characteristics, operative parameters, and short-term postoperative outcomes were compared between groups. RESULTS: Advanced gastric cancer and D2 lymph node dissection were more common in the OTG than LTG group. Although the operation time was significantly longer for LTG than for OTG (175.7+/-43.1 minutes vs. 217.5+/-63.4 minutes), LTG seems to be slightly superior or similar to OTG in terms of postoperative recovery measures. The operation time moving average of 15 cases in the LTG group decreased gradually, and the curve flattened at 54 cases. The postoperative complication rate was similar for the two groups (11.9% vs. 13.5%). No anastomotic or stump leaks occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Although LTG is technically difficult and operation time is longer for surgeons experienced in open surgery, it can be performed safely, even during a surgeon's early experience with the technique. Considering the benefits of minimally invasive surgery, LTG is recommended for early gastric cancer.


Subject(s)
Gastrectomy , Laparoscopy , Learning Curve , Lymph Node Excision , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Postoperative Complications , Stomach Neoplasms , Surgeons
20.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1177-1185, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-115931

ABSTRACT

Gastric cancer imposes a global health burden. Although multimodal therapies have proven to benefit patients with advanced diseases after curative surgery, the prognosis of most advanced cancer patients still needs to be improved. Surgical extirpation is the mainstay of gastric cancer treatment. Indeed, without curative surgery, variations and combinations of chemotherapy and/or radiation cannot bring clinically meaningful success. Centered around D2 surgery, adjuvant and peri-operative multimodal therapies have improved survival in a certain group of gastric cancer patients. Moving toward a personalized cancer therapy era, molecular targeted strategies have been tested in clinical trials for gastric cancer. With some success and failures, we have learned valuable lessons regarding the biology of gastric cancer and the clinical relevance of biological therapies in addition to conventional treatments. Future treatment of gastric cancer will be shifted to molecularly tailored and genome information-based personalized therapy. Collaboration across disciplines and actively adopting emerging anti-cancer strategies, along with in-depth understanding of molecular and genetic underpinnings of tumor development and progression, are imperative to realizing personalized therapy for gastric cancer. Although many challenges remain to be overcome, we envision that the era of precision cancer medicine for gastric cancer has already arrived and anticipate that current knowledge and discoveries will be transformed into near-future clinical practice for managing gastric cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Combined Modality Therapy , Female , Gastrectomy , Humans , Precision Medicine , Prognosis , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery
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