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1.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916310

ABSTRACT

Eales’ disease is an idiopathic disorder induced by ischemic retinal vasculitis, usually affecting the peripheral retina. We encountered a young patient diagnosed as cerebral infarction with a history of Eales’ disease. The patient’s middle cerebral artery showed multifocal stenosis with contrast enhancement, suggesting vasculitis. These findings might give clues to a rare cause of cerebral artery stenosis.

2.
Journal of Stroke ; : 113-123, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874951

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose To evaluate the outcome events and bleeding complications of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guideline-matched oral anticoagulant therapy for patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation (AF). @*Methods@#Patients with acute ischemic stroke and AF from a nationwide multicenter registry (Korean ATrial fibrillaTion EvaluatioN regisTry in Ischemic strOke patieNts [K-ATTENTION]) between January 2013 and December 2015 were included in the study. Patients were divided into the ESC guideline-matched and the non-matched groups. The primary outcome was recurrence of any stroke during the 90-day follow-up period. Secondary outcomes were major adverse cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events, ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, acute coronary syndrome, allcause mortality, and major hemorrhage. Propensity score matching and logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the effect of the treatments administered. @*Results@#Among 2,321 eligible patients, 1,126 patients were 1:1 matched to the ESC guidelinematched and the non-matched groups. As compared with the non-matched group, the ESC guideline-matched group had a lower risk of any recurrent stroke (1.4% vs. 3.4%; odds ratio [OR], 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18 to 0.95). The risk of recurrent ischemic stroke was lower in the ESC guideline-matched group than in the non-matched group (0.9% vs. 2.7%; OR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.88). There was no significant difference in the other secondary outcomes between the two groups. @*Conclusions@#ESC guideline-matched oral anticoagulant therapy was associated with reduced risks of any stroke and ischemic stroke as compared with the non-matched therapy.

3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833669

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose: The incidence of ischemic stroke (IS) in young adults is increasing, and the associated large socioeconomic impact makes understanding IS in young adults important. We investigated the causes of and risk factors for IS in young adults, and their impact on outcomes. @*Methods@#The Stroke in Korean Young Adults (SKY) study is a standardized multicenter prospective study involving eight medical centers of the Republic of Korea. First-ever IS patients aged 18 years to 44 years were prospectively included in this study within 7 days of stroke onset.Their outcomes at 3 months were analyzed. @*Results@#This study enrolled 270 patients from April 2014 to December 2018, most (67.8%) of whom were male. About 41.5% of the patients had one or more vascular risk factors from among hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. However, only half of them had received regular treatment. Arterial dissection was more common in males, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Moyamoya disease were more common in females. The outcome was favorable (modified Rankin Scale score of 0 or 1) in 81.9% of the patients at 3 months after stroke onset. More severe initial symptoms, higher initial glucose level, and SLE as a comorbidity were associated with unfavorable outcomes. @*Conclusions@#Young adult IS patients in Korea exhibit low awareness and poor management of their risk factors. Although the short-term outcome was relatively favorable in those patients, having SLE was associated with unfavorable outcomes. More attention needs to be paid for improving awareness and controlling risk factors in this population.

4.
Journal of Stroke ; : 108-118, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834639

ABSTRACT

Background@#and purpose Whether pharmacologically altered high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) affects the risk of cardiovascular events is unknown. Recently, we have reported the Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Asian Patients with Ischaemic Stroke at High Risk of Cerebral Haemorrhage (PICASSO) trial that demonstrated the non-inferiority of cilostazol to aspirin and superiority of probucol to non-probucol for cardiovascular prevention in ischemic stroke patients (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01013532). We aimed to determine whether on-treatment HDL-C changes by cilostazol and probucol influence the treatment effect of each study medication during the PICASSO study. @*Methods@#Of the 1,534 randomized patients, 1,373 (89.5%) with baseline cholesterol parameters were analyzed. Efficacy endpoint was the composite of stroke, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis examined an interaction between the treatment effect and changes in HDL-C levels from randomization to 1 month for each study arm. @*Results@#One-month post-randomization mean HDL-C level was significantly higher in the cilostazol group than in the aspirin group (1.08 mmol/L vs. 1.00 mmol/L, P<0.001). The mean HDL-C level was significantly lower in the probucol group than in the non-probucol group (0.86 mmol/L vs. 1.22 mmol/L, P<0.001). These trends persisted throughout the study. In both study arms, no significant interaction was observed between HDL-C changes and the assigned treatment regarding the risk of the efficacy endpoint. @*Conclusions@#Despite significant HDL-C changes, the effects of cilostazol and probucol treatment on the risk of cardiovascular events were insignificant. Pharmacologically altered HDL-C levels may not be reliable prognostic markers for cardiovascular risk.

5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766796

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the clinical characteristics of patients with non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment (naMCI) in a memory disorder clinic at a single center. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted involving 312 patients with naMCI from May 2011 to July 2018. Brain magnetic resonance imaging and detailed neuropsychological tests were performed in all patients. We used the proposed criteria for naMCI to classify the patients into single- and multiple-domain groups. We compared the baseline clinical characteristics, neuroimaging findings, and the rate of progression to dementia between these two groups. RESULTS: The 312 patients comprised 210 in the single-domain group (67.3%) and 102 in the multiple-domain group (32.7%). The mean age was significantly higher in the multiple-domain group than in the single-domain group. The years of education, mean Mini Mental State Examination score, and mean Clinical Dementia Rating Scale Sum of Boxes score were significantly lower in the multiple-domain group than in the single-domain group. The Z-scores of neuropsychological tests in most cognitive domains were significantly lower in the multiple-domain group than in the single-domain group. Compared to the single-domain group, the multiple-domain group showed more-severe medial temporal atrophy and contained a higher proportion of patients with moderate white-matter hyperintensities. Thirteen (8.4%) patients with naMCI progressed to dementia, most of who were diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. CONCLUSIONS: We present a single-center experience of clinical characteristics in patients with naMCI. Close observation of the clinical profiles of patients with naMCI may help identify individuals at the greatest risk of dementia.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Atrophy , Brain , Dementia , Education , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Memory Disorders , Cognitive Dysfunction , Neuroimaging , Neuropsychological Tests , Retrospective Studies
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764361

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The clinical implications of echocardiography findings for long-term outcomes in atrial fibrillation (AF)-related stroke patients are unknown. METHODS: This was a substudy of the Korean ATrial fibrillaTion EvaluatioN regisTry in Ischemic strOke patieNts (K-ATTENTION), which is a multicenter-based cohort comprising prospective stroke registries from 11 tertiary centers. Stroke survivors who underwent two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography during hospitalization were enrolled. Echocardiography markers included the left-ventricle (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF), the left atrium diameter, and the ratio of the peak transmitral filling velocity to the mean mitral annular velocity during early diastole (E/e′ ratio). LVEF was categorized into normal (≥55%), mildly decreased (>40% and <55%), and severely decreased (≤40%). The E/e′ ratio associated with the LV filling pressure was categorized into normal (<8), borderline (≥8 and <15), and elevated (≥15). Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were performed for recurrent stroke, major adverse cardiac events, and all-cause death. RESULTS: This study finally included 1,947 patients. Over a median follow-up of 1.65 years (interquartile range, 0.42–2.87 years), the rates of recurrent stroke, major adverse cardiac events, and all-cause death were 35.1, 10.8, and 69.6 cases per 1,000 person-years, respectively. Multivariable analyses demonstrated that severely decreased LVEF was associated with a higher risks of major adverse cardiac events [hazard ratio (HR), 3.91; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.58–9.69] and all-cause death (HR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.23–3.10). The multivariable fractional polynomial plot indicated that recurrent stroke might be associated with a lower LVEF. CONCLUSIONS: Severe LV systolic dysfunction could be a determinant of long-term outcomes in AF-related stroke.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Cohort Studies , Diastole , Echocardiography , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Atria , Hospitalization , Humans , Prospective Studies , Registries , Stroke , Survivors
8.
Journal of Stroke ; : 80-91, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740607

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Carotid plaques are a strong risk factor for ischemic stroke, and plaque rupture poses an even higher risk. Although many studies have investigated the pathogenic mechanisms of carotid plaque formation, few have studied the differences in molecular mechanisms underlying the rupture and non-rupture of carotid plaques. In addition, since early diagnosis and treatment of carotid plaque rupture are critical for the prevention of ischemic stroke, many studies have sought to identify the important target molecules involved in the rupture. However, a target molecule critical in symptomatic ruptured plaques is yet to be identified. METHODS: A total of 79 carotid plaques were consecutively collected, and microscopically divided into ruptured and non-ruptured groups. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction array, proteomics, and immunohistochemistry were performed to compare the differences in molecular mechanisms between ruptured and non-ruptured plaques. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the differences in ATP-binding cassette subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1) levels in the serum. RESULTS: The expression of several mRNAs and proteins, including ABCA1, was higher in ruptured plaques than non-ruptured plaques. In contrast, the expression of other proteins, including β-actin, was lower in ruptured plaques than non-ruptured plaques. The increased expression of ABCA1 was consistent across several experiments, ABCA1 was positive only in the serum of patients with symptomatic ruptured plaques. CONCLUSIONS: This study introduces a plausible molecular mechanism underlying carotid plaque rupture, suggesting that ABCA1 plays a role in symptomatic rupture. Further study of ABCA1 is needed to confirm this hypothesis.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Carotid Arteries , Early Diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Proteomics , Risk Factors , RNA, Messenger , Rupture , Stroke
9.
Journal of Stroke ; : 92-98, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740606

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Subclinical atherosclerotic plaques are common in patients with pontine infarctions (PIs) but without basilar artery (BA) stenosis. We hypothesized that BA plaque locations may differ by PI type and vertical location as well as vertebrobasilar artery geometry. METHODS: Ninety-six patients with PI but without BA stenosis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography were enrolled. PIs were classified by type (paramedian, deep, or lateral) and vertical location (rostral, middle, or caudal). Patients underwent high-resolution MRI to evaluate BA plaque location (anterior, posterior, or lateral). The mid-BA angle on anteroposterior view and angle between the BA and dominant vertebral artery (BA-VA angle) on lateral view were measured. RESULTS: The PIs were paramedian (72.9%), deep (17.7%), and lateral (9.4%) type with a rostral (32.3%), middle (42.7%), and caudal (25.0%) vertical location. The BA plaque locations differed by PI type (P=0.03) and vertical location (P < 0.001); BA plaques were most frequent at the posterior wall in paramedian (37.1%) and caudal (58.3%) PIs and at the lateral wall in lateral (55.5%) and middle (34.1%) PIs. The BA-VA and mid-BA angles differed by BA plaque and PI vertical location; the greatest BA-VA angle was observed in patients with posterior plaques (P < 0.001) and caudal PIs (P<0.001). Greatest mid-BA angles were observed with lateral BA plaques (P=0.03) and middlelocated PIs (P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Greater mid-BA angulation may enhance lateral plaque formation, causing lateral and middle PIs, whereas greater BA-VA angulation may enhance posterior plaque formation, causing paramedian or caudal PIs.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Basilar Artery , Brain Stem Infarctions , Constriction, Pathologic , Hemodynamics , Humans , Infarction , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Vertebral Artery
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-224468

ABSTRACT

The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is a potential cause of hyponatremia of the central nervous system (CNS). Although SIADH has been reported to be associated with many other central nervous disorders, its association with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) or NMO spectrum disorders are rare. NMO is a demyelinating disorder characterized by optic neuritis and transverse myelitis. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), which is the target antigen for a NMO autoantibody, is the predominant CNS water channel. However, some NMO patients show seronegative AQP4 antibody results. The spectrum of NMO has been changed, and new findings about the disease have been reported. Here, we report a case of seronegative NMO spectrum disorder associated with SIADH.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System , Demyelinating Diseases , Humans , Hyponatremia , Inappropriate ADH Syndrome , Myelitis, Transverse , Neuromyelitis Optica , Optic Neuritis , Water
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-188617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The benefit of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is directly influenced by the risk of perioperative adverse outcomes. However, patient-level risks and predictors including coronary stenosis are rarely evaluated, especially in Asian patients. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the vascular risk factors underlying CEA, including coronary stenosis, and postoperative outcome. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-three consecutive CEAs from our hospital records were included in this analysis. All patients underwent coronary computed tomography angiography before CEA. Data were analyzed to determine the vascular outcomes in patients with mild-to-moderate vs. severe coronary stenosis and high vs. standard operative risk, based on the criteria for high operative risk defined in the Stenting and Angioplasty with Protection in Patients at High Risk for Endarterectomy (SAPPHIRE) trial. The vascular outcome was defined as the occurrence of postoperative (< or =30 days) stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), or death. RESULTS: An adverse vascular outcome occurred in 8 of the 153 CEAs, with 6 strokes, 2 MIs, and 3 deaths. The vascular outcome differed significantly between the groups with mild-to-moderate and severe coronary stenosis (p=0.024), but not between the high- and standard-operative-risk groups (stratified according to operative risk as defined in the SAPPHIRE trial). Multivariable analysis adjusting for potent predictors revealed that severe coronary stenosis (odds ratio, 6.87; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-39.22) was a significant predictor of the early vascular outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Severe coronary stenosis was identified herein as an independent predictor of an adverse early vascular outcome.


Subject(s)
Aluminum Oxide , Angiography , Angioplasty , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary Stenosis , Endarterectomy , Endarterectomy, Carotid , Hospital Records , Humans , Myocardial Infarction , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Stents , Stroke
14.
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-202208

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We examined the characteristics of sleep disturbances and sleep patterns in the caregivers of patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and dementia. METHODS: We prospectively studied 132 patients (60 with aMCI and 72 with dementia) and their caregivers, and 52 noncaregiver controls. All caregivers and controls completed several sleep questionnaires, including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The patients were administered neuropsychological tests and the neuropsychiatric inventory to evaluate their behavioral and neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD). RESULTS: The PSQI global score was 6.25+/-3.88 (mean+/-SD) for the dementia caregivers and 5.47+/-3.53 for the aMCI caregivers. The Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and short form of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-S) predicted higher PSQI global scores in aMCI caregivers, and higher scores for the ISI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and GDS-S in dementia caregivers. BPSD, including not only agitation, depression, and appetite change in dementia patients, but also depression, apathy, and disinhibition in aMCI patients, was related to impaired sleep quality of caregivers, but nighttime behavior was not. Age and gender were not risk factors for disturbed sleep quality. CONCLUSIONS: Dementia and aMCI caregivers exhibit impaired quality of sleep versus non-caregivers. ISI, GDS-S, and ESS scores are strong indicators of poor sleep in dementia caregivers. In addition, some BPSD and parts of the neuropsychological tests may be predictive factors of sleep disturbance in dementia caregivers.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Apathy , Appetite , Caregivers , Dementia , Dementia, Vascular , Depression , Dihydroergotamine , Humans , Cognitive Dysfunction , Neuropsychological Tests , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-221322

ABSTRACT

Polycythemia vera (PV) is a chronic myeloproliferative disorder that is characterized by increased production of leukocytes, erythrocytes, and platelets. Arterial and venous thromobotic complications are common in the clinical course of this disorder. There have been a few reports of acute ischemic stroke with PV. A case of PV associated with progression of middle cerebral artery stenosis and recurrent ischemic stroke is presented herein.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets , Cerebral Infarction , Constriction, Pathologic , Erythrocytes , Leukocytes , Middle Cerebral Artery , Myeloproliferative Disorders , Polycythemia Vera , Polycythemia , Stroke
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-213043

ABSTRACT

Symptomatic bilateral striopallidodentate calcinosis is required to identify the underlying causes. Disorder of calcium metabolism, such as hypoparathyroidism is the most common cause. We report a patient with hypoparathyroidism induced intracranial calcification who presented seizure and psychotic symptoms in adult and finally diagnosed as a choromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.


Subject(s)
Adult , Calcinosis , Calcium , DiGeorge Syndrome , Humans , Hypoparathyroidism , Seizures
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