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1.
Mycobiology ; : 346-354, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902748

ABSTRACT

The genus Aspergillus is commonly isolated from various marine and terrestrial environments;however, only a few species have been studied in rhizosphere soil. As part of the Korean indigenous fungal excavation project, we investigated fungal diversity from rhizosphere soil, focusing on Aspergillus species. A total of 13 strains were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of three different plants. Based on phylogenetic analysis of β-tubulin and calmodulin and morphological characteristics, we identified five Aspergillus species. A. calidoustus and A. pseudodeflectus were commonly isolated from the rhizosphere soil. Four species were confirmed as unrecorded species in Korea: A. calidoustus, A. dimorphicus, A. germanicus, and A. pseudodeflecuts. The detailed morphological descriptions of these unrecorded species are provided.

2.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1240-1252, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902421

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To compare the accuracy for detecting breast cancer in the diagnostic setting between the use of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), defined as DBT alone or combined DBT and digital mammography (DM), and the use of DM alone through a systematic review and meta-analysis. @*Materials and Methods@#Ovid-MEDLINE, Ovid-Embase, Cochrane Library and five Korean local databases were searched for articles published until March 25, 2020. We selected studies that reported diagnostic accuracy in women who were recalled after screening or symptomatic. Study quality was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. A bivariate random effects model was used to estimate pooled sensitivity and specificity. We compared the diagnostic accuracy between DBT and DM alone using meta-regression and subgroup analyses by modality of intervention, country, existence of calcifications, breast density, Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System category threshold, study design, protocol for participant sampling, sample size, reason for diagnostic examination, and number of readers who interpreted the studies. @*Results@#Twenty studies (n = 44513) that compared DBT and DM alone were included. The pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.90 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.86–0.93) and 0.90 (95% CI 0.84–0.94), respectively, for DBT, which were higher than 0.76 (95% CI 0.68–0.83) and 0.83 (95% CI 0.73–0.89), respectively, for DM alone (p < 0.001). The area under the summary receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.95 (95% CI 0.93–0.97) for DBT and 0.86 (95% CI 0.82–0.88) for DM alone. The higher sensitivity and specificity of DBT than DM alone were consistently noted in most subgroup and meta-regression analyses. @*Conclusion@#Use of DBT was more accurate than DM alone for the diagnosis of breast cancer. Women with clinical symptoms or abnormal screening findings could be more effectively evaluated for breast cancer using DBT, which has a superior diagnostic performance compared to DM alone.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900338

ABSTRACT

Laparoscopic pancreatoduodenectomy (LPD) in pancreatic cancer is primarily criticized for its technical and oncological safety. Although solid evidence has not yet been established, many institutions are performing LPD for pancreatic cancer patients, with continuous efforts to ensure oncologic safety. In this video, we demonstrated a case of standard LPD combined with vascular resection in pancreatic cancer.

4.
Blood Research ; : 102-108, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897359

ABSTRACT

Background@#To estimate real-world outcomes in East Asian populations, we conducted a nationwide retrospective analysis of the efficacy and safety of lenalidomide for del(5q) myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients with transfusion-dependent anemia in Korea. @*Methods@#Patients aged ≥19 years who had received lenalidomide for the treatment of lower-risk, red blood cell (RBC) transfusion-dependent del(5q) MDS were selected. A filled case report form (CRF) with information from electronic medical records was requested from members of the acute myeloid leukemia (AML)/MDS Working Party of the Korean Society of Hematology. All the CRFs were gathered and analyzed. @*Results@#A total of 31 patients were included in this study. Of 28 evaluable patients, 19 (67.9%) achieved RBC transfusion independence (RBC-TI). Female sex and the development of thrombocytopenia during treatment were associated with achieving RBC-TI. The most common non-hematologic toxicities were pruritus, fatigue, and rashes. All non-hematologic toxicities of grades ≥3 were limited to rash (12.9%) and pruritus (6.5%). Dose reduction was required in 15 of the 19 responders (78.9%). The most common final stable dosing schedule for the responders was 5 mg once every other day (31.6%). @*Conclusion@#Lenalidomide efficacy and tolerability were similar in the Asian del(5q) MDS patients and western patients. Dose reduction during treatment was common, but it was not associated with inferior outcomes.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896979

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Inguinal hernia repair is one of the most common treatments worldwide, but there are few studies about the use of mesh in late adolescent patients because hernias are rare in this group. This study aimed to evaluate the postoperative outcomes of hernia repair with and without mesh in late adolescent patients. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the data of 243 male patients aged between 18 and 21 years who underwent inguinal hernia repair at a single institution from January 2013 to December 2017. We distinguished 2 groups depending on the repair method; mesh (n = 121) and no-mesh (n = 122) groups. We compared the baseline characteristics, immediate postoperative outcomes, and recurrence and chronic pain rates between the 2 groups. @*Results@#There were no significant differences between the mesh and no-mesh groups on immediate postoperative outcomes (length of stay: 18.5 ± 8.9 days vs. 17.0 ± 6.0 days, P = 0.139; postoperative complications: 8.2% vs. 6.6%, P = 0.821) and 2-year recurrence rate (0.8% vs. 2.6%, P = 0.194). There was a significant difference in the chronic pain rate (9.0% vs.1.7%, P = 0.023). @*Conclusion@#Using mesh for inguinal hernia repair in late adolescent male patients increases chronic postoperative inguinal pain.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896931

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate whether lumbar lordosis (LL) and lumbar segmental lordosis (LSL) are related to sex, age, low back pain (LBP), and lumbar disc space narrowing (DSN). @*Methods@#A total of 569 farmers were recruited. In lateral spine radiograph, LL (L1–L5) and LSL (L1, L2, L3, L4, and L5) were measured using Cobb’s method. The differences in LSL values (ΔLSL) according to the presence or absence of a DSN were calculated as LSLDSN – LSLnoDSN for each DSN level. @*Results@#In male, the lateral spine radiograph showed significantly greater L4-LSL and L5-LSL and smaller L1-LSL and L2-LSL compared to female. LLs in the 50–59 and ≥60 years age groups were significantly smaller compared to those in the <50 years age group. In subjects with LBP, LL and L4-LSL were significantly smaller than in those without. The ΔLSLs at the disc level with DSN showed the greatest decrease: L1-ΔLSL (Δ-3.99°), L2-ΔLSL (Δ-3.31°), L3-ΔLSL (Δ-2.87°), L4-ΔLSL (Δ-3.31°), and L5-ΔLSL (Δ-4.44°) in L1/2, L2/3, L3/4, L4/5, and L5/S1 DSN, respectively. Conversely, distant ΔLSLs were inversely increased: L1-LSL (Δ0.75°) with L4/5 DSN and L2-LSL (Δ0.94°) with L5/S1 DSN. @*Conclusion@#Sagittal plane alignment was significantly associated with sex, age, LBP, and DSN. LSLs around the levels of DSN were decreased, and there was compensational increase of LSL distant to the DSN to maintain the overall LL.

7.
Mycobiology ; : 346-354, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895044

ABSTRACT

The genus Aspergillus is commonly isolated from various marine and terrestrial environments;however, only a few species have been studied in rhizosphere soil. As part of the Korean indigenous fungal excavation project, we investigated fungal diversity from rhizosphere soil, focusing on Aspergillus species. A total of 13 strains were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of three different plants. Based on phylogenetic analysis of β-tubulin and calmodulin and morphological characteristics, we identified five Aspergillus species. A. calidoustus and A. pseudodeflectus were commonly isolated from the rhizosphere soil. Four species were confirmed as unrecorded species in Korea: A. calidoustus, A. dimorphicus, A. germanicus, and A. pseudodeflecuts. The detailed morphological descriptions of these unrecorded species are provided.

8.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1240-1252, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894717

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To compare the accuracy for detecting breast cancer in the diagnostic setting between the use of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), defined as DBT alone or combined DBT and digital mammography (DM), and the use of DM alone through a systematic review and meta-analysis. @*Materials and Methods@#Ovid-MEDLINE, Ovid-Embase, Cochrane Library and five Korean local databases were searched for articles published until March 25, 2020. We selected studies that reported diagnostic accuracy in women who were recalled after screening or symptomatic. Study quality was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. A bivariate random effects model was used to estimate pooled sensitivity and specificity. We compared the diagnostic accuracy between DBT and DM alone using meta-regression and subgroup analyses by modality of intervention, country, existence of calcifications, breast density, Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System category threshold, study design, protocol for participant sampling, sample size, reason for diagnostic examination, and number of readers who interpreted the studies. @*Results@#Twenty studies (n = 44513) that compared DBT and DM alone were included. The pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.90 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.86–0.93) and 0.90 (95% CI 0.84–0.94), respectively, for DBT, which were higher than 0.76 (95% CI 0.68–0.83) and 0.83 (95% CI 0.73–0.89), respectively, for DM alone (p < 0.001). The area under the summary receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.95 (95% CI 0.93–0.97) for DBT and 0.86 (95% CI 0.82–0.88) for DM alone. The higher sensitivity and specificity of DBT than DM alone were consistently noted in most subgroup and meta-regression analyses. @*Conclusion@#Use of DBT was more accurate than DM alone for the diagnosis of breast cancer. Women with clinical symptoms or abnormal screening findings could be more effectively evaluated for breast cancer using DBT, which has a superior diagnostic performance compared to DM alone.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892634

ABSTRACT

Laparoscopic pancreatoduodenectomy (LPD) in pancreatic cancer is primarily criticized for its technical and oncological safety. Although solid evidence has not yet been established, many institutions are performing LPD for pancreatic cancer patients, with continuous efforts to ensure oncologic safety. In this video, we demonstrated a case of standard LPD combined with vascular resection in pancreatic cancer.

10.
Blood Research ; : 102-108, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889655

ABSTRACT

Background@#To estimate real-world outcomes in East Asian populations, we conducted a nationwide retrospective analysis of the efficacy and safety of lenalidomide for del(5q) myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients with transfusion-dependent anemia in Korea. @*Methods@#Patients aged ≥19 years who had received lenalidomide for the treatment of lower-risk, red blood cell (RBC) transfusion-dependent del(5q) MDS were selected. A filled case report form (CRF) with information from electronic medical records was requested from members of the acute myeloid leukemia (AML)/MDS Working Party of the Korean Society of Hematology. All the CRFs were gathered and analyzed. @*Results@#A total of 31 patients were included in this study. Of 28 evaluable patients, 19 (67.9%) achieved RBC transfusion independence (RBC-TI). Female sex and the development of thrombocytopenia during treatment were associated with achieving RBC-TI. The most common non-hematologic toxicities were pruritus, fatigue, and rashes. All non-hematologic toxicities of grades ≥3 were limited to rash (12.9%) and pruritus (6.5%). Dose reduction was required in 15 of the 19 responders (78.9%). The most common final stable dosing schedule for the responders was 5 mg once every other day (31.6%). @*Conclusion@#Lenalidomide efficacy and tolerability were similar in the Asian del(5q) MDS patients and western patients. Dose reduction during treatment was common, but it was not associated with inferior outcomes.

11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916277

ABSTRACT

Application of robotic surgery in the field of general surgery has been increasing. This paper is an overview of the current uses and future perspectives of robotic surgery in four major divisions—endocrine, upper gastrointestinal, hepato-biliary-pancreatic (HBP), and colorectal surgery.Current Concepts: In endocrine surgery, cosmetic advantage is the highest priority when selecting a surgical approach for thyroidectomy. Currently, the transaxillary route is the most common approach. The introduction of the single-port system could maximize the advantages of this technique. In upper gastrointestinal surgery, the use of robots has the advantage of better retrieval of lymph nodes, less bleeding, earlier discharge, and less complications than the laparoscopic approach. However, a more prospective comparative trial is required to confirm those findings. In the HBP field, the indications of robotic surgery have expanded, starting with cholecystectomy to more challenging procedures, such as donor hepatectomy and pancreaticoduodenectomy. Meticulous dissection using robots could provide benefits to patients. In colorectal surgery, robotic surgery is an excellent technical tool for minimally invasive surgeries for rectal cancers, especially in male patients with narrow, deep pelvises. However, further studies are required to confirm the impact of robotic surgery on rectal cancers.Discussion and Conclusion: Robots are used to provide optimal surgical outcomes. Investigating new technologies and innovative surgical procedures is the highly important for a surgeon in the era of minimally invasive surgery.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913299

ABSTRACT

Povidone, also known as polyvinylpyrrolidone has high sterilizing power and low toxicity, and has been widely used in disinfectants, ointments, gels, shampoos, soap, and pharmaceutical tablet additives. Povidone‐iodine (Betadine) is a rare cause of IgE‐mediated allergy, and to our best of knowledge there have been no reports in Korea. We report the first case of anaphylaxis in Korea presumably caused by a trace amount of povidone contained in a tablet pill. An 18-year-old man experienced severe rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, eyelid swelling, cough, and dyspnea after taking multiple drugs at the same time for abdominal pain and diarrhea 20 days before the hospital visit. Symptoms disappeared after the treatment. He experienced similar symptoms after applying povidone to skin wounds 2 years ago. Among the drugs taken, these symptoms were assumed to be caused by a drug containing a trace amount of povidone. The remaining drug was tested by oral provocation, and there were no adverse reactions. He has avoided drugs containing povidone and has not experienced similar reactions for more than 1 year since then. Therefore, it is presumed that a systemic hypersensitivity reaction may occur due to a very small amount of povidone in a tablet pill.

13.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 86-90, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875599

ABSTRACT

Precise allergy diagnosis and effective allergen specific immunotherapy are largely dependent on the quality of allergen extract. A new extract of Dermatophagoides farinae was commercially developed by Prolagen. The allergenic properties of the new extract were compared with those of other commercial products. The allergenic properties of the new extract were compared according to protein concentration, protein profiles, major allergen (Der f 1) contents, and allergenic potency to those for three commercially available extracts imported in Korea (Jubilant HollisterStier Allergy, Lofarma S.p.A., and Stallergenes Greer). Protein concentrations varied up to 2.62-fold (0.404 to 1.057 mg/mL), and Der f 1 contents varied up to 11.3-fold (3.597 to 40.688 μg/mL). Protein profiles of the extracts showed no major discrepancies, although there were some differences in SDS-PAGE band intensities, reflecting protein concentrations. Allergen potency ranged from 37038 to 60491 PAU/mL. The Prolagen product was highest in terms of protein concentration and allergen potency. The Lofarma product displayed Der f 1 content similar to that in Prolagen (19.4 μg/mg vs. 19.3 μg/mg). Endotoxin levels varied 8.9-fold (1020 to 8985 EU/mL). The newly developed house dust mite extract showed equal or better allergenic properties than available commercial extracts. This new product may be useful for better diagnostics and allergen-specific immunotherapeutics.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875546

ABSTRACT

Background@#Intrapleural urokinase is one of the most widely used fibrinolytic agents in the treatment of complicated parapneumonic effusion (CPPE). However, little research has been performed on the optimal urokinase dosage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment efficacy of half dose urokinase compared with conventional dose urokinase. @*Methods@#We retrospectively enrolled 92 patients with CPPE or empyema who underwent intrapleural urokinase treatment at two tertiary hospitals. Patients received antibiotics, chest tube drainage, and other treatments as part of routine care. The primary outcome was the treatment success rate in the half dose urokinase group (50,000 IU daily for maximal 6 days) and the conventional dose urokinase group (100,000 IU daily). Treatment success was defined as clinical and radiological improvements without surgical treatment or re-admission within one month. @*Results@#Forty-four patients received half dose urokinase, whereas 48 patients were treated with conventional dose urokinase. Both groups were relatively well matched at baseline, excluding higher serum white blood cell count and higher empyema prevalence in the half dose urokinase group. The treatment success rate was not different between the two groups (p=0.048). There were no differences in the rate of in-hospital death and surgical treatment, hospitalization duration, and indwelling catheter duration. In the multivariate analysis, urokinase dose was not a predictor of treatment success. @*Conclusion@#Half dose intrapleural urokinase is equally effective conventional dose urokinase in treating patients with CPPE or empyema.

15.
Blood Research ; : 6-16, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874333

ABSTRACT

Venous thromboembolism (VTE), which includes pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis, is a condition characterized by abnormal blood clot formation in the pulmonary arteries and the deep venous vasculature. It is often serious and sometimes even fatal if not promptly and appropriately treated. Moreover, the later consequences of VTE may result in reduced quality of life. The treatment of VTE depends on various factors, including the type, cause, and patient comorbidities. Furthermore, bleeding may occur as a side effect of VTE treatment. Thus, it is necessary to carefully weigh the benefits versus the risks of VTE treatment and to actively monitor patients undergoing treatment. Asian populations are known to have lower VTE incidences than Western populations, but recent studies have shown an increase in the incidence of VTE in Asia. A variety of treatment options are currently available owing to the introduction of direct oral anticoagulants.The current VTE treatment recommendation is based on evidence from previous studies, but it should be applied with careful consideration of the racial, genetic, and social characteristics in the Korean population.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889275

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Inguinal hernia repair is one of the most common treatments worldwide, but there are few studies about the use of mesh in late adolescent patients because hernias are rare in this group. This study aimed to evaluate the postoperative outcomes of hernia repair with and without mesh in late adolescent patients. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the data of 243 male patients aged between 18 and 21 years who underwent inguinal hernia repair at a single institution from January 2013 to December 2017. We distinguished 2 groups depending on the repair method; mesh (n = 121) and no-mesh (n = 122) groups. We compared the baseline characteristics, immediate postoperative outcomes, and recurrence and chronic pain rates between the 2 groups. @*Results@#There were no significant differences between the mesh and no-mesh groups on immediate postoperative outcomes (length of stay: 18.5 ± 8.9 days vs. 17.0 ± 6.0 days, P = 0.139; postoperative complications: 8.2% vs. 6.6%, P = 0.821) and 2-year recurrence rate (0.8% vs. 2.6%, P = 0.194). There was a significant difference in the chronic pain rate (9.0% vs.1.7%, P = 0.023). @*Conclusion@#Using mesh for inguinal hernia repair in late adolescent male patients increases chronic postoperative inguinal pain.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889227

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate whether lumbar lordosis (LL) and lumbar segmental lordosis (LSL) are related to sex, age, low back pain (LBP), and lumbar disc space narrowing (DSN). @*Methods@#A total of 569 farmers were recruited. In lateral spine radiograph, LL (L1–L5) and LSL (L1, L2, L3, L4, and L5) were measured using Cobb’s method. The differences in LSL values (ΔLSL) according to the presence or absence of a DSN were calculated as LSLDSN – LSLnoDSN for each DSN level. @*Results@#In male, the lateral spine radiograph showed significantly greater L4-LSL and L5-LSL and smaller L1-LSL and L2-LSL compared to female. LLs in the 50–59 and ≥60 years age groups were significantly smaller compared to those in the <50 years age group. In subjects with LBP, LL and L4-LSL were significantly smaller than in those without. The ΔLSLs at the disc level with DSN showed the greatest decrease: L1-ΔLSL (Δ-3.99°), L2-ΔLSL (Δ-3.31°), L3-ΔLSL (Δ-2.87°), L4-ΔLSL (Δ-3.31°), and L5-ΔLSL (Δ-4.44°) in L1/2, L2/3, L3/4, L4/5, and L5/S1 DSN, respectively. Conversely, distant ΔLSLs were inversely increased: L1-LSL (Δ0.75°) with L4/5 DSN and L2-LSL (Δ0.94°) with L5/S1 DSN. @*Conclusion@#Sagittal plane alignment was significantly associated with sex, age, LBP, and DSN. LSLs around the levels of DSN were decreased, and there was compensational increase of LSL distant to the DSN to maintain the overall LL.

18.
Mycobiology ; : 431-442, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902715

ABSTRACT

Penicillium, the most common genus plays an important ecological role in various terrestrial and marine environments. However, only a few species have been reported from rhizosphere soil. As part of a project to excavate Korean indigenous fungi, we investigated rhizosphere soil of six plants in the forest (terrestrial habitat) and sand dunes (coastal habitat) and focused on discovering Penicillium species. A total of 64 strains were isolated and identified as 26 Penicillium species in nine sections based on morphological characteristics and the sequence analysis of b-tubulin and calmodulin. Although this is a small-scale study in a limited rhizosphere soil, eight unrecorded species and four potential new species have been identified. In addition, most Penicillium species from rhizosphere soil were unique to each plant. Penicillium halotolerans, P. scabrosum, P. samsonianum, P. jejuense, and P. janczewskii were commonly isolated from rhizosphere soil. Eight Penicillium species, P. aurantioviolaceum, P. bissettii, P. cairnsense, P. halotolerans, P. kananaskense, P. ortum, P. radiatolobatum, and P. verhagenii were recorded for the first time in Korea. Here, we provide the detailed morphological description of these unrecorded species.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897399

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate walking ability and balance improvement of patients with ataxia caused by brain lesions after end-effector type robot (Morning Walk® )-assisted gait training. This study randomly assigned 19 patients to one of two groups: 30 minutes of Morning Walk® training with 1 hour of conventional physiotherapy (Morning Walk® group; n = 10) or 1.5 hours of conventional physiotherapy (Control group; n = 9). Five treatment sessions per week were given for 3 weeks. The primary outcomes were walking ability and balance, which were assessed by the functional ambulation category (FAC) and Berg Balance Scale (BBS), respectively. The secondary outcomes included 10-meter Walk Test (10mWT), Rivermead Mobility Index (RMI), Motricity Index (MI), and Modified Barthel Index (MBI). At baseline, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups except MBI. After the treatment, the Morning Walk® group showed significant improvement in the FAC, BBS, 10mWT, RMI and MBI. The control group showed significant improvement in the BBS, 10mWT, RMI and MBI. Inter-group comparison demonstrated that the ∆FAC, ∆10mWT and ∆RMI of the Morning Walk® group were significantly higher than those of the control group. Our results suggest that the patients with ataxia receiving Morning Walk® -assisted gait training might improve greater in walking ability and balance than those trained with conventional physiotherapy.

20.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 471-480, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896619

ABSTRACT

Over-expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (Nox) isoform enzymes was recently reported in various cancers including Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL). However, the functions of Nox isoform enzymes in BL remain poorly understood. In this study, Nox isoform expression and the effects of a Nox-specific inhibitor were evaluated in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive Raji BL cells in comparison with EBV-negative Ramos BL cells. To evaluate Nox enzyme expression in Raji and Ramos BL cells, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot analysis were performed. To verify the intracellular signaling mechanism of the Nox inhibitor-induced apoptosis of Raji cells, WST-1 assay, trypan blue exclusion method, flow cytometry, PCR, western blotting, and bromodeoxyuridine staining were conducted. Experiments using the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD, reactive oxygen species scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), and Bim inhibitor 1 were performed. PCR and western blot results showed that Nox isoform enzymes were highly expressed in EBV-positive BL Raji cells compared with EBV-negative BL Ramos cells. The Nox2 inhibitor induced apoptosis of Raji cells in time- and dosedependent manners. The Nox2 inhibitor also caused up-regulation of Bim and Noxa, down-regulation of Mcl-1, translocation of Bax, release of cytochrome c, and caspase cascade activation, resulting in apoptosis. Furthermore, z-VAD, NAC, and BI-1 effectively blocked the Nox2 inhibitor-induced apoptosis of Raji cells. Taken together, these results provide a novel insight into the mechanism of Nox inhibitor-induced apoptosis and evidence for Nox as a therapeutic target to treat EBV-positive malignancies.

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