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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915429

ABSTRACT

Background@#Acute ischemic stroke is a time-sensitive disease. Emergency medical service (EMS) prehospital notification of potential patients with stroke could play an important role in improving the in-hospital medical response and timely treatment of patients with acute ischemic stroke. We analyzed the effects of FASTroke, a mobile app that EMS can use to notify hospitals of patients with suspected acute ischemic stroke at the prehospital stage. @*Methods@#We conducted a retrospective observational study of patients diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke at 5 major hospitals in metropolitan Daegu City, Korea, from February 2020 to January 2021. The clinical conditions and time required for managing patients were compared according to whether the EMS employed FASTroke app and further compared the factors by dividing the patients into subgroups according to the preregistration received by the hospitals when using FASTroke app. @*Results@#Of the 563 patients diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke, FASTroke was activated for 200; of these, 93 were preregistered. The FASTroke prenotification showed faster door-tocomputed-tomography times (19 minutes vs. 25 minutes, P < 0.001), faster door-to-intravenousthrombolysis times (37 minutes vs. 48 minutes, P < 0.001), and faster door-to-endovascularthrombectomy times (82 minutes vs. 119 minutes, P < 0.001). The time was further shortened when the preregistration was conducted simultaneously by the receiving hospital. @*Conclusion@#The FASTroke app is an easy and useful tool for prenotification as a regional stroke care system in the metropolitan area, leading to reduced transport and acute ischemic stroke management time and more reperfusion treatment. The effect was more significant when the preregistration was performed jointly.

2.
Journal of Stroke ; : 244-252, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900644

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose We aimed to develop a model predicting early recanalization after intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) treatment in large-vessel occlusion. @*Methods@#Using data from two different multicenter prospective cohorts, we determined the factors associated with early recanalization immediately after t-PA in stroke patients with large-vessel occlusion, and developed and validated a prediction model for early recanalization. Clot volume was semiautomatically measured on thin-section computed tomography using software, and the degree of collaterals was determined using the Tan score. Follow-up angiographic studies were performed immediately after t-PA treatment to assess early recanalization. @*Results@#Early recanalization, assessed 61.0±44.7 minutes after t-PA bolus, was achieved in 15.5% (15/97) in the derivation cohort and in 10.5% (8/76) in the validation cohort. Clot volume (odds ratio [OR], 0.979; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.961 to 0.997; P=0.020) and good collaterals (OR, 6.129; 95% CI, 1.592 to 23.594; P=0.008) were significant factors associated with early recanalization. The area under the curve (AUC) of the model including clot volume was 0.819 (95% CI, 0.720 to 0.917) and 0.842 (95% CI, 0.746 to 0.938) in the derivation and validation cohorts, respectively. The AUC improved when good collaterals were added (derivation cohort: AUC, 0.876; 95% CI, 0.802 to 0.950; P=0.164; validation cohort: AUC, 0.949; 95% CI, 0.886 to 1.000; P=0.036). The integrated discrimination improvement also showed significantly improved prediction (0.097; 95% CI, 0.009 to 0.185; P=0.032). @*Conclusions@#The model using clot volume and collaterals predicted early recanalization after intravenous t-PA and had a high performance. This model may aid in determining the recanalization treatment strategy in stroke patients with large-vessel occlusion.

3.
Journal of Stroke ; : 263-272, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900642

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Long-term changes in post-stroke depression (PSD), post-stroke emotional incontinence (PSEI), and post-stroke anger (PSA) have rarely been studied. @*Methods@#This is a sub-study of EMOTION, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, that examined the efficacy of escitalopram on PSD, PSEI, and PSA in patients with stroke. We interviewed patients at the long-term period (LTP) using predefined questionnaires: Montgomery-Åsberg depression rating scale (MADRS) for PSD, modified Kim’s criteria for PSEI, and Spielberger trait anger scale for PSA. Additionally, the ENRICHD Social Support Instrument (ESSI) for the social support state and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) were measured. We investigated the changes in and factors behind PSD, PSEI, and PSA at LTP. @*Results@#A total of 222 patients were included, and the median follow-up duration was 59.5 months (interquartile range, 50 to 70). Compared to the data at 6 months post-stroke, the prevalence of PSEI (11.7% at 6 months, 6.3% at LTP; P=0.05) and mean anger score (21.62, 16.24; P<0.01) decreased, while the prevalence of PSD (35.6%, 44.6%; P=0.03) and mean MADRS (6.16, 8.67; P<0.01) increased at LTP. ESSI was associated with PSD and PSA, but not with PSEI. The effect of the baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score on PSD decreased over time. The effect of low social support on PSD was greater than that of mRS at LTP. @*Conclusions@#The prevalence and degree of PSD significantly increased, while those of PSEI and PSA decreased at LTP. PSD in this stage appeared to be more closely associated with a lack of social support than patients' physical disabilities.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899148

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose: Blood pressure (BP) control is strongly recommended, but BP control rate has not been well studied in patients with stroke. We evaluated the BP control rate with fimasartan-based antihypertensive therapy initiated in patients with recent cerebral ischemia. @*Methods@#This multicenter, prospective, single-arm trial involved 27 centers in South Korea. Key inclusion criteria were recent cerebral ischemia within 90 days and high BP [systolic blood pressure (SBP) >140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) >90 mm Hg]. BP lowering was initiated with fimasartan. BP management during the follow-up was at the discretion of the responsible investigators. The primary endpoint was the target BP goal achievement rate (<140/90 mm Hg) at 24 weeks. Key secondary endpoints included achieved BP and BP changes at each visit, and clinical events (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03231293). @*Results@#Of 1,035 patients enrolled, 1,026 were included in the safety analysis, and 951 in the efficacy analysis. Their mean age was 64.1 years, 33% were female, the median time interval from onset to enrollment was 10 days, and the baseline SBP and DBP were 162.3±16.0 and 92.2±12.4 mm Hg (mean±SD). During the study period, 55.5% of patients were maintained on fimasartan monotherapy, and 44.5% received antihypertensive therapies other than fimasartan monotherapy at at least one visit. The target BP goal achievement rate at 24-week was 67.3% (48.6% at 4-week and 61.4% at 12-week). The mean BP was 139.0/81.8±18.3/11.7, 133.8/79.2±16.4/11.0, and 132.8/78.5±15.6/10.9 mm Hg at 4-, 12-, and 24-week. The treatment-emergent adverse event rate was 5.4%, including one serious adverse event. @*Conclusions@#Fimasartan-based BP lowering achieved the target BP in two-thirds of patients at 24 weeks, and was generally well tolerated.

5.
Neurointervention ; : 91-110, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895147

ABSTRACT

Although randomized control trials about endovascular treatment (EVT) of emergent large vessel occlusion (LVO) have demonstrated the success of mechanical thrombectomy as the choice of treatment, a wide range of caveats remain unaddressed. Asian patients were rarely included in the trials, thereby raising the question of whether the treatment could be generalized. In addition, there remains a concern on the feasibility of the method with respect to its application against intracranial atherosclerosis (ICAS)-related LVO, frequently observed in the Asian population. It is important to include evidence on ICAS LVO from Asian countries in the future for a comprehensive understanding of LVO etiology. Besides the issues with EVT, prognostic concerns in diabetes patients, acute kidney injury following EVT, neuroprotective management against reperfusion injury, and other peri-EVT issues should be considered in clinical practice. In the current article, we present an in-depth review of the literature that revises information pertaining to such concerns.

6.
Journal of Stroke ; : 244-252, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892940

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose We aimed to develop a model predicting early recanalization after intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) treatment in large-vessel occlusion. @*Methods@#Using data from two different multicenter prospective cohorts, we determined the factors associated with early recanalization immediately after t-PA in stroke patients with large-vessel occlusion, and developed and validated a prediction model for early recanalization. Clot volume was semiautomatically measured on thin-section computed tomography using software, and the degree of collaterals was determined using the Tan score. Follow-up angiographic studies were performed immediately after t-PA treatment to assess early recanalization. @*Results@#Early recanalization, assessed 61.0±44.7 minutes after t-PA bolus, was achieved in 15.5% (15/97) in the derivation cohort and in 10.5% (8/76) in the validation cohort. Clot volume (odds ratio [OR], 0.979; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.961 to 0.997; P=0.020) and good collaterals (OR, 6.129; 95% CI, 1.592 to 23.594; P=0.008) were significant factors associated with early recanalization. The area under the curve (AUC) of the model including clot volume was 0.819 (95% CI, 0.720 to 0.917) and 0.842 (95% CI, 0.746 to 0.938) in the derivation and validation cohorts, respectively. The AUC improved when good collaterals were added (derivation cohort: AUC, 0.876; 95% CI, 0.802 to 0.950; P=0.164; validation cohort: AUC, 0.949; 95% CI, 0.886 to 1.000; P=0.036). The integrated discrimination improvement also showed significantly improved prediction (0.097; 95% CI, 0.009 to 0.185; P=0.032). @*Conclusions@#The model using clot volume and collaterals predicted early recanalization after intravenous t-PA and had a high performance. This model may aid in determining the recanalization treatment strategy in stroke patients with large-vessel occlusion.

7.
Journal of Stroke ; : 263-272, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892938

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Long-term changes in post-stroke depression (PSD), post-stroke emotional incontinence (PSEI), and post-stroke anger (PSA) have rarely been studied. @*Methods@#This is a sub-study of EMOTION, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, that examined the efficacy of escitalopram on PSD, PSEI, and PSA in patients with stroke. We interviewed patients at the long-term period (LTP) using predefined questionnaires: Montgomery-Åsberg depression rating scale (MADRS) for PSD, modified Kim’s criteria for PSEI, and Spielberger trait anger scale for PSA. Additionally, the ENRICHD Social Support Instrument (ESSI) for the social support state and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) were measured. We investigated the changes in and factors behind PSD, PSEI, and PSA at LTP. @*Results@#A total of 222 patients were included, and the median follow-up duration was 59.5 months (interquartile range, 50 to 70). Compared to the data at 6 months post-stroke, the prevalence of PSEI (11.7% at 6 months, 6.3% at LTP; P=0.05) and mean anger score (21.62, 16.24; P<0.01) decreased, while the prevalence of PSD (35.6%, 44.6%; P=0.03) and mean MADRS (6.16, 8.67; P<0.01) increased at LTP. ESSI was associated with PSD and PSA, but not with PSEI. The effect of the baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score on PSD decreased over time. The effect of low social support on PSD was greater than that of mRS at LTP. @*Conclusions@#The prevalence and degree of PSD significantly increased, while those of PSEI and PSA decreased at LTP. PSD in this stage appeared to be more closely associated with a lack of social support than patients' physical disabilities.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891444

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose: Blood pressure (BP) control is strongly recommended, but BP control rate has not been well studied in patients with stroke. We evaluated the BP control rate with fimasartan-based antihypertensive therapy initiated in patients with recent cerebral ischemia. @*Methods@#This multicenter, prospective, single-arm trial involved 27 centers in South Korea. Key inclusion criteria were recent cerebral ischemia within 90 days and high BP [systolic blood pressure (SBP) >140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) >90 mm Hg]. BP lowering was initiated with fimasartan. BP management during the follow-up was at the discretion of the responsible investigators. The primary endpoint was the target BP goal achievement rate (<140/90 mm Hg) at 24 weeks. Key secondary endpoints included achieved BP and BP changes at each visit, and clinical events (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03231293). @*Results@#Of 1,035 patients enrolled, 1,026 were included in the safety analysis, and 951 in the efficacy analysis. Their mean age was 64.1 years, 33% were female, the median time interval from onset to enrollment was 10 days, and the baseline SBP and DBP were 162.3±16.0 and 92.2±12.4 mm Hg (mean±SD). During the study period, 55.5% of patients were maintained on fimasartan monotherapy, and 44.5% received antihypertensive therapies other than fimasartan monotherapy at at least one visit. The target BP goal achievement rate at 24-week was 67.3% (48.6% at 4-week and 61.4% at 12-week). The mean BP was 139.0/81.8±18.3/11.7, 133.8/79.2±16.4/11.0, and 132.8/78.5±15.6/10.9 mm Hg at 4-, 12-, and 24-week. The treatment-emergent adverse event rate was 5.4%, including one serious adverse event. @*Conclusions@#Fimasartan-based BP lowering achieved the target BP in two-thirds of patients at 24 weeks, and was generally well tolerated.

9.
Neurointervention ; : 91-110, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902851

ABSTRACT

Although randomized control trials about endovascular treatment (EVT) of emergent large vessel occlusion (LVO) have demonstrated the success of mechanical thrombectomy as the choice of treatment, a wide range of caveats remain unaddressed. Asian patients were rarely included in the trials, thereby raising the question of whether the treatment could be generalized. In addition, there remains a concern on the feasibility of the method with respect to its application against intracranial atherosclerosis (ICAS)-related LVO, frequently observed in the Asian population. It is important to include evidence on ICAS LVO from Asian countries in the future for a comprehensive understanding of LVO etiology. Besides the issues with EVT, prognostic concerns in diabetes patients, acute kidney injury following EVT, neuroprotective management against reperfusion injury, and other peri-EVT issues should be considered in clinical practice. In the current article, we present an in-depth review of the literature that revises information pertaining to such concerns.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874683

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose We aimed to determine whether the care process and outcomes in patients with acute stroke who received recanalization therapy changed during the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in South Korea. @*Methods@#We used data from a prospective multicenter reperfusion therapy registry to compare the care process including the time from symptom onset to treatment, number of treated patients, and discharge disposition and treatment outcomes between before and during the COVID-19 outbreak in South Korea. @*Results@#Upon the COVID-19 outbreak in South Korea, the number of patients receiving endovascular treatment to decrease temporarily but considerably. The use of emergency medical services by stroke patients increased from 91.5% before to 100.0% during the COVID-19 outbreak (p=0.025), as did the median time from symptom onset to hospital visit [median (interquartile range), 91.0 minutes (39.8–277.0) vs. 176.0 minutes (56.0–391.5), p=0.029]. Furthermore, more functionally dependent patients with disabilities were discharged home (59.5% vs. 26.1%, p=0.020) rather than staying in a regional or rehabilitation hospital. In contrast, there were no COVID-19-related changes in the times from the hospital visit to brain imaging and treatment or in the functional outcome, successful recanalization rate, or rate of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage. @*Conclusions@#These findings suggest that a prehospital delay occurred during the COVID-19 outbreak, and that patients with acute stroke might have been reluctant to visit and stay in hospitals. Our findings indicate that attention should be paid to prehospital care and the behavior of patients with acute stroke during the COVID-19 outbreak.

11.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831717

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing pandemic infection associated with high morbidity and mortality. The Korean city of Daegu endured the first large COVID-19 outbreak outside of China. Since the report of the first confirmed case in Daegu on February 18, 2020, a total of 6,880 patients have been reported until May 29, 2020. We experienced five patients with ischemic stroke and COVID-19 during this period in four tertiary hospitals in Daegu. The D-dimer levels were high in all three patients in whom D-dimer blood testing was performed.Multiple embolic infarctions were observed in three patients and suspected in one. The mean time from stroke symptom onset to emergency room arrival was 22 hours. As a result, acute treatment for ischemic stroke was delayed. The present case series report raises the possibility that the coronavirus responsible for COVID-19 causes or worsens stroke, perhaps by inducing inflammation. The control of COVID-19 is very important; however, early and proper management of stroke should not be neglected during the epidemic.

12.
Journal of Stroke ; : 108-118, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834639

ABSTRACT

Background@#and purpose Whether pharmacologically altered high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) affects the risk of cardiovascular events is unknown. Recently, we have reported the Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Asian Patients with Ischaemic Stroke at High Risk of Cerebral Haemorrhage (PICASSO) trial that demonstrated the non-inferiority of cilostazol to aspirin and superiority of probucol to non-probucol for cardiovascular prevention in ischemic stroke patients (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01013532). We aimed to determine whether on-treatment HDL-C changes by cilostazol and probucol influence the treatment effect of each study medication during the PICASSO study. @*Methods@#Of the 1,534 randomized patients, 1,373 (89.5%) with baseline cholesterol parameters were analyzed. Efficacy endpoint was the composite of stroke, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis examined an interaction between the treatment effect and changes in HDL-C levels from randomization to 1 month for each study arm. @*Results@#One-month post-randomization mean HDL-C level was significantly higher in the cilostazol group than in the aspirin group (1.08 mmol/L vs. 1.00 mmol/L, P<0.001). The mean HDL-C level was significantly lower in the probucol group than in the non-probucol group (0.86 mmol/L vs. 1.22 mmol/L, P<0.001). These trends persisted throughout the study. In both study arms, no significant interaction was observed between HDL-C changes and the assigned treatment regarding the risk of the efficacy endpoint. @*Conclusions@#Despite significant HDL-C changes, the effects of cilostazol and probucol treatment on the risk of cardiovascular events were insignificant. Pharmacologically altered HDL-C levels may not be reliable prognostic markers for cardiovascular risk.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764993

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients who survive an acute phase of stroke are at risk of falls and fractures afterwards. However, it is largely unknown how frequent fractures occur in the Asian stroke population. METHODS: Patients with acute (< 7 days) ischemic stroke who were hospitalized between January 2011 and November 2013 were identified from a prospective multicenter stroke registry in Korea, and were linked to the National Health Insurance Service claim database. The incidences of fractures were investigated during the first 4 years after index stroke. The cumulative incidence functions (CIFs) were estimated by the Gray's test for competing risk data. Fine and Gray model for competing risk data was applied for exploring risk factors of post-stroke fractures. RESULTS: Among a total of 11,522 patients, 1,616 fracture events were identified: 712 spine fractures, 397 hip fractures and 714 other fractures. The CIFs of any fractures were 2.63% at 6 months, 4.43% at 1 year, 8.09% at 2 years and 13.00% at 4 years. Those of spine/hip fractures were 1.11%/0.61%, 1.88%/1.03%, 3.28%/1.86% and 5.79%/3.15%, respectively. Age by a 10-year increment (hazard ratio [HR], 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17–1.30), women (HR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.54–1.97), previous fracture (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.54–1.92) and osteoporosis (HR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.27–1.63) were independent risk factors of post-stroke fracture. CONCLUSION: The CIFs of fractures are about 8% at 2 years and 13% at 4 years after acute ischemic stroke in Korea. Older age, women, pre-stroke fracture and osteoporosis raised the risk of post-stroke fractures.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Epidemiology , Female , Hip Fractures , Humans , Incidence , Korea , National Health Programs , Osteoporosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Spine , Stroke
14.
Neurointervention ; : 107-115, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760596

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Emergent intracranial occlusions causing acute ischemic stroke are often related to extracranial atherosclerotic stenosis. This study aimed to investigate the association between post-procedure intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and emergent extracranial artery stenting and assess their effects on clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patients undergoing hyperacute endovascular treatment for cervicocephalic vascular occlusion in three Korean hospitals between January 2011 and February 2016. Patients who had extracranial artery involvement and were treated from 24 hours of symptom onset to puncture were included in this study, and they were divided into the extracranial stenting (ES) and non-ES groups. Any type of petechial hemorrhages and parenchymal hematoma was defined as ICH for the current study. RESULTS: In total, 76 patients were included in this study. Among them, 56 patients underwent ES, and 20 patients did not. Baseline characteristics, risk factors, laboratory data, treatment methods, successful reperfusion rates, and baseline stenotic degrees of extracranial internal carotid artery did not differ between these two groups. However, atrial fibrillation was more frequent in patients without than with ES (P=0.002), and post-procedure ICH was more frequent in patients with than without ES (P=0.035). Logistic regression models revealed that ES was independently associated with post-procedure ICH (odds ratio [OR], 7.807; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.213–50.248; P=0.031), and ICH was independently associated with poor clinical outcomes (OR, 0.202; 95% CI, 0.054–0.759; P=0.018); however, ES itself was not associated with clinical outcomes (OR, 0.530; 95% CI, 0.117–2.395; P=0.409). Notably, ICH and ES had interaction for predicting good outcomes (P=0.041). CONCLUSION: Post-procedure ICH was associated with ES and poor clinical outcomes. Therefore, ES should be cautiously considered in patients with hyperacute stroke.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Atrial Fibrillation , Carotid Artery, Internal , Carotid Stenosis , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Cerebral Infarction , Constriction, Pathologic , Endovascular Procedures , Hematoma , Hemorrhage , Humans , Logistic Models , Punctures , Reperfusion , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stents , Stroke
15.
Neurointervention ; : 2-12, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-730352

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the influence of temporal patterns related to the availability of new endovascular treatment (EVT) devices on care processes and outcomes among patients with AIS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 720 consecutive patients (January 2011 to May 2016) in a retrospective registry, ASIAN KR, from three Korean hospitals, who received EVT for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) caused by cervicocephalic arterial occlusions. We performed period-to-period analyses based on stent retriever reimbursement and the availability of second-generation direct-aspiration devices (Period 1: January 2011–July 2014 vs. Period 2: August 2014–May 2016); time metrics and outcomes were compared when the onset-to-puncture time was <720 min among patients with EVT for intracranial occlusion. RESULTS: Period 2 had better post-EVT outcomes (3-month modified Rankin Scale 0–2 or equal to prestroke score, 48.3% vs. 60.2%, P=0.004), more successful reperfusion rates (modified Treatment In Cerebral Ischemia 2b–3, 74.2% vs. 82.2%, P=0.019), fewer subarachnoid hemorrhages (modified Fisher grade 3–4, 5.5% vs. 2.0%, P=0.034) and lower hemorrhagic transformation rates (any intracerebral hemorrhage, 35.3 vs. 22.7%, P=0.001) than Period 1. Compared to Period 1, Period 2 had a shorter door-to-puncture time (median 109 vs. 90 min, P<0.001), but longer onset-to-door time (129 vs. 143 min, P=0.057). CONCLUSION: Recent temporal improvements in post-EVT AIS outcomes in Korea are likely due to a combination of enhanced hospital care processes and administration of newer thrombectomy devices.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Brain Ischemia , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Cerebral Infarction , Humans , Korea , Learning Curve , Reperfusion , Retrospective Studies , Stents , Stroke , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Thrombectomy , Treatment Outcome
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765893

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Retinal artery occlusion can lead to sudden visual loss without pain. The acute management of retinal artery occlusion remains unresolved. CASE REPORT: A 65-year-old male was hospitalized to an emergency room for visual loss on the left side within 6 hours of onset. Combined occlusion at retinal artery and ciliary artery was confirmed by an ophthalmologist and we assessed ophthalmic artery occlusion. However, MRA revealed no significant steno-occlusion of internal carotid artery. Transfemoral cerebral angiography was carried out immediately and showed a movable thrombus at the orifice of the ophthalmic artery. We decided on endovascular thrombectomy to prevent permanent visual loss. Finally, his visual acuity was improved after successful thrombectomy. CONCLUSIONS: Although MRA is intact, small thrombus right at the orifice of the ophthalmic artery can cause a sudden monocular visual loss due to occlusion of the retinal artery. In this setting, urgent endovascular thrombectomy can offer visual improvement.


Subject(s)
Aged , Blindness , Carotid Artery, Internal , Cerebral Angiography , Ciliary Arteries , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Male , Ophthalmic Artery , Retinal Artery , Retinal Artery Occlusion , Thrombectomy , Thrombosis , Visual Acuity
17.
Journal of Stroke ; : 258-267, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714414

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The pathophysiology of post-stroke depression (PSD) is complex and may differ according to an individual’s mood immediately after stroke. Here, we compared the therapeutic response and clinical characteristics of PSD at a later stage between patients with and without depression immediately after stroke. METHODS: This study involved a post hoc analysis of data from EMOTION (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01278498), a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial that examined the efficacy of escitalopram (10 mg/day) on PSD and other emotional disturbances among 478 patients with acute stroke. Participants were classified into the Baseline-Blue (patients with baseline depression at the time of randomization, defined per the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS] ≥8) or the Baseline-Pink groups (patients without baseline depression). We compared the efficacy of escitalopram and predictors of 3-month PSD (MADRS ≥8) between these groups. RESULTS: There were 203 Baseline-Pink and 275 Baseline-Blue patients. The efficacy of escitalopram in reducing PSD risk was more pronounced in the Baseline-Pink than in the Baseline-Blue group (p for interaction=0.058). Several risk factors differentially affected PSD development based on the presence of baseline depression (p for interaction < 0.10). Cognitive dysfunction was an independent predictor of PSD in the Baseline-Blue, but not in the Baseline-Pink group, whereas the non-use of escitalopram and being female were more strongly associated with PSD in the Baseline-Pink group. CONCLUSIONS: Responses to escitalopram and predictors of PSD 3 months following stroke differed based on the presence of baseline depression. Our data suggest that PSD pathophysiology is heterogeneous; therefore, different therapeutic strategies may be needed to prevent PSD emergence following stroke.


Subject(s)
Affective Symptoms , Anger , Citalopram , Depression , Female , Humans , Random Allocation , Risk Factors , Stroke
18.
Journal of Stroke ; : 394-403, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717266

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Little is known about prognosis after endovascular therapy (EVT) for acute large artery occlusion (LAO) caused by underlying intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS). Therefore, we investigated the prognosis following EVT according to the underlying etiology of LAO. METHODS: Patients from the Acute Stroke due to Intracranial Atherosclerotic occlusion and Neurointervention-Korean Retrospective (ASIAN KR) registry (n=720) were included if their occlusion was in the intracranial anterior circulation and their onset-to-puncture time was < 24 hours. Occlusion was classified according to etiology as follows: no significant stenosis after recanalization (Embolic group), and fixed significant focal stenosis in the occlusion site with flow impairment or re-occlusion observed during EVT (ICAS group). Patients were excluded when significant extracranial carotid lesions existed, and when the intracranial occlusion was intractable to EVT so that the etiology was undetermined. The effect of angiographic etiologic classification on outcomes was evaluated using multivariable analysis that was adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Among eligible patients (n=520), 421 and 99 were classified in the Embolic and ICAS groups, respectively. Patients in the Embolic and ICAS groups had similar successful reperfusion rates with EVT (79.6% vs. 76.8%, P=0.537) and 3-month functional independence (54.5% vs. 45.5%, P=0.104). In multivariable analysis, ICAS-related occlusion (odds ratio, 0.495; 95% confidence interval, 0.269 to 0.913; P=0.024) showed poorer 3-month functional independence compared to embolic occlusion. CONCLUSIONS: After EVT, patients with acute ICAS-related occlusion have relatively poor functional outcomes compared to those with embolic occlusion. Novel strategies need to be developed to improve EVT outcomes for ICAS occlusion.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Atherosclerosis , Cerebral Infarction , Classification , Constriction, Pathologic , Embolism , Humans , Prognosis , Reperfusion , Retrospective Studies , Stroke , Thrombectomy , Treatment Outcome
20.
Journal of Stroke ; : 356-364, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51263

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy and safety of antiplatelet agents for the secondary prevention of ischemic stroke based on cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) polymorphisms. METHODS: This study was a prospective, multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, open-label, blind genotype trial. First time non-cardiogenic ischemic stroke patients were enrolled and screened within 30 days. Participants were randomized to receive either triflusal or clopidogrel for secondary stroke prevention. The primary outcome was the time from randomization to first recurrent ischemic stroke or hemorrhagic stroke. RESULTS: The required sample size was 1,080 but only 784 (73%) participants were recruited. In patients with a poor CYP2C19 genotype for clopidogrel metabolism (n=484), the risk of recurrent stroke among those who received triflusal treatment was 2.9% per year, which was not significantly different from those who received clopidogrel treatment (2.2% per year; hazard ratio [HR], 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60–2.53). In the clopidogrel treatment group (n=393), 38% had good genotypes and 62% poor genotypes for clopidogrel metabolism. The risk of recurrent stroke in patients with a good CYP2C19 genotype was 1.6% per year, which was not significantly different from those with a poor genotype (2.2% per year; HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.26–1.79). CONCLUSIONS: Whilst there were no significant differences between the treatment groups in the rates of stroke recurrence, major vascular events, or coronary revascularization, the efficacy of antiplatelet agents for the secondary prevention of stroke according to CYP2C19 genotype status remains unclear.


Subject(s)
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19 , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Cytochromes , Genotype , Humans , Metabolism , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Prospective Studies , Random Allocation , Recurrence , Sample Size , Secondary Prevention , Stroke
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