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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903888

ABSTRACT

The use of albendazole and mebendazole, i.e., benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintics, in treatment of parasitic infections, as well as cancers, is briefly reviewed. These drugs are known to block the microtubule systems of parasites and mammalian cells leading to inhibition of glucose uptake and transport and finally cell death. Eventually they exhibit ovicidal, larvicidal, and vermicidal effects on parasites, and tumoricidal effects on hosts. Albendazole and mebendazole are most frequently prescribed for treatment of intestinal nematode infections (ascariasis, hookworm infections, trichuriasis, strongyloidiasis, and enterobiasis) and can also be used for intestinal tapeworm infections (taeniases and hymenolepiasis). However, these drugs also exhibit considerable therapeutic effects against tissue nematode/cestode infections (visceral, ocular, neural, and cutaneous larva migrans, anisakiasis, trichinosis, hepatic and intestinal capillariasis, angiostrongyliasis, gnathostomiasis, gongylonemiasis, thelaziasis, dracunculiasis, cerebral and subcutaneous cysticercosis, and echinococcosis). Albendazole is also used for treatment of filarial infections (lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, loiasis, mansonellosis, and dirofilariasis) alone or in combination with other drugs, such as ivermectin or diethylcarbamazine. Albendazole was tried even for treatment of trematode (fascioliasis, clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, and intestinal fluke infections) and protozoan infections (giardiasis, vaginal trichomoniasis, cryptosporidiosis, and microsporidiosis). These drugs are generally safe with few side effects; however, when they are used for prolonged time (>14-28 days) or even only 1 time, liver toxicity and other side reactions may occur. In hookworms, Trichuris trichiura, possibly Ascaris lumbricoides, Wuchereria bancrofti, and Giardia sp., there are emerging issues of drug resistance. It is of particular note that albendazole and mebendazole have been repositioned as promising anti-cancer drugs. These drugs have been shown to be active in vitro and in vivo (animals) against liver, lung, ovary, prostate, colorectal, breast, head and neck cancers, and melanoma. Two clinical reports for albendazole and 2 case reports for mebendazole have revealed promising effects of these drugs in human patients having variable types of cancers. However, because of the toxicity of albendazole, for example, neutropenia due to myelosuppression, if high doses are used for a prolonged time, mebendazole is currently more popularly used than albendazole in anti-cancer clinical trials.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903885

ABSTRACT

We find out the clusters with high toxoplasmosis risk to discuss the geographical pattern in Gyodong-myeon and Samsan-myeon of Ganghwa-gun, Cheorwon-gun, and Goseong-gun, Korea. Seroepidemiological data of toxoplasmosis surveyed using rapid diagnostic tests for the residents in the areas in 2019 were analyzed to detect clusters of the infection. The cluster was investigated using the SaTScan program which is based on Kulldorff’s scan statistic. The clusters were found with P-values in each region analyzed in the program, and the risk and patient incidence of specific areas can be examined by the values such as relative risk and log likelihood ratio. Jiseok-ri and Insa-ri were found to be a cluster in Gyodong-myeon and Seokmo-ri was the cluster in Samsan-myeon. Yangji-ri and Igil-ri were found to be a cluster in Cheorwon-gun and Madal-ri and Baebong-ri were the cluster in Goseong-gun. This findings can be used to monitor and prevent toxoplasmosis infections occurring in vulnerable areas.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903876

ABSTRACT

Incidence of tsutsugamushi disease (scrub typhus) caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is steadily increasing. It is a mite-borne disease transmitted by chigger mites. In this study, the chigger mites were collected from field small mammals in Hwaseong-si (city), Gyeonggi-do (province), Korea, 2019 and 2020. The field small mammals captured were 56 Apodemus agrarius (94.9%) and 3 Crocidura lasiura (5.1%). A total of 7,531 chigger mites were collected from the captured small mammals. Using PCR test, 153 chigger mite pools were examined and 17 pools were reported positive for O. tsutsugamushi. The O. tsutsugamushi were identified to 5 strains; Jecheon strain was most prevalent, followed by Boryong strain. The other strains were OI011, Taguchi, and Shimokoshi. Collectively, these results provide essential regional information on mite-borne tsutsugamushi disease in the Hwaseong-si, and further contribute to bring awareness and rapid diagnosis for the tsutsugamushi disease.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903875

ABSTRACT

Ion channels are important targets of anthelmintic agents. In this study, we identified 3 types of ion channels in Ascaris suum tissue incorporated into planar lipid bilayers using an electrophysiological technique. The most frequent channel was a large-conductance cation channel (209 pS), which accounted for 64.5% of channels incorporated (n=60). Its open-state probability (Po) was ~0.3 in the voltage range of –60~+60 mV. A substate was observed at 55% of the main-state. The permeability ratio of Cl- to K+ (PCl/PK) was ~0.5 and PNa/PK was 0.81 in both states. Another type of cation channel was recorded in 7.5% of channels incorporated (n=7) and discriminated from the large-conductance cation channel by its smaller conductance (55.3 pS). Its Po was low at all voltages tested (~0.1). The third type was an anion channel recorded in 27.9% of channels incorporated (n=26). Its conductance was 39.0 pS and PCl/PK was 8.6±0.8. Po was ~1.0 at all tested potentials. In summary, we identified 2 types of cation and 1 type of anion channels in Ascaris suum. Gating of these channels did not much vary with voltage and their ionic selectivity is rather low. Their molecular nature, functions, and potentials as anthelmintic drug targets remain to be studied further.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896184

ABSTRACT

The use of albendazole and mebendazole, i.e., benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintics, in treatment of parasitic infections, as well as cancers, is briefly reviewed. These drugs are known to block the microtubule systems of parasites and mammalian cells leading to inhibition of glucose uptake and transport and finally cell death. Eventually they exhibit ovicidal, larvicidal, and vermicidal effects on parasites, and tumoricidal effects on hosts. Albendazole and mebendazole are most frequently prescribed for treatment of intestinal nematode infections (ascariasis, hookworm infections, trichuriasis, strongyloidiasis, and enterobiasis) and can also be used for intestinal tapeworm infections (taeniases and hymenolepiasis). However, these drugs also exhibit considerable therapeutic effects against tissue nematode/cestode infections (visceral, ocular, neural, and cutaneous larva migrans, anisakiasis, trichinosis, hepatic and intestinal capillariasis, angiostrongyliasis, gnathostomiasis, gongylonemiasis, thelaziasis, dracunculiasis, cerebral and subcutaneous cysticercosis, and echinococcosis). Albendazole is also used for treatment of filarial infections (lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, loiasis, mansonellosis, and dirofilariasis) alone or in combination with other drugs, such as ivermectin or diethylcarbamazine. Albendazole was tried even for treatment of trematode (fascioliasis, clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, and intestinal fluke infections) and protozoan infections (giardiasis, vaginal trichomoniasis, cryptosporidiosis, and microsporidiosis). These drugs are generally safe with few side effects; however, when they are used for prolonged time (>14-28 days) or even only 1 time, liver toxicity and other side reactions may occur. In hookworms, Trichuris trichiura, possibly Ascaris lumbricoides, Wuchereria bancrofti, and Giardia sp., there are emerging issues of drug resistance. It is of particular note that albendazole and mebendazole have been repositioned as promising anti-cancer drugs. These drugs have been shown to be active in vitro and in vivo (animals) against liver, lung, ovary, prostate, colorectal, breast, head and neck cancers, and melanoma. Two clinical reports for albendazole and 2 case reports for mebendazole have revealed promising effects of these drugs in human patients having variable types of cancers. However, because of the toxicity of albendazole, for example, neutropenia due to myelosuppression, if high doses are used for a prolonged time, mebendazole is currently more popularly used than albendazole in anti-cancer clinical trials.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896181

ABSTRACT

We find out the clusters with high toxoplasmosis risk to discuss the geographical pattern in Gyodong-myeon and Samsan-myeon of Ganghwa-gun, Cheorwon-gun, and Goseong-gun, Korea. Seroepidemiological data of toxoplasmosis surveyed using rapid diagnostic tests for the residents in the areas in 2019 were analyzed to detect clusters of the infection. The cluster was investigated using the SaTScan program which is based on Kulldorff’s scan statistic. The clusters were found with P-values in each region analyzed in the program, and the risk and patient incidence of specific areas can be examined by the values such as relative risk and log likelihood ratio. Jiseok-ri and Insa-ri were found to be a cluster in Gyodong-myeon and Seokmo-ri was the cluster in Samsan-myeon. Yangji-ri and Igil-ri were found to be a cluster in Cheorwon-gun and Madal-ri and Baebong-ri were the cluster in Goseong-gun. This findings can be used to monitor and prevent toxoplasmosis infections occurring in vulnerable areas.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896172

ABSTRACT

Incidence of tsutsugamushi disease (scrub typhus) caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is steadily increasing. It is a mite-borne disease transmitted by chigger mites. In this study, the chigger mites were collected from field small mammals in Hwaseong-si (city), Gyeonggi-do (province), Korea, 2019 and 2020. The field small mammals captured were 56 Apodemus agrarius (94.9%) and 3 Crocidura lasiura (5.1%). A total of 7,531 chigger mites were collected from the captured small mammals. Using PCR test, 153 chigger mite pools were examined and 17 pools were reported positive for O. tsutsugamushi. The O. tsutsugamushi were identified to 5 strains; Jecheon strain was most prevalent, followed by Boryong strain. The other strains were OI011, Taguchi, and Shimokoshi. Collectively, these results provide essential regional information on mite-borne tsutsugamushi disease in the Hwaseong-si, and further contribute to bring awareness and rapid diagnosis for the tsutsugamushi disease.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896171

ABSTRACT

Ion channels are important targets of anthelmintic agents. In this study, we identified 3 types of ion channels in Ascaris suum tissue incorporated into planar lipid bilayers using an electrophysiological technique. The most frequent channel was a large-conductance cation channel (209 pS), which accounted for 64.5% of channels incorporated (n=60). Its open-state probability (Po) was ~0.3 in the voltage range of –60~+60 mV. A substate was observed at 55% of the main-state. The permeability ratio of Cl- to K+ (PCl/PK) was ~0.5 and PNa/PK was 0.81 in both states. Another type of cation channel was recorded in 7.5% of channels incorporated (n=7) and discriminated from the large-conductance cation channel by its smaller conductance (55.3 pS). Its Po was low at all voltages tested (~0.1). The third type was an anion channel recorded in 27.9% of channels incorporated (n=26). Its conductance was 39.0 pS and PCl/PK was 8.6±0.8. Po was ~1.0 at all tested potentials. In summary, we identified 2 types of cation and 1 type of anion channels in Ascaris suum. Gating of these channels did not much vary with voltage and their ionic selectivity is rather low. Their molecular nature, functions, and potentials as anthelmintic drug targets remain to be studied further.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919312

ABSTRACT

The incidence of vivax malaria in Korea was reduced to a low plateau. For successful elimination of vivax malaria, socio-behavioral changes in the communities are essential. This study aimed to figure out awareness of the inhabitants on the vivax malaria endemicity. The 407 participants including vivax malaria patients and uninfected inhabitants in Gimpo- and Paju-si, Gyeonggi-do, known as high-risk areas in Korea. We used a community-based study design and non-probability sampling method using primary data. Except for the perception about the public health facilities’ capability to cope with anti-malaria programs, the 2 groups of participants shared the same level of awareness about public promotional and educational measures and opinions for malaria elimination from the community. Thus, our future goals for malaria prevention and elimination are to develop more active and well-organized community-based education and evaluation programs collaborating with the community healthcare authorities and local governments.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919309

ABSTRACT

The prevalence and intensity of Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae (OvMc) were investigated in fish from 3 southern administrative regions along the Mekong River in Cambodia, i.e., Phnom Penh, Takeo, and Kandal Provinces from 2017 to 2020. A total of 295 freshwater fish (24 species) were transported to our laboratory with ice and examined using the artificial digestion method. In Phnom Penh, among 4 fish species positive for OvMc, 9 (23.7%) of 38 specimens examined were infected, and their intensity of infection averaged 4.3 metacercariae per infected fish. In Takeo Province, among 10 fish species positive for OvMc, 24 (38.1%) out of 63 fish examined were infected, and their intensity of infection was av. 14.4 metacercariae per infected fish. In particular, all of 3 Osteochilus schlegelii fish examined were infected, and their infection intensity was high, 34.7 metacercariae per fish. In Kandal Province, among 6 fish species positive for OvMc, 46 (90.2%) out of 51 specimens examined were infected, and their infection intensity was 24.0 metacercaraie per infected fish. All fish of Systomus orphoides (n=17), Barbonymus altus (n=14), and Rasbora aurotaenia (n=2) were infected, and their intensity of infection averaged 37.7, 21.6, and 18.5 metacercariae per fish, respectively. Metacercariae of Haplochis yokogawai, Haplorchis taichui, and Centrocestus formosanus were detected in fish from Takeo and Kandal Provinces. From these results, it has been confirmed that a variety of fish species from Phnom Penh, Takeo, and Kandal Provinces are commonly infected with OvMc, and preventive measures to avoid human O. viverrini infection should be performed in Cambodia.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919303

ABSTRACT

This study was done to provide an analytical overview on the latest malaria infection clusters by evaluating temporal trends during 2010-2019 in Korea. Incheon was the most likely cluster (MLC) for all cases of malaria during the total period. MLCs for P. falciparum, vivax, malariae, ovale, and clinically diagnosed malaria without parasitological confirmation were Jeollanam-do, Incheon, Gangwon-do, Gyeongsangnam-do, and Jeollabuk-do, respectively. Malaria was decreasing in most significant clusters, but Gwangju showed an increase for all cases of malaria, P. vivax and clinically diagnosed cases. Malaria overall, P. falciparum and P. vivax seem to be under control thanks to aggressive health measures. This study might provide a sound scientific basis for future control measures against malaria in Korea.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919302

ABSTRACT

An understanding of the knowledges, attitudes and perceptions of different populations is key for public health policy makers. Here, a survey was performed on knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions about malaria diagnosis, prevention, control, and treatment. The 407 survey participants included both uninfected inhabitants and patients from 2 cities (Gimpo- and Paju-si) of Northern Gyeonggi-do, known as high-risk areas for vivax malaria. We used community-based study design and non-probability sampling method using the primary data. Association between variables were tested using χ2-tests. In general, the information on malaria reported by the participants in this study was unsystematic and included inaccurate details. The knowledge of malaria symptoms, identified as headache, chills and fever, was high, but the surveyed community lacks knowledge of the specific medications used for malaria treatment, with a large number of respondents having no knowledge of any form of medication. Survey questions with high correct answer rates included questions about easy treatment of malaria in Korea, the high daytime activity of malaria-borne mosquitoes, and the infection risk posed by outdoor activities. However, a large portion of the respondents was unable to provide simple medical and biological information about the disease. This study aimed to comprehensively evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practical behavior of the surveyed community with respect to malaria and the implications reported here could be applicable to other malaria endemic areas in Korea.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919301

ABSTRACT

Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are still a considerable challenge in Myanmar. We undertook a control program for STH infections (especially Trichuris trichiura) among schoolchildren in Myanmar using mass drug administration (MDA) and health education. Around 1,700 schoolchildren from 15 primary schools in 3 suburban districts (Shwe Pyi Thar, Twantay, and Kyauktan) of the Yangon Region were subjected in this study during 2017-2019. All of the schoolchildren in each school were orally administered albendazole (400 mg in a single dose) 2, 3, and 4 times a year in 2017, 2018, and 2019, respectively. The results revealed that the egg positive rate of any intestinal helminths (including STH) was reduced from 37.6% (649/1,724) in 2017 to 22.8% (352/1,542) in 2019. The egg positive rate of Ascaris lumbricoides was decreased remarkably from 23.3% (402/1,724) in 2017 to 3.6% (56/1,542) in 2019. However, that of T. trichiura was only slightly reduced from 26.9% (464/1,724) in 2017 to 20.2% (312/1,542) in 2019. The intensity of infection with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura was both more or less reduced, and the proportion of light infection cases with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura increased from 35.6% in 2017 to 64.3% in 2019 and from 70.3% in 2017 to 81.7% in 2019, respectively. The results indicated that repeated MDAs (2-4 times a year for 3 years) using albendazole on schoolchildren in Myanmar failed to control T. trichiura infection. For a successful control of trichuriasis in Myanmar, new MDA strategies, using a modified albendazole regimen (multiple daily doses for 2 or 3 days) or an alternative anthelmintic drug, such as oxantel pamoate, is strongly recommended.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875532

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence have been rapidly increasing in some parts of Korea. We analyzed prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies, using a rapid diagnostic test (RDT), in the sera of 552 residents in Ganghwa-gun, 661 ones in Cheorwon-gun, and 305 ones in Goseong-gun, Korea in 2019. IgG/IgM RDT mounted with recombinant fragment of major surface antigen (SAG1), glutathione-S-transferase-linker-SAG1A, were applied to the sera. IgG seroprevalence was 28.1% in Ganghwa-gun, 19.5% in Cheorwon-gun and 35.7% in Goseong-gun. Odds ratios comparing Cheorwon vs Ganghwa was 0.63 (P=0.001) and Goesong versus Ganghwa was 1.47 (P=0.01) adjusting age and sex. Goseong had highest seroprevalence among the 3 counties both in crude rates and logistic regression. Although Cheorwon and Goseong are adjacent to the demilitarized zone (DMZ) in Korea, seroprevalence rate was much higher in Goseong. Further investigation on other DMZ-closed areas is necessary whether they have high prevalence rates compared to the other areas. T. gondii prevalence in Korea is still persists; proper health policy should be established.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903851

ABSTRACT

This study was performed to find out the clusters with high parasite infection risk to discuss the geographical pattern. Clusters were detected using SatScan software, which is a statistical spatial scan program using Kulldorff’s scan statistic. Information on the parasitic infection cases in Korea 2011-2019 were collected from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Clusters of Ascaris lumbricoides infection were detected in Jeollabuk-do, and T. trichiura in Ulsan, Busan, and Gyeongsangnam-do. C. sinensis clusters were detected in Ulsan, Daegu, Busan, Gyeongsangnam-do, and Gyeongsangbuk-do. Clusters of intestinal trematodes were detected in Ulsan, Busan, and Gyeongsangnam-do. P. westermani cluster was found in Jeollabuk-do. E. vermicularis clusters were distributed in Gangwon-do, Jeju-do, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju. This clustering information can be referred for surveillance and control on the parasitic infection outbreak in the infection-prone areas.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903840

ABSTRACT

Present study was performed to know the infection status of Gnathostoma sp. larvae in swamp eels from Cambodia. We purchased total 30 Asian swamp eels, Monopterus albus, from local markets in Pursat and Takeo Provinces and Phnom Penh on May and November 2017 and May 2018. All collected eels were transferred to our laboratory with ice and each of them was examined by artificial digestion method. A total of 15 larval gnathostomes (1-5 larvae) were detected from 55.6% (5/9) swamp eels in Pursat Province. No larval gnathostomes were found in 21 swamp eels in Takeo Province and Phnom Penh. The advanced third-stage larvae (AdL3) detected were 2.575-3.825 (3.250) mm in length and 0.375-0.425 (0.386) mm in width. They had the characteristic head bulb (av. 0.104×0.218 mm) with 4 rows of hooklets, long muscular esophagus (1.048 mm), and 2 pairs of cervical sacs (0.615 mm). The number of hooklets in 4 rows on the head bulb was 41, 44, 47, and 50. In scanning electron microscopy, characteristic features were 4 rows of hooklets on the head bulb, cervical papillae, tegumental spines regularly arranged in transverse striations, and anus. The larval gnathostomes were identified as AdL3 of Gnathostoma spinigerum based on the morphological characters. By the present study, it has been confirmed that G. spinigerum larvae are infected in Asian swamp eels, M. albus, in Pursat Province, Cambodia.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903839

ABSTRACT

A survey was performed to investigate the infection status of zoonotic helminth larvae in fish from a local market of North Dagon District in Yangon City, Myanmar. A total of 486 fish in 13 species were collected 8 times from December 2015 to December 2019. All fish were transported under ice to a laboratory in Korea and examined for helminth larvae using artificial digestion method. Larval gnathostomes and metacercariae of more than 8 zoonotic trematode species, i.e., Opisthorchis viverrini, Haplorchis taichui, H. pumilio, H. yokogawai, Centrocestus spp., Stellantchasmus falcatus, Pygidiopsis cambodiensis, and Procerovum sp., were detected. Larval gnathostomes were found in 58 (16.0%) out of 362 fish of 6 species, with mean intensity of 2.8 per fish infected. Metacercariae of O. viverrini were detected in 10 (2.9%) out of 349 fish of 5 species, with mean intensity of 16.9 per fish infected. Metacercarial prevalences of 4 intestinal flukes, H. taichui, H. pumilio, H. yokogawai, and Centrocestus spp., were 16.8%, 26.0%, 12.5%, and 15.0% in the positive fish species, respectively, and mean metacercarial intensity was 63.3, 26.8, 86.2, and 8.7 per fish infected. Metacercariae of S. falcatus and P. cambodiensis were detected only from the mullet, Chelon macrolepis. Metacercariae of Procerovum sp. were found in Channa striata and Anabas testudineus. Collectively, it was confirmed that the fish were infected with gnathostome larvae and metacercariae of O. viverrini and intestinal flukes in Yangon City, Myanmar.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896147

ABSTRACT

This study was performed to find out the clusters with high parasite infection risk to discuss the geographical pattern. Clusters were detected using SatScan software, which is a statistical spatial scan program using Kulldorff’s scan statistic. Information on the parasitic infection cases in Korea 2011-2019 were collected from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Clusters of Ascaris lumbricoides infection were detected in Jeollabuk-do, and T. trichiura in Ulsan, Busan, and Gyeongsangnam-do. C. sinensis clusters were detected in Ulsan, Daegu, Busan, Gyeongsangnam-do, and Gyeongsangbuk-do. Clusters of intestinal trematodes were detected in Ulsan, Busan, and Gyeongsangnam-do. P. westermani cluster was found in Jeollabuk-do. E. vermicularis clusters were distributed in Gangwon-do, Jeju-do, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju. This clustering information can be referred for surveillance and control on the parasitic infection outbreak in the infection-prone areas.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896136

ABSTRACT

Present study was performed to know the infection status of Gnathostoma sp. larvae in swamp eels from Cambodia. We purchased total 30 Asian swamp eels, Monopterus albus, from local markets in Pursat and Takeo Provinces and Phnom Penh on May and November 2017 and May 2018. All collected eels were transferred to our laboratory with ice and each of them was examined by artificial digestion method. A total of 15 larval gnathostomes (1-5 larvae) were detected from 55.6% (5/9) swamp eels in Pursat Province. No larval gnathostomes were found in 21 swamp eels in Takeo Province and Phnom Penh. The advanced third-stage larvae (AdL3) detected were 2.575-3.825 (3.250) mm in length and 0.375-0.425 (0.386) mm in width. They had the characteristic head bulb (av. 0.104×0.218 mm) with 4 rows of hooklets, long muscular esophagus (1.048 mm), and 2 pairs of cervical sacs (0.615 mm). The number of hooklets in 4 rows on the head bulb was 41, 44, 47, and 50. In scanning electron microscopy, characteristic features were 4 rows of hooklets on the head bulb, cervical papillae, tegumental spines regularly arranged in transverse striations, and anus. The larval gnathostomes were identified as AdL3 of Gnathostoma spinigerum based on the morphological characters. By the present study, it has been confirmed that G. spinigerum larvae are infected in Asian swamp eels, M. albus, in Pursat Province, Cambodia.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896135

ABSTRACT

A survey was performed to investigate the infection status of zoonotic helminth larvae in fish from a local market of North Dagon District in Yangon City, Myanmar. A total of 486 fish in 13 species were collected 8 times from December 2015 to December 2019. All fish were transported under ice to a laboratory in Korea and examined for helminth larvae using artificial digestion method. Larval gnathostomes and metacercariae of more than 8 zoonotic trematode species, i.e., Opisthorchis viverrini, Haplorchis taichui, H. pumilio, H. yokogawai, Centrocestus spp., Stellantchasmus falcatus, Pygidiopsis cambodiensis, and Procerovum sp., were detected. Larval gnathostomes were found in 58 (16.0%) out of 362 fish of 6 species, with mean intensity of 2.8 per fish infected. Metacercariae of O. viverrini were detected in 10 (2.9%) out of 349 fish of 5 species, with mean intensity of 16.9 per fish infected. Metacercarial prevalences of 4 intestinal flukes, H. taichui, H. pumilio, H. yokogawai, and Centrocestus spp., were 16.8%, 26.0%, 12.5%, and 15.0% in the positive fish species, respectively, and mean metacercarial intensity was 63.3, 26.8, 86.2, and 8.7 per fish infected. Metacercariae of S. falcatus and P. cambodiensis were detected only from the mullet, Chelon macrolepis. Metacercariae of Procerovum sp. were found in Channa striata and Anabas testudineus. Collectively, it was confirmed that the fish were infected with gnathostome larvae and metacercariae of O. viverrini and intestinal flukes in Yangon City, Myanmar.

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