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1.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 977-985, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918745

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The risk of suicide is assessed by identifying the relationship between alcohol-use patterns and suicidal ideation in Korean employees. @*Methods@#The study involved 13,858 employees who underwent workplace mental health screening at the Workplace Mental Health Institute of Kangbuk Samsung Hospital over a 6-year period between 2014 and 2019. Analysis was performed separately for Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Korea (AUDIT-K) items related to the frequency/volume of alcohol consumption (items 1 to 3, AUDIT-C) and those regarding alcohol dependence/related problems (items 4 to 10, AUDIT-D/P). Subjects were then classified into three groups on the basis of the presence or absence of clinical depression and suicidal ideation. The groups’ sociodemographic factors and clinical features of depression, anxiety, and alcohol-use patterns were analyzed with a chi-square test as well as one-way analysis of variance, followed by a post hoc test using the Bonferroni correction. @*Results@#AUDIT-K and AUDIT-D/P scores were significantly associated with the presence or absence of clinical depression as well as the presence or absence of suicidal ideation (p<0.05). However, no significant differences were found among the three groups with regard to the AUDIT-C score (p=0.054). @*Conclusion@#Identifying or treating alcohol dependence/related problems can help lower the occurrence of mental health problems, and suicidal ideation in particular, in employees and reduce social costs.

2.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 911-924, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832607

ABSTRACT

Objective@#In 2011, “Suicide CARE” (Standardized Suicide Prevention Program for Gatekeeper Intervention in Korea) was originally developed for the early detection of warning signs of suicide completion, since there is a tendency to regard emotional suppression as a virtue of Korean traditional culture. A total of 1.2 million individuals completed the training program of “Suicide CARE” in Korea. @*Methods@#More sophisticated suicide prevention approaches according to age, sex, and occupation have been proposed, demanding for a more detailed revision of “Suicide CARE.” Thus, during the period from August 2019 to February 2020, “Suicide CARE” has been updated to version 2.0. The assessments on domestic gatekeeper training programs for suicide prevention, international gatekeeper training programs for suicide prevention, psychological autopsy interview reports between 2015 and 2018, and the evaluation of feedback from people who completed “Suicide CARE” version 1.6 training were performed. @*Results@#We describe the revision process of “Suicide CARE,” revealing that “Suicide CARE” version 2.0 has been developed using an evidence-based methodology. @*Conclusion@#It is expected that “Suicide CARE” version 2.0 be positioned as the basic framework for many developing gatekeeper training programs for suicide prevention in Korea in the near future.

3.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1149-1157, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832586

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Suicide is a huge nationwide problem that incurs a lot of socio-economic costs. Suicide also inflicts severe distress on the people left behind. The government of the Republic of Korea has been making many policy efforts to reduce suicide rate. The gatekeeper program, ‘Suicide CARE’, is one of the meaningful modalities for preventing suicide. @*Methods@#Multidisciplinary research team collaborated to update the ‘Suicide CARE’ to version 2.0. @*Results@#In the ‘Introductory part’, the authors have the time to think about the necessity and significance of the program before conducting full-scale gatekeeper training. In the ‘Careful observation’ part, trainees learn how to understand and recognize the various linguistic, behavioral, and situational signals that a person shows before committing suicide. In the ‘Active listening’ part, trainees learn how to ask suicide with a value-neutral attitude as well listening empathetically. In the ‘Risk evaluation and Expert referral’ part, trainees learn intervening strategies to identify a person’s suicidal intention, plan, and past suicide attempts, and connect the person to appropriate institutes or services. @*Conclusion@#Subsequent studies should be conducted to verify the efficacy of the gatekeeper program.

4.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832515

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We conducted this study to address the incidence and prevalence of schizophrenia and similar psychosis in South Korea with Health Insurance Review and Assessment (HIRA) database. @*Methods@#We used HIRA database, which includes diagnostic information of nearly all Korean nationals to collect number of cases with diagnosis of schizophrenia and schizophrenia-similar disorders (SSP), including schizophreniform, acute/transient psychotic disorders, schizoaffective disorders, and other/unspecific nonorganic psychosis (ICD-10 codes F20/23/25/28/29) between 2010 and 2015. The annual prevalence and incidence were calculated using the population data from the Korean Statistical Office. @*Results@#The 12-month prevalence of SSP of Korea between 2010 and 2015 were 0.48–0.66%. The 12-month prevalence of schizophrenia were 0.40–0.52%; The annual incidence rates (IR) of SSP between 2010 and 2015 were 118.8–148.7 per 100,000 person-year (PY). For schizophrenia, IR per 100,000 PY were 77.6–88.5 between 2010 and 2015. @*Conclusion@#The 12-month prevalence found in the present study was higher than that reported in community-based epidemiologic studies in South Korea but similar to those from other countries. The annual incidence of SSP and schizophrenia was found to steadily increase and was higher than that of other countries. The high incidence rate observed in the current study needs to be studied further.

5.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 312-319, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832479

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The aim of study is to investigate the relationship between serum vitamin D, c-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and anxietysymptoms. @*Methods@#Serum vitamin D and CRP levels of 51,003 Korean adult participants were collected retrospectively. Anxiety symptoms wereassessed using the Korean version of Beck Anxiety Inventory. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (ORs) of anxietysymptoms by serum vitamin D and CRP levels. The regression was adjusted for covariates, and each model was adjusted mutually for vitaminD and CRP levels. @*Results@#Compared with sufficient vitamin D levels (≥20 ng/mL), insufficient (10–19.99 ng/mL) and deficient (<10 ng/mL) vitamin Dlevels were significantly associated with risk of anxiety symptoms. Also, continuous vitamin D levels were negatively associated with therisk of anxiety symptoms. CRP levels did not affect the relationship between vitamin D levels and risk of anxiety symptoms. @*Conclusion@#Insufficient (10–19.99 ng/mL) and deficient (<10 ng/mL) vitamin D levels were significantly associated with risk of anxietysymptoms. After adjusting for CRP levels, the results were not changed, and no evidence of interaction between vitamin D and CRP levelswas found. CRP levels did not account for the association between vitamin D levels and risk of anxiety symptoms.Psychiatry Investig 2020;17(4):312-319

6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901761

ABSTRACT

Depressive disorder is a very common disease, clinical manifestations vary, and the mechanism is not clear. Therefore, a pharmacotherapy is very important to achieve sufficient therapeutic effect, but the choice of drug is not easy due to the occurrence of side effects of treatment and confusion with clinical features. It is easy to overlook the side effects of weight gain with antidepressants compared with antipsychotics, but they are frequently observed in clinical settings. The first-generation antidepressants have higher weight gains than selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are observed to have less weight gain, and dopamine norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors have weight loss effect due to decreased appetite. Mirtazapine, an atypical antidepressant, has a strong histamine H1 blockade, and gains weight gain from short-term use. The effects of desvenlafaxine, vortioxetine, and agomelatin on weight, which have recently been increasing in use, have not been largely identified. For better compliance, studies on weight gain due to the use of antidepressants are needed.

7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901755

ABSTRACT

Leucine rich glioma inactivated (LGI1) encephalitis is an uncommon neurological disorder rarely encountered in clinical practice.However, it is a potentially fatal autoimmune syndrome that can decrease the level of consciousness, possibly progressing to coma.Additionally, unless diagnosed and promptly treated, it can cause permanent cognitive impairment. Since LGI1 encephalitis can initially present with psychiatric symptoms, there can be delays in reaching a proper diagnosis. This report describes a case of a 47-yearold woman with LGI1 antibodies-associated limbic encephalitis who initially presented with psychosis. Her blood tests were normal and no MRI and EEG abnormalities were found. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis was negative for other possible infectious causes. Three months after admission, she was found to be LGI1 antibody positive. LGI1 encephalitis should be suspected in patients with symptoms such as memory loss, confusion, seizures, and psychiatric symptoms. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of LGI1 encephalitis are warranted because prognosis becomes worse when such actions are delayed.

8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894057

ABSTRACT

Depressive disorder is a very common disease, clinical manifestations vary, and the mechanism is not clear. Therefore, a pharmacotherapy is very important to achieve sufficient therapeutic effect, but the choice of drug is not easy due to the occurrence of side effects of treatment and confusion with clinical features. It is easy to overlook the side effects of weight gain with antidepressants compared with antipsychotics, but they are frequently observed in clinical settings. The first-generation antidepressants have higher weight gains than selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are observed to have less weight gain, and dopamine norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors have weight loss effect due to decreased appetite. Mirtazapine, an atypical antidepressant, has a strong histamine H1 blockade, and gains weight gain from short-term use. The effects of desvenlafaxine, vortioxetine, and agomelatin on weight, which have recently been increasing in use, have not been largely identified. For better compliance, studies on weight gain due to the use of antidepressants are needed.

9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894051

ABSTRACT

Leucine rich glioma inactivated (LGI1) encephalitis is an uncommon neurological disorder rarely encountered in clinical practice.However, it is a potentially fatal autoimmune syndrome that can decrease the level of consciousness, possibly progressing to coma.Additionally, unless diagnosed and promptly treated, it can cause permanent cognitive impairment. Since LGI1 encephalitis can initially present with psychiatric symptoms, there can be delays in reaching a proper diagnosis. This report describes a case of a 47-yearold woman with LGI1 antibodies-associated limbic encephalitis who initially presented with psychosis. Her blood tests were normal and no MRI and EEG abnormalities were found. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis was negative for other possible infectious causes. Three months after admission, she was found to be LGI1 antibody positive. LGI1 encephalitis should be suspected in patients with symptoms such as memory loss, confusion, seizures, and psychiatric symptoms. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of LGI1 encephalitis are warranted because prognosis becomes worse when such actions are delayed.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Because there has been a recent increase in refugee applications in Korea, the mental health of these refugees merits greater study. METHODS: We surveyed 129 refugees (including those in process of refugee application) and 121 migrant workers living in urban communities, using: the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for depressive symptoms, the Impact Event Scale-Revised for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and the health questionnaires used in 2016 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). The majority of refugee subjects were from sub-Saharan Africa and Middle East. We compared the prevalence of possible depression and possible PTSD between refugees and migrant workers and refugees and age-gender matched samples from the KNHANES 2016. RESULTS: Frequency of suicidal planning during the last year was higher in the refugee group than Korean nationals, but frequency of suicidal attempt was not. High risk drinking was found in 0.8% of refugees, 6.6% of migrant workers and 27.2% of Korean nationals. Possible depression was present in 42.9% of refugee subjects, 33.3% of migrant workers, and 4.2% of Korean controls. Possible PTSD was present in 38.9% of refugees compared to 12.5% of migrant workers. Only major risk factor for depression among refugees was a traumatic event before entering Korea. CONCLUSION: Possible depression and PTSD are significantly more prevalent in refugees, compared to both migrant workers and Korean nationals. Prevalence rates are commensurate with refugee studies worldwide. Appropriate early screening and intervention schemes need to be developed for refugees entering Korea.


Subject(s)
Adult , Africa South of the Sahara , Depression , Drinking , Humans , Independent Living , Korea , Mass Screening , Mental Health , Middle East , Nutrition Surveys , Prevalence , Refugees , Risk Factors , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Transients and Migrants
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-725234

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine whether mindfulness skills are mediating the improvements of depressive symptoms in patients with mood disorders who practiced Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT). METHODS: A total of 19 patients with mood disorder were included in this study. The participants were divided into two subgroups: a normal to mild depression group and a moderate depression group. The participants completed questionnaires to assess depressive symptoms, anxiety, quality of life, suicidal idea, and mindfulness skills which were measured by the Five Facets of Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) before and after MBCT course. RESULTS: The moderate depression group showed improvements through MBCT in depressive symptoms and suicidal idea, but not in anxiety and quality of life. The normal to mild depression group showed no significant change through MBCT. The improvement of depressive symptoms in the moderate depression group was predictable by improvements of the five facets of mindfulness, especially by ‘observe’ and ‘non-react’ components. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that currently depressive patients with moderate severity but not with normal to mild severity benefit from MBCT in reducing depressive symptoms and suicidal idea. The improvement of depressive symptoms was mediated by improved mindfulness skills through MBCT.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Depression , Humans , Mindfulness , Mood Disorders , Negotiating , Quality of Life
12.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 504-509, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-256802

ABSTRACT

UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A9 (UGT1A9) is a major phase II enzyme responsible for elimination of drugs and endogenous molecules. Clinical data have shown increased elimination of UGT1A9 substrates in pregnant women or oral contraceptive users, but the role of estrogen in the regulation of UGT1A9 expression remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of 17-estradiol (E2) on UGT1A9 expression and the role of ERin the transcriptional regulation of UGT1A9. E2 significantly increased UGT1A9 promoter activity in HepG2 cells in the presence of ER. UGT1A9 induction by E2 was abrogated by antiestrogen ICI182,780 in HepG2 cells that constitutively express ER. Results from transient transfection of ERmutants into HepG2 cells demonstrated that mutation at DNA-binding domain of ERabrogates increased UGT1A9 promoter activity by E2. Deletion and mutation assays of UGT1A9 promoter revealed a putative ERE located within -2262/-1987 region. Examination of healthy human liver tissues revealed significantly higher UGT1A9 expression in women as compared to men. Together, these findings provide a mechanistic basis for the previous clinical reports and may shed a light on identifying sources for inter-individual variability in UGT1A9-mediated drug metabolism.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-25158

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study assessed the efficacy of pulmonary metastasectomy for synovial sarcoma in adult patients. METHODS: Fifty patients, diagnosed with pulmonary metastasis from June 1990 to August 2010, were reviewed retrospectively. Twenty-eight patients underwent complete pulmonary metastasectomy, and their survival was evaluated. Age, sex, time to metastatic progression, laterality, number of tumors, size of largest nodule, and number of metastasectomies were analyzed as potential prognostic factors. RESULTS: In all, 29 patients underwent at least one pulmonary metastasectomy, and 51 resections were performed. One intraoperative mortality occurred, and the 5-year survival rate was 58.4%. Bilateral metastases and early metastatic progression were associated with poor survival in multivariate analyses. CONCLUSION: Surgical resection can be a good option for treating pulmonary metastasis in patients with synovial sarcoma. Repeated resection was feasible with low mortality and morbidity.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Metastasectomy , Mortality , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Retrospective Studies , Sarcoma , Sarcoma, Synovial , Survival Rate
14.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1454-1462, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100953

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although the effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) for panic disorder (PD) has been studied previously, data on the predictors of treatment outcomes in MBCT for PD are scarce. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty patients with PD were screened to analyze treatment outcomes such as MBCT completion, treatment response, and remission after undergoing MBCT for PD. Sociodemographic characteristics, comorbid personality disorders, and baseline medication doses were examined. The study administered the Panic Disorder Severity Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Anxiety Sensitivity Inventory-Revised to patients at baseline and at eight weeks. RESULTS: Sixty-five participants were enrolled in the present study. Comorbid personality disorder was significantly associated with MBCT non-completion. We found that anxiety sensitivity (AS) improvement after an eight week MBCT program was a statistically significant factor associated with treatment response. Using logistic regression analysis, AS improvement after MBCT showed significant association with PD remission after MBCT. CONCLUSION: Comorbid personality disorders of participants could be a potential predictor of MBCT non-completion. Furthermore, AS improvement after MBCT may predict treatment response and remission after MBCT for PD. However, better designed studies with a larger number of patients are needed to confirm our findings.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mindfulness/methods , Panic Disorder/therapy , Socioeconomic Factors , Young Adult
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-127843

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Some patients with schizophrenia may need mirtazapine augmentation to improve negative and cognitive symptoms. However there have been a few studies about the tolerability of mirtazapine augmentation to antipsychotics such as akathisia, extrapyramydal symptoms, weight gain, and body mass index (BMI). METHODS: This study was an eight-week double-blind, randomized controlled trial (RCT) of mirtazapine augmentation to risperidone. Twenty-one stabilized participants diagnosed with schizophrenia and undergoing treatment with risperidone were randomized to adjunctive treatment with mirtazapine (15 mg/day for the first two weeks, 30 mg/day for the next six weeks) or placebo. Eleven patients were assigned to the mirtazapine group, and nine patients were given placebo. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the mirtazapine and placebo groups with respect to Barnes Akathisia rating Scale (BAS) and Sympsom-Angus Scale (SAS). However, the mirtazapine group exhibited a statistically significant increase in weight and BMI (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that mirtazapine augmentation can be tolerable in schizophrenic patients treated with risperidone; however, we should pay attention to the weight gain with mirtazapine. Our results should be replicated in a large-scale lengthy trial.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents , Body Mass Index , Humans , Mianserin , Neurobehavioral Manifestations , Psychomotor Agitation , Risperidone , Schizophrenia , Weight Gain
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-655897

ABSTRACT

The Scleroderma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the connective tissue with involvement of the skin and other organs. It can be a manifestation of various disorders and occasionally acroosteolysis in the phalanges. Acroosteolysis is characterized by bone resorption or destruction in the phalanges, while the base is preserved. The pathogenesis of acroosteolysis in patients with scleroderma is a blood-flow disorder that is mainly associated with an abnormal accumulation of collagen in all tissues, microangiopathy and infections in the phalanges. The phalanges in patients with scleroderma are prone to continuous infections as a felon or skin ulcers due to atrophy of the subcutaneous tissue, dry and sclerotic skin, or a disorder of the immune system. We experienced a patient who had acroosteolysis with scleroderma of the phalanges, and this was associated with a felon. We report on this case along with a brief review of the literature.


Subject(s)
Acro-Osteolysis , Atrophy , Bone Resorption , Collagen , Connective Tissue , Humans , Immune System , Skin , Skin Ulcer , Subcutaneous Tissue
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-91919

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the educational effectiveness of practice-based program for procedural skills at Kangwon National University College of Medicine. METHODS: In 2005, we conducted the training program composed of 19 procedural skills for third-year medical students during their first semester clerkship. The 14-week training used simulation models and was held for 3 hours per week, one hour for didactic session and 2 hours for practical exercise. A lecture was given only for wound dressing. OSCE, consisting of four 5-minute stations, was administered to analyze the students' achievement. 53 third-year students were given a survey following skills training and OSCE. RESULTS: Most students reported that the practice-based program was interesting and helpful in learning procedural skills. Students preferred practice to didactic medium. Students were satisfied with the faculty's instruction, but suggested that the training should be providedprior to clerkship. OSCE had an overall reliability coefficient (Cronbach's alpha) of 0.78. The mean score in the dressing case was lower than those in other cases. CONCLUSION: The practice-based program for procedural skills was effective in motivating students' learning as well as improving theirtechnical skills. Self-directed exercises and appropriate feedback are more effective training tools than lectures.


Subject(s)
Bandages , Education , Exercise , Humans , Learning , Lecture , Students, Medical , Wounds and Injuries
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-29055

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to compare clinical outcomes in pectus excavatum patients undergoing a Ravitch operation with those undergoing a Nuss procedure. Retrospective study was conducted on one hundred and twenty three patients who underwent Ravitch operation (n=16) and Nuss procedure (n=107) between 1995 and 2002. Mean age of the patients was 7.9 +/- 6.2 yr. In the Ravitch group, operation time was 196.9 +/- 61.0 min, and required 10.2 +/- 2.6 chondral bone resections. Average hospital stay time was 15.9 days. In the Nuss group, operation time was 67.2 +/- 33.1 min, and bar removal was required two years after the bar insertion. The length of hospital stay was averagely 8.0 days, and postoperative reoperations were performed in five patients due to bar displacements, while early bar removal was required in one patient. The patient interviews for operation results were conducted and revealed that 92.3% of the patients in the Ravitch group showed good to excellent, while 93.3% of Nuss bar removed patients replied good to excellent. Though Nuss procedure has many advantages, it also has some disadvantages. So, the method of the operation should be selected according to the characteristics of the patient.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Female , Funnel Chest/surgery , Humans , Male , Patient Satisfaction , Postoperative Complications , Retrospective Studies , Surgical Procedures, Operative
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114038

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Proper construction of vascular access and adequate maintenance are essential for the prognosis of the hemodialysis patients. Though arteriovenous fistula using autogenous vessel is the first of choice, the incidence of arteriovenous fistula using artificial graft is gradually increasing. The aim of this study was to analyse the patency rates between autogenous and artificial fistula, among artificial graft types, according to the accompanied disease. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A retrospective study was conducted on 186 patients who underwent 292 arteriovenous fistula operations for hemodialysis at Korea University Guro Hospital between 1996 and 2000. Mean age of the patients was 54.37+/-12.89years, and the male: female ratio 99:87. RESULT: Among 292 operations, there were 156 autogenous fistula and 116 graft fistula. The other 20 operations were thrombectomy, takedown of graft, revision, and balloon dilatation. Patency rates of autogenous fistula were 92.78+/-2.35% at 1 year and 39.03+/-9.08% at 5 years, and those of graft fistula were 96.09+/-2.22% at 1 year and 16.45+/-10.15% at 5 years. However, there was no statistical significance between the two operations. The patients who had hypertension, diabetes or both had no statistical significance in the patency rate compared to that of patients without underlying disease. In addition, the type of graft used did not affect the patency rate. Second operation was needed in 62 patients and third operation in 31 patients, but their patency rate again had no statistical significance compared to that of the first operation. CONCLUSION: The patency of the artificial graft fistula was comparable to the autogenous fistula, but the patency according to types of graft need to be studied further. Furthermore, the underlying diseases did not affect the fistula patency.


Subject(s)
Arteriovenous Fistula , Dilatation , Female , Fistula , Humans , Hypertension , Incidence , Korea , Male , Prognosis , Renal Dialysis , Retrospective Studies , Thrombectomy , Transplants
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