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1.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831026

ABSTRACT

Background@#: The Guideline Working Group of the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO)conducted a nationwide questionnaire survey for diverse queries faced in the treatment of brain tumors.As part I of the survey, the aim of this study is to evaluate national patterns of clinical practiceabout antiepileptic drug (AED) and steroid usage for management of brain tumors. @*Methods@#: A web-based survey was sent to all members of the KSNO by email. The survey included9 questions of AED usage and 5 questions of steroid usage for brain tumor patients. All questionswere developed by consensus of the Guideline Working Group. @*Results@#: The overall response rate was 12.8% (54/423). Regarding AED usage, the majority ofrespondents (95.2%) routinely prescribed prophylactic AEDs for patients with seizure at the peri/postoperativeperiod. However, as many as 72.8% of respondents prescribed AED routinely for seizure-naïvepatients, and others prescribed AED as the case may be. The duration of AED prophylaxis showedwide variance according to the epilepsy status and the location of tumor. Levetiracetam (82.9%) wasthe most preferred AED for epilepsy prophylaxis. Regarding steroid usage, 90.5% of respondents usesteroids in perioperative period, including 34.2% of them as a routine manner. Presence of peritumoraledema (90.9%) was considered as the most important factor determining steroid usage followed bydegree of clinical symptoms (60.6%). More than half of respondents (51.2%) replied to discontinue thesteroids within a week after surgery if there are no specific medical conditions, while 7.3% preferredslow tapering up to a month after surgery. @*Conclusion@#: The survey demonstrated the prevailing practice patterns on AED and steroid usagein neuro-oncologic field among members of the KSNO. This information provides a point of referencefor establishing a practical guideline in the management of brain tumor patients.

2.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831025

ABSTRACT

Background@#: The Guideline Working Group of the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO)conducted a nationwide questionnaire survey for diverse queries faced in the treatment of brain tumors.As part II of the survey, the aim of this study is to evaluate the national patterns of clinical practicefor patients with diffuse midline glioma and meningioma. @*Methods@#: A web-based survey was sent to all members of the KSNO by email. The survey included4 questions of diffuse midline glioma and 6 questions of meningioma (including 2 case scenarios).All questions were developed by consensus of the Guideline Working Group. @*Results@#: In the survey about diffuse midline glioma, 76% respondents performed histologicconfirmation to identify H3K27M mutation on immunohistochemical staining or sequencing methods.For treatment of diffuse midline glioma, respondents preferred concurrent chemoradiotherapy withtemozolomide (TMZ) and adjuvant TMZ (63.8%) than radiotherapy alone (34.0%). In the surveyabout meningioma, respondents prefer wait-and-see policy for the asymptomatic small meningiomawithout peritumoral edema. However, a greater number of respondents had chosen surgical resectionas the first choice for all large size meningiomas without exception, and small size meningiomaswith either peritumoral edema or eloquent location. There was no single opinion with major consensuson long-term follow-up plans for asymptomatic meningioma with observation policy. As many as68.1% of respondents answered that they would not add any adjuvant therapies for World Health Organizationgrade II meningiomas if the tumor was totally resected including dura. @*Conclusion@#: The survey demonstrates the prevailing clinical practice patterns for patients with diffusemidline glioma and meningioma among members of the KSNO. This information provides a pointof reference for establishing a practical guideline in the management of diffuse midline glioma andmeningioma.

3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831024

ABSTRACT

Background@#: The Guideline Working Group of the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO)conducted the nationwide questionnaire survey for diverse queries facing to treat patients with braintumor. As part III of the survey, the aim of this study is to evaluate the national patterns of clinical practicefor patients with brain metastasis and primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). @*Methods@#: A web-based survey was sent to all members of the KSNO by email. The survey included7 questions of brain metastasis and 5 questions of PCNSL, focused on the management strategiesin specific situations. All questions were developed by consensus of the Guideline WorkingGroup. @*Results@#" In the survey about brain metastasis, respondents preferred surgical resection withadjuvant treatment for patients with a surgically accessible single brain metastatic lesion less than 3cm in size without extracranial systemic lesions. However, most respondents considered radiosurgeryfor surgically inaccessible lesions. As the preferred treatment of multiple brain metastases according tothe number of brain lesions, respondents tended to choose radiotherapy with increasing number of lesions.Radiosurgery was mostly chosen for the brain metastases of less than or equal to 4. In the surveyabout PCNSL, a half of respondents choose high-dose methotrexate-based polychemotherapy asthe first-line induction therapy for PCNSL. The consolidation and salvage therapy showed a little variationamong respondents. For PCNSL patients with cerebrospinal fluid dissemination, intrathecal chemotherapywas most preferred. @*Conclusion@#: The survey demonstrates the prevailing clinical practice patterns for patients withbrain metastasis and PCNSL among members of the KSNO. This information provides a point of referencefor establishing a practical guideline in the management of brain metastasis and PCNSL.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714210

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tumors with cysts often correlate with gliomas, metastatic tumors, or hemangioblastomas, which require differentiation. METHODS: Thirty-eight cases of cyst associated-meningioma based on preoperative radiologic studies and histologic confirmations were reviewed from November 1998 to July 2017. RESULTS: A total of 395 cases of meningioma were observed in the 20 years, and surgical treatment of intracranial meningioma was performed in 120 cases. Thirty-eight (9.6%) cases of cyst associated meningiomas were analyzed. Nauta type I was the most common type of cyst (39.5%) and the most frequent histopathological subtype was meningothelial type (36.8%). CONCLUSION: Statistically there were no significant associations between meningioma histopathological type and associated cysts; however, the rate of World Health Organization grade II was higher in cyst associated meningiomas than in unrelated meningiomas. This correlation was weak, in accordance with the meningioma grade.


Subject(s)
Glioma , Hemangioblastoma , Meningioma , Neuropathology , World Health Organization
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-122138

ABSTRACT

Traumatic basal ganglia hemorrhage (TBGH) is a rare presentation of head injuries. Bilateral lesions are extremely rare. The pathophysiologic mechanism of bilateral TBGH seems to be the same as diffuse axonal injury. However, limited information about childhood bilateral TBGH is available in the literature. We report the case of a child with bilateral TBGH treated with stereotactic aspiration of hemorrhage and periodic urokinase irrigation.


Subject(s)
Basal Ganglia Hemorrhage , Basal Ganglia , Child , Craniocerebral Trauma , Diffuse Axonal Injury , Hemorrhage , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-205825

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The risk factors for surgical site infections (SSIs) after cranioplasty following decompressive craniectomy remain unclear. The goal of this study was to analyze the risk factors related to developing SSIs after cranioplasty and to suggest valuable predictors. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of patients who underwent cranioplasty following decompressive craniectomy at our institution from January 2011 to December 2014, a total of 78 patients who underwent 78 cranioplasties. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out to determine possible risk factors related to developing SSIs. We analyzed both patient-specific and surgery-specific factors. RESULTS: The overall rate of SSIs was 9.0% (7/78). SSIs after cranioplasty were significantly related to being female, having the primary etiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and having had a bilateral cranioplasty in the univariate analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that being female [odds ratio (OR) 5.98, p=0.000] and having had a bilateral cranioplasty (OR 4.00, p=0.001) significantly increased the risk of SSIs. CONCLUSION: Based on our data, cranioplasty following decompressive craniectomy is associated with a high incidence of SSI. Being female, having a primary etiology of TBI and having had a bilateral cranioplasty may be risk factors for surgical site infections after cranioplasty.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries , Decompressive Craniectomy , Female , Humans , Incidence , Logistic Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Surgical Wound Infection
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-143960

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the role of chemotherapy in the management of patients with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA). METHODS: We compared the survival outcome among the 3 different treatment protocol groups in a single institution. A total of 86 patients (39 men and 47 women) with newly diagnosed AA after surgery were analyzed. Among them, 31 patients (36.0%) were treated with radiotherapy only (RT Group), 30 patients (34.9%) were treated with nimustine-cisplatin chemotherapy before RT (ACNU-CDDP group), and 25 patients (29.1%) were treated with procarbazine, lomustine and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy after radiotherapy (PCV group). RESULTS: The median survival was 14.0, 30.0 and 72.0 months in RT, ACNU-CDDP, and PCV group, respectively and showed significant differences (RT vs. ACNU-CDDP; p=0.039, RT vs. PCV; 0.002, ACNU-CDDP vs. PCV; 0.045). PCV group showed less toxicity rate (5 patients; 20%) than ACNU-CDDP group (12 patients; 40%), while only 3 patients (9.6%) in RT group experienced grade 3 or 4 toxicities. CONCLUSION: An application of chemotherapy before or after radiotherapy is beneficial in prolonging the survival of patients with AA. Adjuvant PCV chemotherapy after radiotherapy is recommendable.


Subject(s)
Astrocytoma , Clinical Protocols , Humans , Lomustine , Male , Procarbazine , Retrospective Studies , Vincristine
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-143953

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the role of chemotherapy in the management of patients with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA). METHODS: We compared the survival outcome among the 3 different treatment protocol groups in a single institution. A total of 86 patients (39 men and 47 women) with newly diagnosed AA after surgery were analyzed. Among them, 31 patients (36.0%) were treated with radiotherapy only (RT Group), 30 patients (34.9%) were treated with nimustine-cisplatin chemotherapy before RT (ACNU-CDDP group), and 25 patients (29.1%) were treated with procarbazine, lomustine and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy after radiotherapy (PCV group). RESULTS: The median survival was 14.0, 30.0 and 72.0 months in RT, ACNU-CDDP, and PCV group, respectively and showed significant differences (RT vs. ACNU-CDDP; p=0.039, RT vs. PCV; 0.002, ACNU-CDDP vs. PCV; 0.045). PCV group showed less toxicity rate (5 patients; 20%) than ACNU-CDDP group (12 patients; 40%), while only 3 patients (9.6%) in RT group experienced grade 3 or 4 toxicities. CONCLUSION: An application of chemotherapy before or after radiotherapy is beneficial in prolonging the survival of patients with AA. Adjuvant PCV chemotherapy after radiotherapy is recommendable.


Subject(s)
Astrocytoma , Clinical Protocols , Humans , Lomustine , Male , Procarbazine , Retrospective Studies , Vincristine
9.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 35-37, 2007.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-120759

ABSTRACT

Wolf's isotopic response describes the occurrence of a new, unrelated disease that appears at the location of a previously healed disease, most commonly herpes zoster. Several cutaneous reactions including granuloma annulare have been known to occur within resolved herpes zoster lesions. We report a case of actinic granuloma which developed on a site previously affected by herpes zoster, and is thought to be an isotopic response.


Subject(s)
Actins , Cicatrix , Granuloma Annulare , Granuloma , Herpes Zoster
10.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 43-45, 2007.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-120757

ABSTRACT

Neurofibromas are benign tumors composed of a complex proliferation of neuromesenchymal tissue with residual nerve fibers. There are several distinct types of neurofibromas: cutaneous, subcutaneous, nodular plexiform, and diffuse plexiform. To our knowledge, none of these have previously been described in association with alopecia in the literature. We present a case of neurofibroma of the scalp which is associated with alopecia.


Subject(s)
Alopecia , Nerve Fibers , Neurofibroma , Scalp
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-198244

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a multicentric proliferative vascular tumor which involves cutaneous and visceral tissues. Recent study has clearly identified human herpes virus 8 (HHV8) in all Kaposi's sarcoma patients, indicating that HHV8 is closely involved in the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to document clinical and histopathological features of KS and to emphasize the necessity of detection of HHV8 in the differential diagnosis of KS from other vascular lesions. METHODS: The medical records and histopathological slides of patients with KS diagnosed at Ajou University Hospital from January 1995 to December 2004 were reviewed. We performed immunohistochemical stain and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based analysis to detect HHV8 in KS and other vascular lesions. RESULTS: Among 12 patients, classic KS was found in 9 patients, AIDS-associated KS in 1 patient, and iatrogenic immunosuppressive KS in 2 patients. Patients with KS presented with various clinical features, showing purple- colored macules to nodules or tumors. Although lower extremities are most frequently involved sites, involvement of other sites such as arm and neck was noticed. Mucosal and systemic involvement was detected in AIDS- associated case. Immunohistochemical stains for HHV8 were positive in all KS, but they were negative in other vascular lesions. PCRs for HHV8 were positive in 8 of 11 (72.7%) KS, but they were negative in other vascular lesions. Classic KS responded well to surgical and radiation therapies and showed indolent course. Immunosuppressive KS regressed partially after dose reduction of immunosuppressive drug therapy, but the lesions persisted. CONCLUSION: Immunohistochemical stain and/or PCR for HHV8 are useful means to differentiate KS from other vascular tumors.


Subject(s)
Arm , Coloring Agents , Diagnosis, Differential , Drug Therapy , Humans , Lower Extremity , Medical Records , Neck , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sarcoma, Kaposi
12.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 1142-1144, 2006.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23682

ABSTRACT

Collagenomas or connective tissue nevi of the collagen type are hamartomatous growths of otherwise normal collagen. They can be hereditary or sporadic. We report an interesting case of isolated collagenoma confined to the right palm, without associated abnormalities, in a 6-year-old boy. To our knowledge, only one case of isolated palmar collagenoma has been reported in the English literature and this has not been described previously in the Korean literature.


Subject(s)
Child , Collagen , Connective Tissue , Humans , Male , Nevus
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-71333

ABSTRACT

Idiopathic atrophoderma of Pasini and Pierini is a form of dermal atrophy of unknown etiology, usually affecting women during their adolescence and young adulthood. A 2-yr-old girl was presented with erythematous atrophic lesion on the right shoulder, which appeared from birth. The histologic findings were consistent with atrophoderma. This patient, to the best of our knowledge, is the first case of atrophoderma with an onset since birth.


Subject(s)
Atrophy/congenital , Biopsy , Child, Preschool , Collagen/metabolism , Erythema/pathology , Female , Humans , Skin/pathology
14.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 1667-1669, 2005.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-113574

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.

15.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 1151-1153, 2005.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-61512

ABSTRACT

Lichen planus and vitiligo are common skin disorders, which rarely coexist. We report a case of colocalization of lichen planus and vitiligo in a 42-year-old woman. Furthermore, herein, we discuss the possible mechanism of colocalization of lichen planus and vitiligo, including the role of actinic damage in the initiation of lymphocytic infiltrates of lichen planus in vitiliginous skin.


Subject(s)
Actins , Adult , Female , Humans , Lichen Planus , Lichens , Skin , Vitiligo
16.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 1518-1521, 2005.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-24975

ABSTRACT

Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus is a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease, usually affecting the female genitalia. Involvement of the oral mucosa is rare, however, it is sometimes the only manifestation of the disease without concurrent genital or skin lesions. We present a case of lichen sclerosus et atrophicus affecting which arrected the lower lip only. We briefly reviewed pertinent literature.


Subject(s)
Female , Genitalia, Female , Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus , Lichens , Lip , Mouth Mucosa , Skin
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-183407

ABSTRACT

The Mirizzi syndrome is a rare benign cause of obstructive jaundice. It is particularly interesting to surgeons because the surgery has to be carefully planned to avoid unnecessary damage to the common bile duct. Furthermore, it gives a differential diagnosis dilemma for surgeons as well as radiologist because there are no diagnostic procedures or clinical features that have a perfect access. As a result, the Mirizzi syndrome often has been mistaken for gallbladder cancer and cholangiocarcinoma. We experienced of a 76-year-old male patient, whose clinical symptoms were jaundice, epigastric pain and fever with chill and misdiagnosed as a cholangiocarcinoma with liver metastasis.


Subject(s)
Aged , Bile Duct Diseases , Cholangiocarcinoma , Cholelithiasis , Cholestasis , Common Bile Duct , Cystic Duct , Diagnosis, Differential , Fever , Gallbladder Neoplasms , Humans , Jaundice , Jaundice, Obstructive , Liver , Male , Mirizzi Syndrome , Neoplasm Metastasis
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-162514

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus infection on renal transplantation outcome is controversial. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection on kidney transplant over the long-term, 15 years and to compare infected patients with noninfected patients matched for factors possibly associated with graft and patient survival. METHODS: We analyzed 1,042 patients who underwent renal transplantation in period from March 1984 to Dec. 1998 including 107 with positive HBsAg (HBV(+) group), 81 with positive anti-HCV antibody (HCV(+) group) and 714 noninfected recipients (NBNC group). One hundred-forty patients who had not taken ani-HCV antibody screening test were excluded. The prevalence of chronic liver disease, the patient mortality, the patient survival rate and the graft survival rate were evaluated. RESULTS: The patient mortality during the period of follow-up was significantly higher in HBV(+) group(32.7%) than in HCV(+) group(9.9%) and NBNC group(8.4%). The cause of death related to liver desease was significantly higher in HBV(+) group(57.1%) than HCV(+) group(0%) and NBNC group(1.7%). Five year and 10 year graft survival rate were significantly lower in HBV(+) group(52.2 %, 39.2%) than in HCV(+) group(68.4%, 47.2%) and NBNC group(86.6%, 65.8%). Five year and 10 year patient survival rate of HBV(+) group(72.0%, 68.9%) was significantly lower than HCV(+) group(91.6%, 87.3%) and NBNC group(94.4%, 88.2%), but there was no significant difference in the patient survival rate between HCV(+) and NBNC group. CONCLUSION: Hepatitis B virus infection has a significant deleterious effect on the patient and graft survival of renal transplantation recipients. The poor survival rate was a result of the mortality from liver disorder. Hepatitis C virus infection also has a poor graft survival rate compared to NBNC group, but the patient survial rate is similar to NBNC group.


Subject(s)
Cause of Death , Follow-Up Studies , Graft Survival , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis C , Hepatitis , Humans , Kidney , Kidney Transplantation , Liver , Liver Diseases , Mass Screening , Mortality , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Transplants
19.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 642-647, 2002.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-122001

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypoglycemic episodes in patients under hemodialysis have been known to be caused by the removal of glucose through dialyzer membrane and is one of the important factors causing discomfort, especially in patients with diabetes. We studied frequency of hypoglycemia, characteristics of patients and their underlying disease and changes of glucagon and cortisol levels during dialysis. We also studied whether continuous glucose injection could prevent hypoglycemic episodes during dialysis with dialysate lacking glucose. METHODS: Forty-four patients under hemodialysis treatment were enrolled. All patients were observed for 5 sessions of dialysis before enrolled in glucose injection therapy. Their blood were collected at time 0, 2 and 4 hours after starting final session of dialysis. After one month, blood samples were collected at the same time interval during dialysis with continuous glucose injection (50% glucose solution, 12.5 g/h). RESULTS: Twenty-two patients (DM 12 patients, non-DM 10 patients) showed their blood glucose level less than 60 mg/dL during dialysis. Among these patients, 3 patients did not complain any hypoglycemic symptoms. No patient showed hypoglycemia under continuous glucose injection during dialysis. Frequency of random glucose injection according to patients' complaint was significantly decreased during continuous glucose injection. Urea reduction rate was not affected by glucose injection. There was no significant difference in patients' characteristics and their underlying diseases, basal and amount of changes of glucagon and cortisol concentration during dialysis regardless episode of hypoglycemia. CONCLUSION: Hypoglycemic episode during hemodialysis occurs as frequently in non-diabetic patients as in diabetic patients. Continuous glucose injection could be an effective and convenient method to prevent hypoglycemia during hemodialysis in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus , Dialysis , Glucagon , Glucose , Humans , Hydrocortisone , Hypoglycemia , Membranes , Renal Dialysis , Urea
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-48052

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Osteopenia or osteoporosis is one of the most frequently encountered complications in patients receiving various immunosuppressants after kidney transplantation. The few available preventive strategies for these complications tend to result in various outcomes. In this study, we evaluated the effect of intermittent etidronate therapy for the prevention of bone loss after kidney transplantation. METHODS: Fifty patients who received kidney transplantation for various reasons were recruited and followed for one year. Thirty-eight of these patients commenced etidronate treatment 7 days after operation, the other 12 were followed without etidronate therapy. The treatment consisted of 400mg of etidronate administered orally for 14 days, then repeated four-times every three months. Blood chemistry, iPTH and aluminium levels were tested periodically in all patients. Also checked were bone mineral density of the lumbar spine(L2-4) and femur at baseline, 6 and 12 months after kidney transplantation, as well as D-L spine lateral x-ray at baseline and 12 months. Serum osteocalcin and urine deoxypyridinoline were measured at baseline, 7 days and then every 3 months. RESULTS: Both the etidronate-treated and control groups showed significant decreases in bone mineral densities of the lumbar spine, femur neck and total femur at 6 and 12 months after kidney transplantation(p<0.005). Bone loss was significantly lower in the etidronate-treated group than the control at 12 months after kidney transplantation; lumbar spine(-3.54% vs. -9.51%, p<0.0005), femur neck (-5.41% vs. -8.91%, p<0.0005), total femur (-7.59% vs. -9.07%, p<0.005). Osteocalcin was decreased and deoxypyridinoline increased in both groups. No significant differences in the level or pattern of osteocalcin and deoxypyridinoline were observed in either group. New radiologic compression fractures were found in two patients of the treated group who exhibited severe osteoporosis at baseline during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The intermittent administration of etidronate seems to be effective in preventing rapid bone loss after kidney transplantation. Furthermore, this method is safe and convenient for administration and follow-up. Further studies will be required to elucidate the most effective treatment course for the prevention of fractures after kidney transplantation, especially in patients with established severe osteoporosis.


Subject(s)
Bone Density , Bone Diseases, Metabolic , Chemistry , Etidronic Acid , Femur , Femur Neck , Follow-Up Studies , Fractures, Compression , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents , Kidney Transplantation , Kidney , Osteocalcin , Osteoporosis , Spine
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