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1.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research ; : 84-88, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003012

ABSTRACT

Gastritis is common worldwide. The combination of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection with background gastritis, including atrophic gastritis or intestinal metaplasia is implicated as an important etiopathogenetic contributor to gastric cancer. Since the gastritis classification proposed by Schindler, research has focused on classification of gastritis for accurate diagnosis and prediction of prognosis. Advances in endoscopic technology have enabled more accurate visualization of the gastric mucosa and ‘targeted’ biopsies with the emergence of newer classifications based on visual findings (Kimura-Takemoto classification) and more specific histopathological findings using targeted biopsies (Whitehead classification). Following the discovery of H. pylori, it is mandatory to consider its role as an important contributor to gastritis. Therefore, it was necessary to redefine the classification of gastritis and arrive at a consensus, which led to the establishment of an international consensus classification, referred to as the Sydney system. However, the Sydney system alone cannot predict the gastric cancer risk, and scoring systems such as the Operative Link for Gastritis Assessment and the Operative Link on Gastritis Assessment based on Intestinal Metaplasia were proposed. These systems are based on histopathological findings observed in endoscopic biopsy specimens. However, availability of high-definition images following technological advances has facilitated the emergence of a visual classification, the Kyoto classification. In contrast to the Sydney system, the Kyoto classification is based exclusively on interpretation of visual findings and focuses on detection of H. pylori infection and gastric cancer prediction. In this review, we summarize the history and background of the various classifications of gastritis.

2.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research ; : 294-301, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002993

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Gastrointestinal cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease is a major contributor to mortality in immunocompromised patients. Few studies have discussed upper gastrointestinal CMV (UGICMV) disease in immunocompetent patients. We compared the clinical outcomes of UGI-CMV between immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. @*Methods@#This retrospective study included patients with UGI-CMV disease from five tertiary hospitals across Korea (2010– 2022). Patients’ clinical data and outcomes were recorded. @*Results@#UGI-CMV was diagnosed in 54 patients; 27 (50.0%) had esophageal, 24 (44.4%) had gastric, and 3 patients (5.6%) had duodenal involvement. Patients’ median age was 64 years (interquartile range 53–75 years), and the most common comorbidities included hypertension (57.4%) and diabetes (38.9%). The predominant symptom was abdominal pain (46.3%), and the most common endoscopic finding was ulcers (70.4%). Antiviral treatment was administered to 31 patients, and 23 patients underwent observation without treatment. We investigated 32 immunocompromised (59.3%) and 22 immunocompetent (40.7%) patients and observed no intergroup differences in comorbidities and in laboratory and endoscopic findings. Immunocompromised patients had longer length of hospitalization (median 46.2 days vs. 20.0 days, p=0.001). However, treatment outcomes, including the need for intensive care unit admission and mortality did not significantly differ. The overall mortality rate was 13.0%; one patient from the immunocompromised group died of UGI-CMV disease. The treatment success rate was higher in immunocompromised patients who received antiviral therapy (p=0.011). @*Conclusions@#UGI-CMV disease is not uncommon in immunocompetent patients, although symptoms are milder than those in immunocompromised patients. Our findings emphasize the importance of clinical vigilance for accurate diagnosis of CMV infection, particularly in susceptible symptomatic patients and highlight the need for active antiviral treatment for management of immunocompromised patients.

3.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 271-305, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001430

ABSTRACT

Chronic constipation is one of the most common digestive diseases encountered in clinical practice. Constipation manifests as a variety of symptoms, such as infrequent bowel movements, hard stools, feeling of incomplete evacuation, straining at defecation, a sense of anorectal blockage during defecation, and use of digital maneuvers to assist defecation. During the diagnosis of chronic constipation, the Bristol Stool Form Scale, colonoscopy, and a digital rectal examination are useful for objective symptom evaluation and differential diagnosis of secondary constipation. Physiological tests for functional constipation have complementary roles and are recommended for patients who have failed to respond to treatment with available laxatives and those who are strongly suspected of having a defecatory disorder. As new evidence on the diagnosis and management of functional constipation emerged, the need to revise the previous guideline was suggested. Therefore, these evidence-based guidelines have proposed recommendations developed using a systematic review and meta-analysis of the treatment options available for functional constipation. The benefits and cautions of new pharmacological agents (such as lubiprostone and linaclotide) and conventional laxatives have been described through a meta-analysis. The guidelines consist of 34 recommendations, including 3 concerning the definition and epidemiology of functional constipation, 9 regarding diagnoses, and 22 regarding managements. Clinicians (including primary physicians, general health professionals, medical students, residents, and other healthcare professionals) and patients can refer to these guidelines to make informed decisions regarding the management of functional constipation.

4.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 48-55, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968731

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) represents a treatment option for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). Recently, FMT has been investigated in various clinical settings other than CDI. This study examined Korean physicians’ recognition of FMT and their attitudes toward this procedure @*Methods@#An online questionnaire included questions on indications for FMT, the FMT process, physicians’ attitudes toward FMT for the treatment of CDI and non-CDI diseases, and possible concerns. @*Results@#Finally, 107 physicians responded to this survey: 66 (61.7%) had experience of performing FMT, and 86 (80.4%) replied that they were willing to perform FMT for CDI. Two-thirds of physicians (63.6%, n = 68) would perform FMT for recurrent CDI on patients who had at least three recurrences. The most common obstacle to performing FMT for the treatment of CDI was the lack of regulations or guidelines (55.1%, n = 59). Seventy-seven (72.0%) physicians would consider FMT for non- CDI diseases when conventional treatment had failed. The most common obstacle for FMT for the treatment of non-CDI diseases was low treatment efficacy (57.0%, n = 61). @*Conclusions@#Two-thirds of Korean physicians had experience of performing FMT, and many performed FMT for recurrent CDI. The results of this study will prove useful to researchers and practitioners in FMT in Korea.

5.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 28-42, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915759

ABSTRACT

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly efficacious and safe modality for the treatment of recurrent or refractory Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), with overall success rates of 90%. Thus, FMT has been widely used for 10 years. The incidence and clinical characteristics of CDI, the main indication for FMT, differ between countries. To date, several guidelines have been published. However, most of them were published in Western countries and therefore cannot represent the Korean national healthcare systems. One of the barriers to performing FMT is a lack of national guidelines. Accordingly, multidisciplinary experts in this field have developed practical guidelines for FMT. The purpose of these guidelines is to aid physicians performing FMT, which can be adapted to treat CDI and other conditions.

6.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 365-369, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787158

ABSTRACT

Managing acute pancreatitis is clinically challenging because of the generally poor patient condition, the variety of treatment options depending on the severity and complications, and the uncertainty of outcomes. Recently, the step-up approach, which involves less invasive initial treatment and more invasive subsequent treatment, where necessary, has been proposed as the mainstay of managing pancreatitis. This paper presents a case of a 57-year-old man with severe acute pancreatitis, who developed an unexpected fistula in the rectum, which was treated successfully using the step-up approach. In managing this case, the authors faced clinical challenges in determining the infection of necrotic tissue in the early phase of the disease, the optimal timing and method of drainage, and the fistula closure or repair technique. Successful management of this case using the step-up approach validated current recommendations and suggests that it is a reasonable treatment strategy for pancreatic-colonic fistulas. This case also highlights the importance of an awareness that pancreatitis-associated complications can develop in an unexpected manner.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Colon , Drainage , Fistula , Methods , Pancreatitis , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing , Rectum , Uncertainty
7.
Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 365-369, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761510

ABSTRACT

Managing acute pancreatitis is clinically challenging because of the generally poor patient condition, the variety of treatment options depending on the severity and complications, and the uncertainty of outcomes. Recently, the step-up approach, which involves less invasive initial treatment and more invasive subsequent treatment, where necessary, has been proposed as the mainstay of managing pancreatitis. This paper presents a case of a 57-year-old man with severe acute pancreatitis, who developed an unexpected fistula in the rectum, which was treated successfully using the step-up approach. In managing this case, the authors faced clinical challenges in determining the infection of necrotic tissue in the early phase of the disease, the optimal timing and method of drainage, and the fistula closure or repair technique. Successful management of this case using the step-up approach validated current recommendations and suggests that it is a reasonable treatment strategy for pancreatic-colonic fistulas. This case also highlights the importance of an awareness that pancreatitis-associated complications can develop in an unexpected manner.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Colon , Drainage , Fistula , Methods , Pancreatitis , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing , Rectum , Uncertainty
8.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 508-509, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717980

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Endoscopy , Irritable Bowel Syndrome
9.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 264-268, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714522

ABSTRACT

Acute cholecystitis is a common serious complication of gallstones. The reported mortality of acute cholecystitis is approximately 3%, but the rate increases with age or comorbidity of the patient. If appropriate treatment is delayed, complications can develop as a consequence with a grave prognosis. The current standard of care in acute cholecystitis is an early laparoscopic cholecystectomy with the appropriate administration of fluid, electrolyte, and antibiotics. On the other hand, the severity of the disease and patient's operational risk must be considered. In those with high operational risks, gall bladder drainage can be performed as an alternative. Currently percutaneous and endoscopic drainage are available and show clinical success in most cases. After recovering from acute cholecystitis, the patients who have undergone drainage should be considered for cholecystectomy as a definitive treatment. However, in elderly patients or patients with significant comorbidity, operational risks may still be high, making cholecystectomy inappropriate. In these patients, gallstone removal using the percutaneous tract or endoscopy may be considered.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Cholecystectomy , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic , Cholecystitis, Acute , Comorbidity , Drainage , Endoscopy , Gallstones , Hand , Mortality , Prognosis , Standard of Care , Urinary Bladder
10.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research ; : 215-220, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-8143

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recently, many studies have reported the incidence of colorectal neoplasm (CRN) to be increased in patients with gastric cancer. Thus preoperative colonoscopy is recommended for the screening of CRN. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of colorectal adenoma and cancer in patients with gastric cancer and evaluate the necessity of preoperative colonoscopy in patients with gastric cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected data from 293 patients who underwent gastrectomy due to gastric cancer at one tertiary institution between January to December 2015. Preoperative colonoscopy was performed in 127 patients of 293 patients. To compare the prevalence of colorectal neoplasm, we selected 900 persons who underwent upper esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy for health screening during 2015. RESULTS: The prevalence of overall CRN was similar in the gastric cancer group and the control group. The prevalence of colorectal advanced adenoma and cancer was higher in the gastric cancer group compared with control group, but it did not show statistical significance. The prevalence of colorectal advanced adenoma was significantly higher in the group of age ≥ years and smoking. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of advanced colorectal adenoma increases significantly in patients with old age but not in patients with gastric cancer. We suggest that all patients with gastric cancer might not carry a high risk for advanced colorectal adenoma compared with the normal population. Patients with old age might require surveillance colonoscopy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenoma , Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Gastrectomy , Incidence , Mass Screening , Prevalence , Smoke , Smoking , Stomach Neoplasms
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